Grade 6 science ziccardi

Term Definition
Chromosomes are made up of protein and DNA
Gene material must carry instructions for cell processes and cell structures
Nucleotides are subunits of DNA
Nucleotides are made up of a sugar a phosphate and a base
Gene material must be copied each time it reproduces so that each set contains the correct number of chromosomes
Four bases are contained in the nucleotides
Base pairs adenine – thymine and guanine – cytosine
Guanine always matches up with cytosine
Thymine always matches with Adenine
Chargaff's Rule the amount of cytosine = guanine and Adenine = Thymine
Rossiland Franklin used x-ray diffraction to make images of DNA and discovered that it had a spiral shape.
Watson and crick made a model of DNA that was a twisted ladder or double helix
DNA Deoxyribonucleic Acid
Sides of the ladder are made up of Alternating sugar and phosphate molecules
The old and new fraction of the DNA strand is Half
DNA copies itself by 1.Splits down the middle
2.Each half receives complementary bases to complete 2 strands
DNA is copied Every time the cell divides
3 important events that led to understanding of the DNA structure were' Chargaff's Rule, Franklin's discovery, and Watson & Cricks model.
Watson and Crick built a model of DNA.
A mutation is Change in the nucleotide-base sequence of a gene or DNA molecule
The 3 types of mutations are' Insertion, substitution, & deletion
The meaning of insertion When an extra base is added
The meaning of deletion is When a base is left out
The meaning of substitution is When a wrong base is used
The most common base is Substitution
The 3 possible consequences of changes in your DNA are' Improved trait, no change, & harmful trait
Proteins correct Errors on our DNA
Errors on our DNA often happen when DNA is copied
A mutagen is Any physical or chemical agent that can raise a mutation.
4 mutagens are high energy radiation on x-rays, high energy radiation from ultra violet radiation, asbestos, & chemicals in cigarette smoke.

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