INTRODUCTION Hepatitis B is the most common serious liver infection in the world and can estimated one third of the Global Population has been infected with the Hepatitis B virus. Therefore it continues to be a major global health problem. (WHO, 2009) This infection is highly prevalent to the third world countries which include the Philippines. It is caused by the Hepatitis B virus that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease. A single virus particle can cause the disease. In fact the Hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious than human immunodeficiency virus.
It is easily transmitted through infected blood and other body fluids like seminal fluid, vaginal secretions, breast milk, tears, saliva and open sores. The virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During that time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not infected. Hepatitis B is not transmitted through casual contact and by eating contaminated food. (WHO, 2009) The purpose of conducting this study is to determine the impact to the lifestyle of a person acquiring Hepatitis B virus. Hepatitis B occurs anywhere at any time, it increases in places with high population density.
Poor hygiene health care workers are at high risk for acquiring the disease because of their close contact with the blood of carriers. Person who have had multiple Blood Transfusions or Dialysis care also have the disease. Homosexual men, morticians, people who undergo tattooing and IV drug users are also at high risk of acquiring Hepatitis B. Clients and carriers are the major sources of Hepatitis B virus. The major mode of transmission is when contact with any body fluids of an infected person, these include saliva and semen. (Black, Hawks, Keene. 001) The virus has a bigger chance to occur in a populated area. The virus can be transmitted through blood contact and also by other body fluids such as saliva and semen. Health care workers having poor hygiene, homosexual men, morticians, IV drug users, and people who undergo tattooing are at high risk for acquiring the virus. Hepatitis B is transmitted by the body fluid of infected people, anything that can pierce the skin and contact with the vascular system are potential sources of contamination. Some donor-related precautions of Hepatitis B are screening of donor’s blood, antibody to
Hepatitis B core antigen, antibody to anti-hepatitis B, use of volunteer instead of paid donors, registration of carriers, sharing of accurate records between institutions and testing of all pregnant women for Hepatitis B serum antigen. (Black, Hawk, Keene. 2001) The only way Hepatitis B is transferred by the body fluid infected people or what we call serum and also pointed objects that can pierce the skin and can contact with the vascular system are possible sources of contamination. Hepatitis B can also be transmitted by donating blood and use of volunteered blood donors instead of paid donors. Hepatitis can be either acute or chronic.
Acute Viral Hepatitis is the first period after having the infection and symptoms. The symptoms can range from subclinical asymptomatic infections to fatal acute infection. Chronic Hepatitis is considered to last greater than six months. It is identified by etiology, histology, and location. Viruses that are responsible for chronic disease will only be Hepatitis B, C, and D and not associated with hepatitis A or E. (Daniels, Nosek, Nicoll. 2007) Acute and Chronic are the two types of Hepatitis. Acute Viral Hepatitis is what we call the initial or first period after having the infection and symptoms.
It starts without any symptoms until it will reach to serious stage. Chronic Hepatitis is identified by its cause and location. Hepatitis B, C, and D are responsible for chronic disease. METHODOLOGY 2. 1 Having five participants, two of them are in the mid 30’s another two in the mid 20’s and only one has the age of below twenty. Three of them are male and only two are female. They all have partners but only one of them is cohabitating. Most of them are smokers and alcohol drinkers, also, two of them undergone blood transfusion. 2. 2 The Researchers started doing their study by identifying their topic.
After they came up with a topic, they determined their participants and prepared a profile and a questionnaire to be answered by the participants. While the survey went on, they started to complete their work by doing the introduction part. As soon as the profiles and questionnaires were answered, they conducted an interview with the participants. After they gathered data, they began to analyze and interpret them. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS In the gathered data, the researchers found out that all of them have partners, therefore, it can be a factor in the transmission of Hepatitis B virus, since it can be acquire through sexual intercourse.
Four of them are smokers and all of them are alcohol drinkers. Having said such, Hepatitis B virus can also be transferred through sharing of cigarette and drinking glasses, since saliva can be another factor to transfer the said disease. Only one uses needles but most of them are exposed to needles. Using contaminated needles is also a factor of acquiring the disease. Lastly, three of them have an immediate family member who has the same disease. Therefore, it is concluded that, through frequent sharing and contact to the person having the Hepatitis B virus, an individual may also acquire easily the same disease.
RECOMMENDATION For the next researchers who will be focusing this topic, they can improve the research by expanding the number of participants to be more accurate to the population. They must also consult more references. Since Hepatitis B has no clinical symptoms, people must be careful and aware of the things that can possibly transmit the virus. REFERENCES Black, Hawk, Keene. 2001. Medical-Surgical Nursing 6th Edition. W. B. Saunders Company Daniels, Nosek, Nicoll. 2007. Medical-Surgical Nursing Volume 2. Delmar Learning http://www. who. int/en/