History of Cosmetic/Plastic Surgery COM150 Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with on the correction or restoring of external damage to the body. The word plastic comes from the Greek plastikos meaning to mold or to shape (Answers, 2010). Cosmetic surgery involves techniques to enhance the appearance through surgical and medical techniques. I will also investigate the most popular surgery procedures of the last couple years. Do you wonder how this type of surgery went from treating war wounds, burn victims, and children born with defects to breast enhancements and face-lifts?
We will explore how Plastic surgery began and how it progressed through the centuries, to what we all know it as Cosmetic surgery. This essay will explore the changing history of plastic and cosmetic surgery as it continues to be written (Answers, 2010). The beginning of cosmetic surgery goes way back to India during the eighth century BC. The respected surgeon Susrutha was one of the first pioneers who learned how to apply skin grafting techniques and published the Sushruta Samhita, this publication detailed procedures similar to rhinoplasty (Lets look beautiful, 2010). This is among the oldest known manuscript for the science of medicine. The Kangra district is Himachal Pradesh was most famous for its plastic surgeons. Some scholars are of the opinion that the word “Kangada” means ear repair. A British Archaeologist Sir Alexander Cunningham had written about Kangra plastic surgeons procedures” (History of Cosmetic surgery 6-21-09). Seven hundred years later cosmetic surgery began in the Roman Empire, the Roman surgeons performed less elaborate operations such as repairing damage to people’s ears. Europe has evidence of cosmetic surgery, during fifteenth century.
Dr. Heinrich von Pfolspeundt, was one of the first doctors practicing medical procedures beyond the crude conditions that had existed during the late medieval and early Renaissance period this lead in to the Middle Ages. During this time quite a few German physicians mainly from Strasbourg, helped to advance the study plastic surgery. He has also documented an operation, to replace completely a patient’s nose that was severely damaged by removing skin from the back of an arm and suturing it into place a new nose could be created. This surgery at that time was onsidered high risk due to the lack of knowledge and hazards working in the facial area at that time (Tidwell, 2005). Gasparo Tagliacozzi, a professor of surgery and the anatomy at the University of Bologna, here is where plastic surgery achieved worldwide fame in Europe. “His book De curtorum chirurgia per insitionem The Surgery of Defects by Implantation” (History of Cosmetic surgery 6-21-09). “Tagliacozzi’s has described different plastic surgery procedures and the church dignitaries of that time regarded cosmetic surgery as interference in the affairs of the Lord almighty” (History of Cosmetic surgery 6-21-09). After Tagliacozzi’s, death they excommunicated him and had his body exhumed from the churches cemetery and had it moved to an unconsecrated ground” (History of Cosmetic surgery 6-21-09). Once the technique of anesthesia became established in the early 1900s, all surgery would be a large amount of pain. Infection from surgery would be reduced by the starting to use sterile instruments, techniques, and disinfectants. After antibiotics were invented and the infections were not so common. Also with the use of sulfa drugs and penicillin, this made elective surgery possible.
America’s first mentions plastic surgery in the early nineteenth century were Dr. John Peter Mettauer performed the first documented cleft palate operation, using surgical instruments he created to his personal specifications (Lets look beautiful, 2010). As time advances a doctor from New Zealand Sir Harold Gillies is considered a visionary with in his field. He also was revered as the father of modern plastic surgery. Gilles was passionate about the suffering confronted by the large number of solders from face injuries during the First World War.
Because of the desperate need to help these men, Gillies pioneered the procedure for plastic surgery that is in use for plastic surgery today. “Walter Yeo, a sailor injured at the Battle of Jutland, is assumed the first person to receive plastic surgery in 1917. The photograph shows him before (left) and after (right) receiving a skin graft surgery performed by Gilles ”(Frowde, 1983, p. p. 4) [pic] Although advancement in cosmetic surgery has been, slow throughout the ages. It has steadily become a very lucrative industry in today’s world. In 2006, almost 11 million cosmetic procedures were performed in the United States alone. The number of cosmetic procedures performed in the United States has increased over 50 percent since the start of the century. Almost 12 million cosmetic procedures were performed in 2007, with the five most common surgeries being breast augmentation, liposuction, nasal surgery, eyelid surgery, and abdominoplasty. The increased use of cosmetic procedures crosses racial and ethnic lines in the U. S. with increases seen among African-Americans and Hispanic Americans as well as Caucasian Americans. In Europe, the second largest market for cosmetic procedures, cosmetic surgery is a $2. 2 billion business” (Plastic surgeon HQ, 2010, 1 p. p. ). Cosmetic Surgical Procedures The numbers of surgical cosmetic procedures such as breast augmentation, liposuction and tummy tucks remained unchanged from 2006, with more than 1. 8 million procedures performed in 2007. The top five surgical procedures were: Procedure |# Performed in 2007 |% Change from 2006 | |Breast Augmentation |348,000 |Up 6 percent | |Liposuction |302,000 |Unchanged | |Nose Reshaping |285,000 |Down 7 percent | |Eyelid Surgery |241,000 |Up 3 percent | |Tummy Tuck |148,000 |Up 1 percent |
Reconstructive Plastic Surgery Procedures Reconstructive plastic surgery procedures decreased 2 percent in 2007, compared with 2006. The top five reconstructive procedures were: |Procedure |# Performed in 2007 |% Change from 2006 | |Tumor removal |3. million |Down 1 percent | |Laceration repair |286,000 |Down 9 percent | |Scar revision |150,000 |Down 9 percent | |Hand surgery |142,000 |Down 9 percent | |Breast reduction |106,000 |Up 2 percent | Minimally Invasive Cosmetic Procedures There were 10. 4 million minimally invasive procedures performed in 2008, up five percent from 2007.
Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures that increased in 2008 included: • Laser skin resurfacing • Botox • Laser treatment of leg veins Minimally invasive cosmetic procedures that decreased in 2008 included: • Microdermabrasion • Anti-cellulite treatment • Laser hair removal Reconstructive Procedures There were 4. 9 million reconstructive plastic surgery procedures were performed in 2008, representing a three percent increase over 2007. Reconstructive surgeries that increased in 2008 included: • Breast reconstruction • Birth defect reconstruction • Hand surgery • Scar revision Burn care The largest contributor to the increase in procedures over the past decade has been the advent of injectable wrinkle fillers and other minimally-invasive procedures. These cosmetic procedures, which typically cost less than more invasive surgical procedures, actually showed a slight increase in 2009 to nearly 11 million procedures, up 99 percent since 2000. The top five minimally-invasive procedures in 2009 were: • Botox injections (4. 8 million) • Soft tissue fillers (1. 7 million) • Chemical peel (1. 1 million) • Microdermabrasion (910,000) • Laser hair removal (893,000)
On the flip side, the number of invasive cosmetic surgical procedures declined by 9 percent, with more than 1. 5 million procedures performed in 2009. Surgical procedures are down 20 percent since 2000. The top five surgical procedures in 2009 were: 1. Breast augmentation (289,000) 2. Nose reshaping (256,000) 3. Eyelid surgery (203,000) 4. Liposuction (198,000) 5. Tummy tuck (115,000) The most prevalent anesthesia/cosmetic procedures include: 1. Tumor removal (3. 9 million) 2. Laceration repair (332,000) 3. Scar revision (171,000) 4. Hand surgery (110,000) 5. Maxillofacial surgery (90,000) Abdominoplasty (“tummy tuck”): making the abdomen firm • • Blepharoplasty (“eyelid surgery”): the application of permanent eyeliner or reshaping of the eyelids • Mammoplasty: o Breast augmentations (“breast implant”): augmentation of the breasts by means of saline, or silicone gel prosthetics o Reduction Mammoplasty (“breast reduction”): removes skin and glandular tissue, this is done to reduce back and shoulder pain in women o Mastopexy (“breast lift”): Lifting or reshaping of breasts so they do not appear to be saggy, used after weigh loss or pregnancy.
It removes breast skin instead of glandular tissue • Buttock augmentation (“butt implant”): enlarging of the buttocks using silicone implants or fat grafting that transfers fat from other areas of the body o Buttock lift: lifting, and tightening of the buttocks • Chemical peel: minimizing the appearance of acne, chicken pox, and other scars as well as wrinkles with salicylic acid (BHA) as the active agent. • Labiaplasty: surgical reduction and reshaping of the labia • Lip enhancement: surgical improvement of lips’ makes lips fuller • Rhinoplasty (“nose job”): reshaping of the nose Otoplasty (“ear surgery”): reshaping of the ear, done by pinning the ear closer to the head • Rhytidectomy (“face lift”): removal of wrinkles and signs of aging from the face o Browplasty (“brow lift” or “forehead lift”): elevates eyebrows, smooths forehead skin, and wrinkles o Midface lift (“cheek lift”): tightening of the cheeks • Suction-assisted lipectomy (“liposuction”): removal of fat from the body • Chin augmentation (“chin implant”): implant in the chin, usually with silicone • Cheek augmentation (“cheek implant”): implants to the cheek • Fillers injections: collagen, fat, and other tissue filler injections • Laser skin resurfacing (Plastic surgeon HQ). As indicated, many doctors lead this journey to discover the best ways to perform plastic/cosmetic surgery.
These types of surgeries today, are a billions dollar industry. Consider this before you decide to have cosmetic surgery; is the pain worth the possibility of dying or being disfigured to try to look better? Will the surgery really improve your looks? There are no guarantees in life, especially when it comes to plastic surgery. Reference Page Gillies HD. Plastic Surgery of the Face. Henry Frowde. 1920, 1983. ISBN 0906923085 Retrieved April 21, 2010 Tidwell, A. (2005, December 28). History of Cosmetic Surgery. Retrieved April 21, 2010 from http://ezinearticles/? History-of-Cosmetics-Surgery=119103 Plastic surgery HQ Retrieved April 24, 2010 http://plasticsurgeonhq. com/