Health And Safety At Millennium Contractors Ltd Construction Essay

Construction industry in UK can be called as one of the biggest industries, as it consists of over 300,000 houses using about 2.1 million people ( Construction, 2010 ) . Report published by Department for Business, Innovation & A ; Skills ( BIS ) , and part of UK building sector towards state ‘s GVA ( Gross Value Added ) was 8.3 % in entire GVA of 2008. As Sir John Egan written in his study, Rethinking Construction ( 1998 ) stated that “ the wellness and safety record of building is the 2nd worst of any industry ” . And the study hereafter suggested that “ accidents can amount for 4 to 6 per cent of the of the entire undertaking cost ” ( Howarth and Watson, 2009 ) . In 2008/09 53 building workers lost their lives, 4,000 reported major hurts and 2.2 million on the job yearss were lost through work related sick wellness in the building industry ( HSE, 2010 ) . On an mean it can be state person is dies every hebdomad on a British building site.

Management must promote and back up safety by puting a good safety for illustration ; efficaciously pull offing wellness and safety programmes, go toing wellness and safety meetings, executing reviews, look intoing near-miss accidents and reexamining safety public presentation at all degrees says ( Wentz, 1998 ) . Due to building accidents many human calamities, de-motivate workers, disrupt site activities, hold undertaking advancement and adversely impact the overall cost, productiveness and repute of the building industry and besides project safety direction is really much a traditional concern for the building industry, the industry seems to endure from a general inability to pull off workplace wellness and safety to a degree where a pro-active zero-accident civilization prevails ( Mohamed, 1999 ) . Evidence is clear that zero- accident civilization can non be guaranteed be statute law entirely ( Mohamed, 1999 ) . ( Stranks 2000 ) assumes be aftering, organizing, commanding, nonsubjective scene, set uping answerability, policy scene and mensurating wellness and safety public presentation of every person as chief duties of direction.

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THE Company: – Millennium Contractors Ltd

Our company, Millennium Contractors Ltd. is a Small and Medium Size Enterprise ( SME ) and besides really well-known name in the building sector of UK for last 25 old ages. The workers working in the company comes from different ethnicity and cultural background every bit good as different age group. Diversity in building is strength but besides a failing Diversity in building in footings of civilization, ethnicity, age, instruction or gender brings legion benefits to the concern but as the same clip unfolds many challenges. Like any other organisation or single, it has besides gone through some good and bad stages in 25 old ages. Currently it is confronting some tough minutes in footings of safety issues. Below is the list of issues being faced on site and there are legal effects.

Manual Handling: Few workers have sustained minor physical hurts which forced them to remain off from work for more than three yearss at a stretch.

Injuries due to falling objects: Five workers as sustained serious caput hurt and few contusions on their organic structures, as he was hit by a falling object on site.

Accident due to traveling vehicle: An accident has occurred on building site when a worker got hit by a vehicle which was coming to site for droping the building stuff.

Collapse of impermanent construction: A impermanent construction in one portion of the site has collapsed ensuing in one fatal and minor hurts to the workers working on that peculiar construction.

Due to above consequence the company has received four enforcement notices for all accidents and besides a prohibition notice for last incident has resulted in arrest of work in that peculiar subdivision of building site.


3.1 Manual Handling

Few workers have sustained minor physical hurts which forced them to remain off from work for more than three yearss at a stretch. Harmonizing to the Dublin Institute of Technology, manual handling can be define as “ any transporting or back uping a burden by one or more employees, and it includes lifting, seting down, forcing, drawing, transporting or traveling a burden, which by grounds of its features or of unfavorable ergonomic conditions, involves hazard, peculiarly of back hurt, to workers ( HSA ) ”

More than 70,000 workers goes off work every twelvemonth for variable periods of clip because of hurts sustained due to manual handling, which amounts to more than one tierce of all industrial hurts ( Stranks, 2000 ) . As published by Health and Safety Executives ( HSE, 2006 ) attributes 38 % of all accidents to manual handling, which caused over three yearss injury in 2001/02.

Hence it can be said that, manual handling is one of the most unsafe issues which is needed to be overcome in order to hold better safety environment. The Council of European Communities directive 90/269/EEC ( 1990 ) features hurts sustained due to manual handling to following factors.

Features of the Loads: It may show a hazard peculiarly of back hurt if ; Too heavy or excessively big, unmanageable or hard to hold on, unstable or has contents likely to switch and severely positioned at the clip of lifting.

Physical Attempts Required: It may show a hazard peculiarly of back hurt if ; Too strenuous, achieved merely by a tortuous motion of bole, sudden motion of burden and unstable position of organic structure at the clip when attempt is being made.

Features of working environment: It may increase a hazard peculiarly of back hurt if ; non sufficient room in vertically to transport out the activity, uneven or slippy floor relation to the worker ‘s footwear, unstable floor and unsuitable temperature, humidness or airing.

Requirements of the activity: It may show a hazard peculiarly of back hurt if ; over-frequent or over-prolonged physical attempt affecting peculiar spinal column, deficient bodily rest or recovery period, inordinate lifting, take downing or transporting distances and a rate of work imposed by a procedure which can non be altered by the worker.

Legal Aspect:

The Manual Handling Operations Regulations ( MHOR ) 1992, which came into force on 1st January 1993, in its subdivision 4 ( 1 ) ( a ) , has requested employers to: avoid function of workers if non necessary, do sufficient responsibilities of all operations, take appropriate action to cut down hazard of hurt and reexamine all the mentioned stairss once more if they are no longer valid. In subdivision 5 of MHOR 1992, Duties of employees, each employee has been asked to do full and proper usage of any system of work provided for his usage by employer in conformity with ordinance 4 ( 1 ) ( B ) ( two ) of these ordinances. “ Section 2 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and ordinances 10 and 13 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require employers to supply their employees with wellness and safety information and preparation. This should be supplemented as necessary with more specific information and preparation on manual managing hurt hazards and bar, as portion of the stairss to cut down hazard required by ordinance 4 ( 1 ) ( B ) ( two ) of the Regulations.

3.2 Falling objects

The Company has other issue of falling object from tallness due to which five workers were earnestly head hurt and few contusions on their organic structures. Harmonizing to HSE ‘s study in 2008/09 over 4000 major hurts were caused be falling from height piece at work. Harmonizing to ( Stranks 2000 ) little objects such as cocks, nail, roof tiles, bricks, etc. as the chief beginning for such sort of hurts. The chief causes of such unsafe happening is hapless housework by people working above, toe board and age barrier non being provided, wrong or failure to put in catchment platform or ‘fans ‘ which are designed the falling objects which may fall during building. Insufficient storage leads to bad housework. Hence it is necessary for the undertaking contrivers to supply equal storage on site.

Legal Aspects

The Work at Height Regulations ( WHR ) 2005, relates to all work at tallness where there is a hazard of a autumn apt to do personal hurt. They place responsibilities on employers, the freelance, and any individual who controls the work of others ( eg installations directors or edifice proprietors who may contract others to work at tallness ) to the extent they control the work.

3.3 Traveling Vehicles

An accident has occurred on building site and two workers got hit by a vehicle which was coming to site for droping the building stuff. HSE, in its study on Workplace Transport Safety ( 2006 ) , has defined workplace conveyance as “ any vehicle that is used in a work puting such as forklift trucks, compact dump trucks, tractors and nomadic Cranes ” . Harmonizing to the study published by IOSH the bosom of wellness and safety, 45 Workers were killed and over 5,000 injured in workplace conveyance accidents in 2008/09 and being struck by a traveling vehicle was the 3rd highest cause of inadvertent decease in the workplace ( 2008/09 ) , after falls from a tallness and being struck by a moving or falling object.

Legal Aspects

The workplace ( Health, safety and public assistance ) Regulation 1992, Regulation 17 advise that there should be efficient segregation of prosaic from vehicular traffic of entrance and surpassing. In add-on route marker and mark should follow Regulation Act 1984.

3.4 Impermanent Structures and stagings

A impermanent construction in one portion of the site has collapsed ensuing in one fatal and minor hurt to the workers working on that peculiar construction. Few yearss ago there was a collapsed of scaffolding on other portion but there was non a fatal hurts, merely one workers was hurt that besides with minor hurts. Harmonizing to HSE in their study ‘Safe hard-on, usage and dismantlement of falsework ‘ ( 2003 ) , hapless planning, raising burden or dismantlement of falsework and scaffolds as chief grounds for prostration. It ‘s a consequence of deficiency of co-ordination between assorted trades and providers of falsework.

Following causes have been highlighted in the same study with mention to such sort of prostrations.

Improper designing of formwork, falsework, scaffolding and sheet pile

Inadequate foundations

Improper choice of stuff

Incorrect methods of raising

Improper dismantlement

Legal Aspect

As per the Work at Height Regulation 2005, Regulation6 ( 4 ) ( B ) , 6 ( 5 ) ( a, B ) , 7, 8, 12 and 13, provinces that it is necessary for the employer to supply suited equipment, take history of working status and strict review by a competent individual. Further subdivision 2 ( 2 ) ( a ) of HSWA 1974, provinces there should be proviso and care of works and machinery at work.


4.1 Safety Management System

It is necessary for every company that they have a comprehensive and systematic direction of wellness and safety. It is critical for every company irrespective the industry to run their undertaking and activity without any set back. Harmonizing to HSE HSG65 Publication, successful wellness and safety direction system require the followers:

The direction should set up clear Policy for wellness and safety.

The Organisation of all employees for direction of wellness and safety.

The Planning for wellness and safety by puting aims and marks, placing jeopardies, accessing hazards and set uping criterions against which the administration can mensurate public presentation.

The Measurement of wellness and safety public presentation.

The Audit and Reviewing of safety public presentation and pattern to order to inform betterment.

4.2 Management Practices and Documentation

The term direction means “ the effectual usage of resources in the chase of organizational ends ” ( Stranks 2000 ) . The direction resources include:


Land and edifices



Management accomplishments in organizing the usage of resources.

In order to keep a safety civilization it is necessary that there is proper degree of communicating, co-ordination and co-operation between the rule contractor and the subcontractor. There should be pre start meeting between the former and the subsequently, so that the rule contractor base on balls on the needed information of the site to the subcontractor along with the safety information. These pre beginning information helps the subcontractor to analyze hazard on the site and do the appraisal of the hazard and therefore suggest a method statement.

4.3 Site Initiation

As per the nature of building site initiation is carried out. This needs to happen before beginning of work by any employer. The site initiation will include:

Why wellness and safety is of import.

Outline of the nature of site.

Brief on site Hazards.

PPE ( Personal Protective Equipment ) .

Procedures to achieve ‘permit to work ‘ .

Mechanism for pass oning safety information.

Brief of public assistance installations.

Brief on how to describe onsite hurt or an accident.

4.4 Toolbox Negotiations

Every hebdomad site meeting will ever assist people on site to guarantee effectual co-ordination, communicating and co-operation amongst the workers. Safety issues can be addressed during such meetings. These negotiations will guarantee that the workers are competent and safe in their work activity.

4.5 Accident Record Book

All accidents occurs at site should be entered in a book which is on the site office. Any reportable accident should be reported under RIDDOR, to the site supervisor instantly.

4.6 Safety On-Site

Site safety is indispensable for a company to be successful in its building concern. It is necessary that workers wellness and their well-being are considered to be a primary aim by the direction while inventing safety policy for the administration. But one should retrieve that safety and well-being at workplace is non the duty of the direction entirely, employees are every bit responsible for staying to wellness and safety guidelines set by the company. But it is the duty of the direction to device a system of motive for its employees so as to make a safety civilization at workplace. In order to hold a safety civilization the direction needs to see the behavior, perceptual experience and attitude of its employees.


Following are the enterprises for betterment of safety:

Delegating clear and realistic ends

Bettering communicating between employees of different degrees

Deputation of authorization and duty amongst workers

Bettering engagement of employees

Motivating workers

Team bonding activities

Building positive group norms

Bettering personal attitude of workers

Increased safety instruction and preparation Sessionss


Harmonizing to Loosemore ( 2007 ) following factors as the barriers to implementing enterprises mentioned above for better safety environment.

Cost ( 33 % ) : Management may experience unwilling to implement these enterprises as the investing is to be done in the beginning, and result of the enterprises can non be guaranteed.

Language differences ( 13.9 % ) : As many workers working on site are from different cultural background and ethnicity, direction might happen it hard to convey all the messages expeditiously, ensuing in difference in apprehension of instructions.

Fear of alteration ( 19.8 % ) : New ways and methods of working may make confusion and sense of uncomforting amongst workers, taking them to traditional ways of working.

Difference in instruction degree ( 12.2 % ) : Different workers might hold studied till different degrees in instruction. It may impact their ability to understand instructions clearly.

Under Capitalisation ( 8.4 % ) : This may take workers to travel back to traditional ways of working as they might experience more comfy and confidant with the old manner of working.


This study has identified the root causes for the incidents which occurred on the site. The connexion between incidents and several causes were established. A attempt is made to happen out the factors which may act upon the safety on site. Factors influences are chiefly related to the single workers working on site, behavioral and attitude of the people and direction ‘s committedness in the way of betterment of safety at work. The barriers, which may impact the successful execution of safety patterns at work, are related to the enthusiasm of direction to put in future, fright of alteration amongst employees and linguistic communication and cultural differences on site.

A list of enterprises is given which are required to be taken on site. Those enterprises will assist in doing the trust amongst people, addition in assurance degree of workers, improved communicating between different degrees of an organisation, squad bonding between employees, improved authorization and duty amongst workers, more engagement in safety exercisings and alteration in attitude of workers.


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