Herbaceous Plants In The Genus Musa Biology Essay

Banana is a common name for herbaceous workss in the genusA Musa. Because of its construction and size ; it is often mistaken as a tree. Bananas ( closely linked to plantains ) are belong to Eumusa subdivision of the household Musaceae, and natural intercrossed polyploidy ( diploid, triploid or tetraploid ) of two chief species of Musa which are Musa acuminate, type A and Musa balbisiana, type B.

These tallest liliopsids ( Stover and Simmonds, 1987 ) have turn out to be one of the chief important fruit harvests in the universe supplying most of import export income every bit good as being a basic nutrient for 1000000s of citizens in many developing states ( FAO, 2002 ) . Globally, bananas constitute the 4th most of import nutrient harvest in human ingestion following rice, wheat and corn. They are grown in more than 100 states worldwide, more than for any other fruit harvest. Bananas are inhabitant to tropical southeasterly Asia. As a premier fruit trade good, bananas contribute significantly to the Asian diet and nutrition. In add-on to its primary used as a sweet fruit and staple amylum, bananas provide assorted secondary merchandise for illustration Prime Minister fruit of Southeast Asia and is considered of great socioeconomic importance in the states of the part. It ranks 2nd or 3rd in importance amongst the fruit industries of India, Malaysia and Taiwan. It is besides one of the important trade goods for both domestic and export in Malaysia ( Valmayor, 1987 ) .

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The International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain ( INIBAP ) was created in 1985, becomes web of aggregations which handle with familial resources of banana in all over the universe. The footing of this web is provided by the cistron bank of the INIBAP Transit Centre in Leuven, Belgium, where the bigger subdivision of the banana cistron pool is detained, in trust for humanity, in a tissue civilization aggregation that serves as a ‘safety back-up ‘ for all the diverseness of banana workss turning in field aggregations, farms and woods all over the universe. Extra safety back-up is provided by a bit by bit lifting aggregation of accessions that is held for the long period, with no impairment, by ‘cryopreservation ‘ in liquid N ( hypertext transfer protocol: //bananas.bioversityinternational.org ) .

Conventionally, people will acknowledge banana cultivars based on their morphological characters for illustration the foliages and fruit. However, morphological alterations caused by environmental factors are the chief obstructions to exactly place the assortments ( Kaemmer et al. , 1992 ) . Current research has conducted to help the designation of bananas non merely based on their morphology characters, but besides utilizing molecular genetic sciences attack. This survey is really practical to insulate and analyse familial sequences of assorted sorts of banana species and based on that, the types of banana can be identified by analyzing their molecular composing. Although this manner of bananas designation is rather complex as compared to the morphological survey, yet this sort of manner can supply people with a new attack to acknowledge those bananas with higher assurance. In add-on, this survey is transporting out utilizing banana workss merely because of its commercial value all over the universe particularly in Malaysia every bit good as its nutritionary value.

Modern research has shown that most angiosperm species inherit their chloroplast motherly ( Stegemann et al. , 2003 ) non inherited from the male parent. Sing as chloroplasts are inherited merely from the female, transgenes in these plastids can non be disseminated by pollen and presenting extensively lower environmental hazards. Surely, chloroplast Deoxyribonucleic acid can give cherished information in population and evolution surveies by taking suited Deoxyribonucleic acid marker.

Deoxyribonucleic acid markers have been established to be utile, efficient and consistent methods for familial word picture, analyzing familial diverseness and relationships between populations and assortments since they are non exaggerated by environmental fortunes ( William et al. , 1990 ) . Several DNA markers for bananas have been reported. These include Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms ( RFLP ) ( Jarret et al. , 1992 ; Ge et al. , 2005 ) , Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA ( RAPD ) ( Onguso et al. , 2004 ; Martin et al. , 2006 ; Ray et al. , 2006 ) , microsatellite DNA ( Creste et al. , 2003 ; Buhariwalla et al. , 2005 ) and Variable Number of Tandem Repeats ( VNTR ) polymorphisms ( Kaemmer et al. , 1992 ; Bhat et al. , 1995 ) . The used of rpoC as a familial marker for this survey was recommended by the Royal Botanic Gardens at Kew, London.

The purposes of this survey are:

To obtain the partial DNA sequences of rpoC.

To analyse either the rpoC cistron can be used as a proper familial marker for banana cultivars.

To analyze phyletic ; analyze the familial diverseness, fluctuation and deducing the relationship among selected local banana cultivars.

Chapter 2


2.1 Origin and Distribution of Banana

Banana term is a common name mentioning to the species or loanblends belong to a genusA Musa. Bananas, scientifically known as Musa spp. are perennial monocotyledonous herbs that grow healthy in humid tropical every bit good as semitropical parts. Bananas have an extended diverseness of historic mentions peculiarly in ancient Hindu, Chinese, Greek and Roman texts. The chiefly crude indicant to banana day of the months back to about 500 BC. There are a figure of scientists that involve in cultivating fruit, veggies and other workss who think that banana was the former fruit on Earth. Even so, banana ‘s beginning is traced back to Southeast Asia in the jungles of Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines ( Simmonds, 1966 ) .

Banana was derived from two wild diploid ( 2n = 22 ) species specifically, Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla, with genomic composings of AA and BB, severally ( Cheesman, 1948 ) . Musa accuminata is locally in Malay Peninsula and adjacent states whereas Musa balbisiana is originate in India due easts to the tropical Pacific ( Simmonds, 1966 ) . South East Asia and the Western Pacific are thought to be the chief centre of beginning and domestication of comestible bananas ( Simmonds, 1962 ; Robinson, 1996 ; Jones, 2000 ) , but they are loosely spread in the humid tropical and semitropical parts as good. From Asia, bananas and plantains are spread all the manner through the humid Torrid Zones ( Swennen and Ortiz, 1997 ; Valmayor, 2000 ) entirely by adult male through chumps ( Simmonds, 1962 ) . Chumps jumping up around the chief works organizing a bunch or “ stool ” , the earliest chump replacing the chief works when it fruits and dies, and this class of action of sequence continues for an indefinite period.

The historic times of banana cultivation is therefore strongly related to the early advancement of the human populations. Movement through due easts resulted in the development of a distinguishable group of AAB bananas, which are cultivated throughout the Pacific Islands. On the other manus, during the fifteenth century, Arab bargainers from India were the 1 who introduced banana workss in Africa ( Simmonds, 1962 ) . The banana was so moved inwards by local migrators and shortly after, from Africa it broadens to farther parts of the tropical and semitropical parts. An tremendous diverseness of bananas and plantains presently present in sub-Saharan Africa by agencies of diverse types cultivated in different eco-regions ( Swennen and Vuylsteke, 1991 ) . The AAB type of the banana plantains present in the humid Lowlandss of West and Central Africa whereas the AAA type exists in the East African Highlands. The latter two parts represent the universe ‘s most diverseness of plantains and upland bananas, correspondingly and hence considered as the secondary centres of variegation of bananas and plantain ( Swennen, 1990 ) .

2.2 Banana Taxonomy

Banana is belongs to the genus Musa in the household Musaceae and order Zingiberales. It belongs to the subclass Zingiberidae, Class Liliopsida and Division Magnoliophyta. Harmonizing to Cheesman ( 1948 ) and Simmonds ( 1962 ) , the household Musaceae comprises two genera which are Ensete and Musa ( Figure 1 ) .

The first genus in the Musaceae household, Ensete consists of monocarpic herbs which they are non comestible fruit. The genus was officially recognized by Cheesman in 1948 consisting 25 species. Yet merely eight species are now recognized in the genus Ensete ( Novak, 1992 ) . Ensete is cultivated in Southern Ethiopia as a chief supply of nutrient that is obtained from the rootstock and besides pseudostem ( Novak, 1992 ) . Merely two species from this genus ; E. ventricosum and E. edule, are of economic significance as nutrient and fibre harvests ( Bezuneh and Feleke, 1966 ) . Familial associations flanked by Ensete species and Musa ringers based on genome size, figure of chromosomes and figure of 45S rDNA venue showed that Ensete is strongly linked to M. beccarii of subdivision Callimusa ( Bartos et al. , 2005 ) .

The 2nd genus, Musa comprises all comestible bananas and plantains with more than 50 species. There are five subdivisions exist in this genus which are Australimusa, Callimusa, Rhodochlamys, Eumusa and Ingentimusa ( Stover and Simmonds, 1987 ; Purseglove, 1988 ) . Those subdivisions vary in the basic chromosomes, for illustration ; species of Callimusa and Australimusa have a basic chromosome figure of x = 10, while species in Eumusa and Rhodochlamys have a basic chromosome figure of x = 11. Ingentimusa has a individual species M. ingens with a chromosome figure of 2n = 14. Eumusa is the largest, most far and broad distributed, highly diversified and the most indispensable subdivision to which all comestible bananas belong. About all cultivars in this subdivision are derivative of two species, Musa acuminate ( A genome ) and Musa balbisiana ( B genome ) . Musa acuminata is the most well-known of the Eumusa species being found throughout the scope of the subdivision with Malaysia ( Simmonds, 1962 ) or Indonesia ( Nasution, 1991 ) as the centre of diverseness.

Figure 2.2.1: Categorization of Family Musaceae demoing sectional intervention of the genus Musa. Beginning: Wil et Al. ( 2001 ) .

Figure 2.2.2: Important characters used in finding species and genome groups of comestible bananas. Beginning: IBPGR Revised Banana Descriptors ( 1984 ) .

Edibility and consecutive domestication of diploid M. acuminata ( AA ) came approximately as an result of female asepsis and parthenocarpy. Triploid AAA cultivars arose from diploids, possibly, following crosses among comestible diploids and wild M. acuminata races, giving rise to a broad scope of diverse AAA genotypes such as the AAA sweet bananas and the AAA East African Highland bananas. These two AAA groups of bananas differ in their fruit morphology which considers to starch content and besides the gustatory sensation. This suggests that the A genomes of the dissimilar races of Musa are different from each other. In the largest parts of South East Asia triploids have replaced the original AA diploids due to their larger fruit and vigorous growing. Nevertheless, in Papua New Guinea, AA diploids stay as an agriculturally important and a wide diverseness is still found in cultivation.

2.3 Morphology and Botanical Description of Banana

Banana works is a immense perennial herb with a tallness runing between 1.5 m to 10 m. It consists of a true root called corm with roots and a really succulent ( holding fleshy tissues that conserve wet ) root ; good known as pseudostem which dwelling of leaf-petiole sheaths, making a tallness between 6 m to 7.5 m and originating from a heavy rootstock or a corm. Tender, smooth, oblong or elliptic, fleshy-stalked foliages with spirally arranged are totaling 4 to 15. When the works grows, they are unrolling at the rate of one per hebdomad in a warm conditions, and spread out upward and outward, going every bit much as 2.75 m long and 60 centimeter wide.A The roots grow to 4 m to 8A m tall, with big foliages 2 m to 3A m long. Bananas in general weigh between 125 g to 200 g, though this varies perceptibly among different cultivars ; of this, approximately 80 % is comestible, and the tegument the staying 20 % , whereas a root of bananas can weigh from 30 kilograms to 50 kilograms, and they are typically carried on the shoulder.

During adulthood period, the foliages encircle the alleged “ bosom ” that carries clump together with the fruit. Corm, which is the root is typically belowground and its form is cultivar dependant. Nevertheless, in about all cultivars the corm is round and the apical meristem is at its tip. The meristem will remains beneath the dirt until blooming occurs when it develops into flower blossoming axis that holds the clump. Roots expand get downing from the corm from the portion between the interior zone ( cardinal cylinder ) and the outside zone ( cerebral mantle ) into the dirt. Leaves grow from the meristem of the corm every bit good and have a sheath, a leafstalk and lamina. The leaf sheaths of consecutive foliages lie on top and straight encircles each other organizing pseudostem or the false root. Highland and dessert bananas ‘ pseudostems are green to dark green with many black splodges, whereas plantains are xanthous green with few brownish-black splodges. As fresh and immature foliages develop at the meristem, older foliages are pushed outwards, dice and eventually dry out ( Simmonds, 1962 ) . About all bananas produce more or less 30 to 40 foliages in its life period.

Equally shortly as adequate figure of foliages is produced, the meristem continues to go flowering root, which starts to turn upwards through the pseudostem. The flowering root emerges in the centre of the leaf Crown and a compound blossoming of flower bunchs develops. The female flowers become seeable first and have large ovaries that develop into fruits subsequently. When the blossoming develops, a bulb formed male bud incorporating little flowers will develop at the last portion. On the other manus, fruit of cultivated bananas develops by parthenocarpy, forestalling growing of seeds that would or else do the fruit improper for human ingestion.

Banana blossoming produced three sorts of flowers. The female ( pistillate ) flowers will develop into fruit, whereas the male ( staminate ) flowers found in the male bud may bring forth pollen that may be fertile or unfertile. The 3rd type of flowers is called intersex or neuters which found on the blossoming axis or rachis flanked by the female flowers and the male bud and they are by and large unfertile. The female flowers of most cultivated bananas are more normally unfertile and the fruit develop by parthenocarpy.

In all bananas, the turning shoot dies shortly after fruiting one time ( Simmonds, 1962 ) and its life is perpetuated by agencies of chumps, which grow from adventitious buds produced on the corm. The chumps are cardinal signifier of vegetive seting stuff and organize the undermentioned vegetive coevals. Equally shortly as the first works fruits and dies, the inaugural chump continues the development rhythm. Banana workss are propagated vegetatively through chumps, even though wild species can be propagated by seed every bit good ( Stover and Simmonds, 1987 ) . Sucker advancement consists of three distinguishable phases ; voyeur ( immature chump bearing graduated table leaves merely ) , sword chump ( chump bearing narrow blade leaves ) and inaugural chump ( big but non fruiting ratoon with leaf foliages ) ( Simmonds, 1966 ; Swennen et al. , 1984 ) . The bunch formed by the female parent works and the environing chumps is referred to as a ‘mat ‘ . The sum of chumps produced by a works is indispensable to husbandmans in banana production as the harvest is vegetatively propagated.

Banana cultivars can be found in assortment of colourss and sizes. Most cultivars are xanthous once it ripe but some are ruddy. The mature fruit is can be peeled easy and eaten natural or cooked. Depends on cultivars and ripeness, the flesh can be starchy to sweet, and house to mushy. Unripe or ‘green ‘ bananas are used in cookery and are the staple amylum of several tropical populations.

As for human ingestion, bananas that contain big seeds, seedless and triploid cultivars are selected. These are propagated asexually from outgrowths of the works. The works is tolerable to bring forth 2 shoots at a clip ; a larger one for fruiting straight and a smaller ‘sucker ‘ or ‘follower ‘ that will bring forth fruit in approximately 8 months clip. The life of a banana plantation is about 25 old ages or longer, throughout which clip the single stools or seting sites may travel a small from their older places as sidelong rootstock formation dictates.

Cooking bananas turn best at heights around 1,200 to 1,800 metres above the sea degree, while dessert bananas and plantains develop all right in the low lands every bit good as in deep loamy and well-drained dirts. The optimal temperature for most cultivated bananas to turn is between 26 to 30°C ( Stover and Simmonds, 1987 ) . Temperatures lower than the optimal will impact leaf production, hence diminishing the nutrient supply due to the unequal photosynthetic foliage country. Banana growing Michigans at temperatures above 38°C and will finally decease at temperatures below 0°C. A comparative humidness of 60 % to 100 % is indispensable for the banana to turn good and it is moreover depending on the evapotranspiration ; which 25 millimeter to 75 millimeter of H2O is needed by a banana works per hebdomad which is tantamount to 100 millimeters rainfall per month. Bananas are prone to weave harm because of their weak pseudostems, big leaves that trap air current and have shallow root construction.

2.4 Major Areas of Production and Importance of Bananas

As stated by FAO ( 2002 ) , bananas are the fourth universe ‘s most of import nutrient harvest after rice, wheat and corn, with huge bulk of the harvest grown and consumed in the tropical and semitropical zones. Banana is more important as nutrient for local ingestion than for export due to the one-year universe banana production is 98 million dozenss of which merely 7 million dozenss go into the universe market. The one-year universe banana production addition from 51 million dozenss to 88 million dozenss which approximately 70 % , between the twelvemonth 1970 and 1997 ( Sharrock and Frisson, 1998 ) . During those times, banana production was estimated to be turning faster than the production of any other starchy harvest in the universe. The universe ‘s current banana or plantain production is estimated at about 104 million metric dozenss, grown on about 10 million estates of land in over 100 states ( FAOSTAT, 2004 ) .

In humid wood and mid altitude part of Africa, bananas provide around 25 % of the saccharide supplies for more than 70 million people ( Robinson, 1996 ) , with per capita ingestion of approximately about 250 kilograms. Its capacity to turn out fruit all the twelvemonth makes it a important nutrient security harvest and hard currency harvest in the tropic parts ( Jones, 2000 ) . Bananas are prepared and consumed in assorted ways and each state that produces the harvest holding its ain traditional dishes and ways of processing ( Frison and Sharrock, 1998 ) . As an illustration, mature green bananas are eaten as a starchy nutrient whereas ripe bananas are consumed natural as a sweet fruit. Other than that, they can be consumed poached, roasted, or fried in ripe or green status every bit good. Nutritionally, fresh bananas contain 35 % saccharides, 6-7 % fibre, 1-2 % protein and fat ; further the chief elements such as K, Mg, P, Ca, Fe, and vitamins A, B6 and C ( Robinson, 1996 ) . Bananas are besides used in the industry of beer, vino and other merchandises and for adult male of import portion of the cultural life of many people ( Stover and Simmonds, 1987 ) . Other merchandises that can be produce by banana are like jam, juice and squashes, banana bit, sweet banana figs, banana flour, banana pulverization and amylum. However unlike other fruits, bananas have historically been hard to pull out juice from because when they are compressed a banana can merely turns to mush.

Bananas are valuable in bar of malignant neoplastic disease every bit good as bosom diseases in worlds due to their high vitamin A and B6 content. Bananas are besides used to handle diseases such as stomachic ulcer and diarrhoea. Nectar sap from banana flower buds are rich in vitamins, so can be fed to babes and kids to reenforce their growing and at the same clip K helps in hiking encephalon public presentation.

Above and beyond the nutrient and income, banana dramas tonss of critical functions. For illustration banana leaves can be used as thatching stuffs for houses, as home bases, tablecloths, umbrellas, kiping mats, carnal provender and besides in nutrient readying. Non-fruit parts of the banana works, including the corm, shoots, pseudostem and male buds are eaten as veggies in Africa and parts of Asia ( Simmonds, 1962 ) . Banana leaves and pseudostems are extremely fiber which can be used as carnal provender every bit good as for doing ropes, handicraft, baskets, rugs and fabrication of banana paper. In assorted cropping systems, banana workss provide shade for certain harvests that grow better in shade conditions such as chocolate, black Piper nigrum, java and vanilla. At the system degree, bananas keep up the dirt construction and screen throughout the twelvemonth, protecting it from air current and rain eroding. Additionally, if the biomass is used as mulch, dirt birthrate and organic affair remains stable.

In add-on to the fruits, the flower of the banana works is used in Southeast Asian, Bengali and Kerala ( India ) cookery, either served natural with dips or cooked in soups andA curries. The soft nucleus of the banana bole is besides used in Burmese, Bengali and Kerala nutrient readying.

Banana leaves that by and large big, flexible, and waterproof, are used as umbrellas and to wrap nutrient for cooking intent. In South India, the foliages are used as a natural home base to function their nutrient. Once eaten, the foliage is thrown off for cattle ingestion, which is one illustration of an eco-friendly pattern. This pattern has regained popularity since it values hygiene as an of import facet and the fact that it saves on H2O and detergents that normally have been used to clean a home base. Furthermore, hot nutrient served in a stamp banana foliage manifests a distinguishable banana spirit that is besides said to hold nutritionary benefits.

Bananas are unfertile, intending that they do non bring forth feasible seeds. They are missing seeds, so another signifier of extension is needed. The two standard ways to works bananas are to either transplant portion of the root ( called a “ corm ” ) or to transfer chumps ( shoots that develop at the bases of the banana works ) . Chumps are populating workss and are excessively delicate to transport over long distances, so they must be handled with some attention. Corms on the other manus are similar to bloom bulbs. They can be left out of the land for up to 2 hebdomads and they need no 1 to H2O or be given them, and can be boxed together for cargo.

In general, bananas are shipped out to the markets when they are still partly green, yet a banana is considered mature and ready for eating when it is to the full xanthous and spotted with little brown musca volitanss. Occasionally, bananas will short-circuit the maturation room, and demo up at the market still to the full green ; these about ne’er mature into quality fruit, if they ripen at all. The spirit and texture of many sorts of bananas are normally affected by the optimal temperature at which they ripen. Bananas spoil and turn Greies at low temperatures and are merely refrigerated down to 13.5A°C during transportation.

2.5 Cultivated Banana Varieties in Malaysia

Banana cultivars can be differentiated based on their genomic groups or their ploidy degree like AA, AAA, AB, AAB and ABB based on the morphological marking method ( Stover and Simmonds, 1987 ) . Cultivars with the B genotype have starchy and acidic fruits and they are by and large eaten boiled, fried or roasted. On the other manus, cultivars with the A genome have sweet and all right textured fruits, and they are largely eaten natural or serve as a sweet. The popular sweet cultivars of Malaysia are Pisang Mas ( AA ) , Berangan ( AAA ) and Rastali ( AAB ) whereas the popular cookery types are Pisang Raja ( AAB ) , Nangka ( AAB ) , Awak ( ABB ) , Nipah ( BBB ) and Kapas ( AAB ) ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) . Merely Pisang Mas is grown to be exported outside and the others are for domestic ingestions.

Pisang Mas ( AA ) is the most of import banana cultivar in Malaysia since they have high potency in exporting. The works has a little fruit, runing between 8.0-12.0 centimeter in length and 3.0-4.0 centimeter in diameter and the works tallness is about 2.2-2.6 m. The Peel is thin and aureate yellow in coloring material once it ripe. The mush is house, yellow in coloring material, odoriferous and really sugary gustatory sensation ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) .

Figure 2.5.1: Pisang Mas. Beginning: Valmayor et Al. ( 2000 ) .

Pisang Berangan ( AA ) is following to the earlier cultivar in importance, a possible export harvest. The works is slightly tall works which is 2.5-3.0 m in tallness. The fruit is medium to big in size and the Peel is thick, aureate yellow in coloring material and enclosed with little to heavy defects. The flesh of Berangan is really aromatic, dry and sweet ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) .

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Figure 2.5.2: Pisang Berangan. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/ ( 2009 ) .

Pisang Raja Udang ( AAA ) can be in green mutant signifier and the ripen fruit of the ruddy assortment, It is highly creamy to savor and non excessively sweet. Bad thing is that the shelf life is really short upon maturing. The fruit is one sort of sweet type ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) .

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Figure 2.5.3: Pisang Raja udang. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/ ( 2009 ) .

Pisang Rastali ( AAB ) is an highly popular sweet cultivar in Malaysia. The works is a moderate-sized works of approximately 2.5 to 3.0 m in tallness. The fruit is little to medium and has a thin Peel, xanthous orange in coloring material when ripe and covered with moderate to heavy black defects and somewhat rancid in gustatory sensation ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) . The fruit detaches easy from the manus when ripe and should be eaten at the right ripe phase, or else, the fruit is unsympathetic.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/gallery/watermark.php? file=16148 & A ; size=1

Figure 2.5.4: Pisang Rastali. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/ ( 2009 ) .

Pisang Raja ( AAB ) is an of import cookery cultivar in Malaysia. The fruit is angular and the tegument is thick and develops an orange-yellow coloring material when ripe. The flesh of Raja is creamy orange, really sweet and coarse in texture ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) .

Figure 2.5.5: Pisang Raja. Beginning: Valmayor et Al. ( 2000 ) .

Pisang Nangka ( AAB ) is the cooking cultivar that is widely distributed throughout Peninsular Malaysia. They become a popular pick for husbandmans since they are vigorous works with a high output every bit good as early shot. The works is medium, ‘heavy ‘ and the fruit is long, pointed and angular ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) . The Peel is thick and remains green when ripe. The mush of Nangka is creamy, all right texture, starchy and a subacid in gustatory sensation. Have a distinguishable olfactory property when cooked.

hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/gallery/watermark.php? file=16150

Figure 2.5.6: Pisang Nangka. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/ ( 2009 ) .

Pisang Tanduk ( AAB ) is a cultivar that has largest fruit. They have restricted commercial value in Malaysia due to the hapless output. The fruit is immense, between 25.0-35.0 centimeter in length and 5.0-6.5 centimeter in diameter. The tegument is xanthous when ripe and the mush is light creamy orange in coloring material, mulct in texture but house. The fruit besides has enormous maintaining quality and remains starchy even when gully ripe. When cooked, the flesh will turn out to be really sweet in gustatory sensation.

Figure 2.5.7: Pisang Tanduk. Beginning: Valmayor et Al. ( 2000 ) .

Pisang Awak ( ABB ) is a common in the northern dry provinces of Malaysia. The fruit is little to medium and bends yellow when ripe. The tegument of Awak is thick and the mush is milky, house every bit good as sticky ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) . Creamy and non excessively sweet fruit.

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Figure 2.5.8: Pisang Awak. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/ ( 2009 ) .

Pisang Nipah ( BBB ) is widely grown in the southern provinces of Malaysia. They have a short, chubby and angular fruit with a thick tegument that becomes xanthous when ripe ( Jamaluddin, 1990 ) . The mush is creamy white, all right texture with a developed nucleus. Even though the flesh becomes sweet upon maturing, the fruit is ever cooked before ingestion.

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Figure 2.5.9: Pisang Nipah. Beginning: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bananas.org/ ( 2009 ) .

2.6 Molecular Phylogenetics

Molecular phylogenetics is a taxonomy method that used a short criterion sequence of organismic DNA to deduce it development relationship ( Nei and Kumar, 2000 ) . Before the coming of molecular biological science technique, the development relationship was inferred based on morphologies merely. How different they are from each other or any features formed because of mutant or version to the environment.

Early effort at the molecular phylogenetic was utilizing the protein, enzyme, saccharide and molecules which were separated utilizing technique such as nbmkf ; bchnique made the DNA sequence informations widely available and accumulates in reeling velocity. This accretion of informations is a major advantage to the development life scientist because the Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence itself is a papers of development history ( Felsenstein, 1985 ) . In recent times, chemotaxonomy was mostly replaced by the DNA sequence as the marker for the phylogenetics survey.

Essential key for the molecular phylogenetics is in closely related being ; normally have high grade of connexion in the molecular construction of the beings. Distantly related beings show some grade of similarities. Conserved sequence such as mitochondrial Deoxyribonucleic acid are expected to roll up mutant over clip, assumedly mutant occur in changeless rate manner. This changeless rate of mutant provides a molecular clock for the development.

2.7 Chloroplast Deoxyribonucleic acid

Comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes have verified highly utile to do clear the evolutionary relationships and in phyletic survey in flowering plants ( Birky, 2001 ) . Normally, chloroplast DNA ( cpDNA ) is motherly inherited, of angiosperm species. The signifier of heritage of cpDNA is a serious determiner of its molecular development and of its population familial constellation ( McCauley et al. , 2007 ) .

Chloroplast DNA is loosely used by works evolutionary life scientists for a multiplicity of grounds, including as a marker of seed motion in surveies of population agreement and phylogeography ( Ennos, 1994 ; McCauley, 1995 ) , and as a tool in surveies of works systematic ( Olmstead and Palmer, 1994 ) . A batch of these applications suppose maternal heritage as a main determinate of both the magnitude of cistron flow and the manner of molecular development of the genome. Further, the inclination for angiosperm chloroplast genomes to be motherly inherited has led to the thought that they be considered as utile sites for interpolation of engineered cistrons in genetically manipulated species due to the deficiency of transmittal through pollen would deeply cut down the chance of ”escape ” ( Gressel, 1999 ) .

2.8 Familial Markers

Familial markers stand for the familial differences among beings or species. Normally, they do non mean the mark cistrons themselves but merely execute as ‘signs ‘ . Familial markers that are positioned in close propinquity to cistrons possibly will be referred as cistron ‘tags ‘ . Those sorts of markers themselves do non hold an consequence on the phenotype of the trait of involvement since they are located merely near or ‘linked ‘ to cistrons commanding the trait. All familial markers reside in peculiar genomic places inside the chromosomes known as ‘loci ‘ . There are three chief types of familial markers: ( 1 ) morphological or known as seeable markers which themselves are phenotypic traits or characters ; ( 2 ) biochemical markers, which include allelomorphic discrepancies of enzymes ; the isozymes ; and ( 3 ) Deoxyribonucleic acid or molecular markers, which expose sites of fluctuation in DNA ( Jones et al. , 1997 ; Winter and Kahl, 1995 ) .

Morphologic markers are typically visually characterized phenotypic characters such as flower coloring material, seed form or growing wont. Harmonizing on ( Winter and Kahl, 1995 ) , isozyme markers are differences in enzymes that are detected by cataphoresis and specific staining. The major disadvantages of morphological and biochemical markers are that they may be limited in figure and are influenced by environmental factors or the developmental phase of the works. Nevertheless, despite all those restrictions, morphological and biochemical markers have been terribly functional to 171 works breeders ( Eagles et al. , 2001 ; Weeden et al. , 1994 ) .

Deoxyribonucleic acid markers are the chiefly used type of marker chiefly because of their copiousness. They come up from dissimilar sorts of DNA mutants like permutation mutants, rearrangements ( interpolations or omissions ) or mistakes in reproduction of tandemly repeated DNA ( Paterson, 1996 ) . These markers are selectively impersonal since they are typically located in non-coding parts of DNA. Contrasting with the morphological and biochemical markers, DNA markers are fundamentally illimitable in figure and are non exaggerated by environmental factors or the developmental phase of the works ( Winter and Kahl, 1995 ) . Deoxyribonucleic acid markers have assorted applications in works genteelness such as placing the degree of familial diverseness within germplasm every bit good as cultivar individuality, alternatively of in the building of linkage maps merely ( Jahufer et al. , 2003 ; Winter and Kahl, 1995 ) .

Deoxyribonucleic acid markers can be classified into three categories based on the mode of their sensing: ( 1 ) hybridization-based ; ( 2 ) polymerase concatenation reaction ( PCR ) -based and ( 3 ) Deoxyribonucleic acid sequence-based ( Joshi et al. , 1999 ; Winter & A ; Kahl, 1995 ) . Deoxyribonucleic acid markers perchance will uncover familial assortments that can be seen by utilizing gel cataphoresis and staining with chemicals ( ethidium bromide or Ag ) method or sensing with radioactive or colorimetric investigations. They are peculiarly utile if they can expose differences between persons of the same or different species. These sorts of markers are called polymorphous markers, whereas markers that do non separate between genotypes are called monomorphic markers. Polymorphous markers could be described as codominant or dominant as good. This account is based on whether markers can know apart between homozygotes and heterozygotes.

2.9 rpoC Gene

In recent times, a figure of chloroplast DNA sequences with major homology to bacterial RNA polymerase fractional monetary unit cistrons have been discovered and reported ( Ohyama et al. , 1986 ; Shinozaki et al. , 1986 ; Sijben-Muller et al. , 1986 ) . Sijben-Muller et Al. was the first who reported the sequences of a cistron with homology to the cistron for the I± fractional monetary unit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase ( denoted rpoA ) . This was followed by the publication of the complete chloroplast DNA sequences of Marchantia ( Ohyama et al. , 1986 ) and baccy ( Shinozaki et al. , 1986 ) which contained a I±-like fractional monetary unit cistron every bit good. Furthermore, these workss hold two extra chloroplast cistrons, possibly restricted within a individual written text unit, with homology to the P ‘ ( rpoC cistron merchandise ) and P ( rpoB cistron merchandise ) fractional monetary units of E. coli RNA polymerase. RpoC cistron besides synonymous with RNA polymerase, beta premier fractional monetary unit.


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