History of the database applications Essay

History of the database applications

A database is a aggregation of information that is good organized. So it is easy to entree, manage and update informations.

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Computerized databases were introduced in 1960s.There were two popular informations theoretical accounts named as web informations theoretical account and hierarchal informations theoretical account.

Between the old ages 1974 and 1977 two major relational database system paradigms were introduced ( Ingres and system R ) .They were developed at UBC and IBM.

A new database theoretical account was introduced by P. Chen in 1976 which is known as the Entity Relationship theoretical account. The interior decorators were able to concentrate on the database application other than the logical tabular array construction.

SQL became the standard question linguistic communication in 1980s.

With the debut of the cyberspace in 1990s, the database applications started to turn quickly in 2000.

Data Base Management System ( DBMS )

It is a package system which uses a standard method for recovering and running questions based on informations. It besides manages incoming informations and organizes it. It besides provides the manner for the users or for the other plans to modify or pull out informations. Access, SQL Server, My SQL, Oracle are few illustrations for DBMS package.

Few types of databases:

  • Hierarchical databases
  • Network databases
  • Relational databases
  • Object oriented databases

Hierarchical Databases:

IBM introduced the first coevals of database engineering which is known as hierarchical. First, this engineering was used in mainframe computing machines in the mid-1960s.This engineering was upgraded to the web database engineering in mid-1970s.Hierarchical database is the term which is frequently used to depict both web and hierarchal databases.

In a hierarchal database records are grouped in a logical hierarchy. It is connected in a ramification construction which is really much similar to an organisational chart.

Most of the early database applications maintained records in big organisations, such as universities, infirmaries and Bankss. In many of these applications, there were big Numberss of records which had the similar construction.

  • Problems
  • Conceptual relationships were intermixed with the physical storage and records were placed on discs.
  • Merely the scheduling linguistic communication interfaces were provided by early systems.
  • So, it became really expensive to implement new questions and minutess and besides it was clip consuming because new plans had to be written and tested.
  • Advantages
  • The chief advantage of the hierarchal database is its stiff construction.
  • Performance wise better
  • Easy to understand
  • Very efficient in retrieval
  • Simple and easy to plan
  • Disadvantages
  • Hierarchical database systems are hard to utilize
  • Arrows should be used to keep all the records.So the database construction becomes more complex. Interpolation, omission and updating necessitate big figure of arrows.

Relational Databases:

Relational database theoretical account was introduced by E.F Codd in 1970s.

A relational database is a aggregation of informations points which are organized as officially described tabular arraies. The informations can be accessed or assembled once more in many different ways. The most indispensable thing is that it is non necessary to reorganise the database tabular arraies.

The chief purpose of presenting relational databases:

  • To divide physical storage of informations from its conceptual representation.

The relational informations theoretical account besides introduced high-ranking question linguistic communications which provided an alternate to programming linguistic communication interfaces. It was really quicker to compose questions.

With the influence of the clip relational databases became the most popular type of database systems for traditional database applications. Relational databases can be found on about all types of computing machines. It exists from little personal computing machines to big waiters.

  • Advantages
  • Complex questions can be used
  • Data duplicate is avoided
  • In security wise it is better
  • Able to pull strings and visualise informations
  • Disadvantages
  • It is slightly expensive to keep the database system
  • Structured bounds

Object-Oriented Databases:

A database system that deals with all the of import and the most indispensable object-oriented constructs.

Reason to develop object oriented databases:

Object oriented databases were introduced in 1980s.The necessity to shop and portion complex structured objects paved the manner to the development of object oriented databases.

They are now chiefly used in specialised applications, such as technology design, multimedia publication, and fabricating systems.

  • Advantages
  • Interact better with object oriented linguistic communications.
  • Able to manage big assortment of informations types
  • High in public presentation.
  • Disadvantages
  • It is slightly complex to utilize
  • Expensive to utilize
  • Security wise the support is non adequate

Invention of SQL

SQL is a particular intent scheduling linguistic communication. It is designed to pull off informations which is held in a relational database direction system.

In the early 1970s Donald D. Chamberlin and Raymond F. Boyce introduced the SQL.

Based on the relational database theoretical account article published by Dr E.F Codd in 1970s, by 1978 the IBM squad was able to develop a system based on this theoretical account. It was called as System/R along with a question linguistic communication which is known as SEQUEL.

In 1986, SQL became a criterion in American National Standards Institute ( ANSI ) and besides of the International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ) in 1987.

The database design lifecycle

A database can be considered as a basic constituent of the information system. Database design is considered as a major portion of the system development. The database design engagement with the system development lifecycle is shown below. Database design and the database execution are the most of import stages that should be considered in planing databases. Assorted methods are used to demo how the different stages of information system design analysis and executions are carried out.

Database Planning

Activities that allow the phases of the database system development lifecycle to be realized in an efficient and effectual mode are known as the database planning. Include the creative activity and the definition of the mission statement and the aims. It is considered as the really first measure in the database planning.

It Includes: – The major purposes of the database system – The intent of the database system – The supported undertakings of the database system

System Definition

The boundaries of the database application are described with the range in the system definition stage. Major user positions are besides described here.

It Includes: – Linkss with the other information systems of the organisation – What the planned system is traveling to make now and in the future – Who the users are now and in the hereafter.

Requirements Collection and Analysis

The aggregation and the analysis of the information to be served by the databases are completed during the demands aggregation and analysis stage. The consequences are composed of:

– The description of the informations used or generated – The inside informations how the information is to be used or generated – Any extra demands for the new database system

Database Design

It is considered as a undertaking which is used to map a given existent universe application in to a database direction system.

This stage is composed of three major stairss: – Conceptual database design – Logical database design – Physical database design

  • Conceptual database design

It can be described as being informations driven. It is based wholly on informations and their belongingss. High degree patterning techniques are used to specify the information demands of the database.

  • Logical database design

Describe about the basic constellation of the database. The interior decorator returns to this degree one time when he completes the conceptual database design. This is based on the mark informations theoretical account for the database. It is biased merely towards the engineering.

  • Physical database design

A description should be created sing the execution of the database on the secondary storage. It is DBMS biased.

Database Management System Selection

This stage arrives when there is a demand for a new Database Management System. This is an optional stage. DBMS means a database system like Access, SQL Server, MySQL and Oracle. The processs for the new DBMS are defined in this stage. Many merchandises are evaluated harmonizing to this process. The choice is done eventually.

Application Design

The user interfaces and the application plans are designed every bit good as defined in this stage.


The physical realisation of the database and the application designs are carried out in this stage. This stage is considered as the programming stage of the system development.

Data Conversion and Loading

This stage becomes really of import when an old system is replaced by a new database. The bing informations will be transferred into the new database during this stage.


Testing should be done to the new system before the new system is traveling to utilize. It should be tested in a really accurate mode. It helps in order to happen the mistakes that are associated with the new system. Here the testing is non used to look into whether the system is working good. The chief purpose of the proving procedure is to happen the mistakes.

Operational Care

The operational care is the procedure which is used to supervise and keep the database system. Monitoring is used to acquire the observations sing the public presentation of the database.



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