Haemorrhagic septicaemia Vaccine and its INOCCULATION Dr PARAMJEET SINGH Deputy Director Animal Husbandry Punjab Veterinary Vaccine Institute , Ludhiana ( Punjab) , and Dr. Pritpal Singh :Incharge H. S. Lab, Punjab Veterinary Vaccine Institute, Ludhiana. Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (H. S. ) a bacterial disease caused by Pasteurella Multocida is a global problem particularly in South East Asia and is one of the most important disease of bovines in India.
The disease is responsible for 46 to 55 percent of total bovine mortality and is rated as number one cattle killer amongst bacterial diseases. The economic impact of this disease is very much alarming. One study estimated annual loss of 40,000 cattle heads in India. Outbreaks of this disease have been reported from the states of Gujrat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnatka, Manipur, Punjab etc. Vaccination is generally accepted as the best mean to control this disease. Inspite of lot of thrust on vaccination programmes, the epidemics of H.
S. are still being reported from different parts of the country. The role of prophylactic vaccines against H. S. in India has been under continuous investigation for more than 65 years. But the resulting immunity produced by these vaccines is not long lasting. Vaccination breakdowns are quite common. A study shows that the proper timings of vaccination is very important to induce protective titre amongst animals. H. S. outbreaks generally occurs during rainy season.
The temperate weather of the tropical countries where temperature, humidity and moisture favour the growth of fungal organisms, which in turn produces the mycotoxins in different types of feeds and their ingredients, both in field and during storage. Aflatoxins are the commonest amongst mycotoxins and are secondry metabolites produced by some strains of toxigenic fungi viz. Aspergillus Flavous and Aspergilleis parasiticus. These toxic metabolites produced by moulds naturally in cereals and animal feed stuffs constitute a serious health hazard of live stock industry.
The problem of contamination of feed stuffs and cereals with aflatoxin although world wide in distribution, is of special significance of developing nations particularly in tropics like ours, where natural climatic conditions and unsatisfactry pre and post harvest practices favour mould growth which inturn promote elaboration of toxins. More over in India the contamination of food stuff is of concern as the rejected food stuffs and mouldy grains found unfit for human comumption, are temted to be diverted for the production of animal feeds.
Low level of aflatoxins in feed stuffs cause impairment of resistance leading to increased susceptibility of animals to different disease conditions. A study proved that aflatioxin contaminant feed interferes with the production of proper antibody response to H. S. Vaccine in dairy animals. The level of feed contamination is more in months of July, August and September i. e in wet and humid weather. The occurance of H. S. is also related with rainy season. So it is important that feed should be screened for the presence of aflatoxins at the time of H.
S. vaccination and as far as possible the animals should be fed with aflatoxin free feed at the time of vaccination. H. S. vaccination thus should be completed before onset of rainy season to avoid interference of contaminated feed, so that proper immune response to vaccine may develop to provide appropriate protective titre. Considering these facts, Vaccine against H. S. in dairy animals should be completed by the end of May or at the latest by the mid of June in Punjab State so that proper immune response is maintained when it is required most.