Homeostasis 1. Meaning of Homeostasis: A) contributor and provider B) expand * C) same or constant D) receiver 2. What is the normal pH value for body fluid? A) 7. 15-7. 25 * B) 7. 35-7. 45 C) 7. 55- 7. 65 D) 7. 00-7. 35 E) 6. 5-7. 5 3.
An example of the urinary system working with the respiratory system to regulate blood pH would be A) When you hold your breath the kidneys will remove CO2 from your blood B) If you exercise a lot your urine will become more acidic * C) If you develop emphysema the kidneys will remove fewer bicarbonate ions from circulation D) If you hyperventilate the kidneys will counteract the alkalinity by adding hydrogen ions into the blood stream E) None of the above-the urinary system never works with the respiratory system 4. The urge to breathe comes in direct response to: A) How long it has been since you last took a breath
B) The oxygen concentration of your surrounding environment C) The buildup of nitrogen within your blood stream * D) The pH of your blood E) The buildup of blood pressure that occurs when you don’t breathe 5. In response to a bacterial infection my body’s thermostat is raised. I start to shiver and produce more body heat. When my body temperature reaches 101 degrees, I stop shivering and my body temperature stops going up. This is an example of: * A) Negative feedback B) A malfunctioning control system C) Positive feedback D) A negative impact 6. Which of the follow is an example of a positive feedback?
A) Shivering to warm up in a cold winter storm B) A cruise control set on your car applies more gas when going up a hill C) You sweat on a hot summer’s day and the blood vessels in your skin vasodilate * D) You get cut and platelets form a clot. This in turn activates the fibrin clotting system and more blood forms clots 7. Where is the body’s “thermostat” found? * A) Within the nervous system, in the Hypothalamus B) Within the integumentary system, in the skin C) Within the brain, in the corpus callosum D) Within the Urinary system, in the kidneys 8. What system has little to contribute to the homeostasis of the organism?
A) Urinary System * B) Reproductive System C) Respiratory System D) Nervous System Integumentary System 1. Name all of the parts of the integumentary system. The integumentary system consists of the skin, the subcutaneous tissue below the skin, hair, nails, and assorted glands. 2. Name the cells that produce melanin and describe its function. Melanocytes These are cells located in the bottom layer of the skin’s epidermis and in the middle layer of the eye, the uvea. Through a process called melanogenesis, these cells produce melanin, a pigment in the skin, eyes, and hair. . Name and describe the importance of the cutaneous senses. The cutaneous senses are touch, pressure, heat, cold and pain. Their purpose is to provide the central nervous system with information about the external environment and its effect on the skin. 4. Explain how sweating helps maintain normal body temperature. Eccrine sweat glands are coiled tubular glands derived from the outer layer of skin but extending into the inner layer. The sweat glands are controlled by sympathetic cholinergic nerves which are controlled by a centre in the hypothalamus.
The hypothalamus senses core temperature directly, and also has input from temperature receptors in the skin and modifies the sweat output, along with other thermoregulatory processes. 5. Explain where on the body hair has important functions, and describe these functions. Hair on the scalp provides insulation from cold for the head. The hair of eyelashes and eyebrows helps keep dust and perspiration out of the eyes. Hair in our nostrils helps keep dust out of the nasal cavities. Any other hair on our bodies no longer serves a function, but is an evolutionary remnant. 6. What is a melanoma? . The outermost layer of skin b. A type of nail disease * c. A malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes d. The lower most layer of skin  The Nervous System 1. The junction between one neuron and the next, or between a neuron and an effector is called: * A ) A synapse B ) A dendrite C ) A neuotransmitter D ) A ventricle E ) None of the above 2. A fast excitatory synapses follows this order: * A ) (1) neurotransmitter released (2) diffused across the synaptic cleft to a receptor protein (3) binding of the transmitter opens pores in the ion channels and positive ions move in.
B ) (1) neurotransmitter released (2) diffused across the synaptic cleft to a receptor protein (3) binding of the transmitter opens pores in the ion channels and negative ions move in. C ) (1) neurotransmitter released (2) diffused across the synaptic cleft to a receptor amino acid (3) binding of the transmitter opens pores in the ion channels and positive ions move in. D ) (1) diffused across the synaptic cleft to a receptor protein (2) neurotransmitter released (3) binding of the transmitter opens pores in the ion channels and positive ions move in. E ) None of the above 3. Resting potential is
A ) excess positive ions accumulate inside the plasma membrane B ) excess negative ions accumulate inside the plasma membrane C ) excess positive ions accumulate outside the plasma membrane * D ) both b ; c E ) both a ; c 4. Sensory neurons have: A ) A short dendrite and a long axon B ) A short dendrite and a short axon * C ) A long dendrite and a short axon D ) A long dendrite and a long axon E ) Their axons and dendrites may be either long or short 5. ________blocks Acetylcholine receptor sites causing muscle relaxation. A ) Novocain * B ) curare C ) Nicotine D ) Nerve gases 6.
Transmission across a synapse is dependent on the release of _______? * A ) neurotransmitters B ) synaptic vesicle C ) neurons D ) receptor proteins 7. Motor neurons take messages A ) from the muscle fiber to the central nervous system B ) away from the central nervous system to the central nervous system C ) that are classified * D ) away from the central nervous system to muscle fiber 8. The medulla oblongata helps to regulate which of the following: A ) Breathing B ) Heartbeat C ) Sneezing D ) Vomiting * E ) All of the above 9. The nervous systems main components are what? A ) The Synapses and Sprinal cord
B ) The neurons and the synapses C ) The bain and the neurons * D )The brain and the spinal cord 10. Explain what LTP does to enhance communication between two neurons, on the postsynaptic end. * More receptors, such as AMPA receptors, are added and existing ones are sensitized via phosphorylation. Dendritic spine number and surface area is increased as well. 11. Explain what LTP does to enhance communication between two neurons, on the presynaptic end. * If the retrograde messenger theory is correct, presynaptic cells participate in the enhancement by increasing the probability of synaptic vesicle release. Please remember the retrograde messenger is theoretical, I just thought it should be included here) The Muscular System 1. Smooth Muscle is A) Voluntary and Spindle Shaped B) Voluntary and Striated * C) Involuntary and Spindle Shaped D) Involuntary and Striated 2. Skeletal Muscle is A) Voluntary and Spindle Shaped * B)Voluntary and Striated C) Involuntary and Spindle Shaped D) Involuntary and Striated 3. Cardiac Muscle is A) Voluntary and Spindle Shaped B) Voluntary and Striated C) Involuntary and Spindle Shaped * D) Involuntary and Striated 4. Which type of muscle cell is multinucleated? A) Cardiac B) Smooth * C) Skeletal
D) All of the Above 5. What is an example of a smooth muscle? A) Masseter (Face) * B) Bladder C) Heart D) Pronator Teres (Forearm) E) Rectus Abdominis (belly) 6. Each myosin filament is surrounded by ____ actin filaments. A) Two B) Four * C) Six D) Eight E) Seven 7. The muscular system is contoled by what system? A) The cardiovascular system B) The integumentary System * C) The Nervous system D) None of the above 8. How many types of muscle are there? A) Two * B) Three (cardiac, smooth and skeletal) C) Four D) Five  Blood Physiology 1. Taking aspirin every day can reduce the risk of heart disease because: A) it is a powerful vasodilator
B) it blocks pain receptors in heart tissue C) it stops ventricular fibrillation D) it loosens plaque on arterial walls * E) it prevents platelet clumping 2. A hematocrit measures percentage of: A) White blood cells B) Plasma C) Platelets * D) Red blood cells 3. Fred’s blood type is O- and Ginger’s is B+. Fred and Ginger have a son who is AB+. What do you conclude? A) If they have a second child Ginger needs to have RhoGam shot B) There is no risk to a second child, unless it has a negative blood type C) If the child needs a blood transfusion Fred could provide it safely, but not Ginger * D) Fred is not the boy’s father . Which blood component plays the largest role in maintaining the osmotic pressure of blood? * A) albumin B) carbon dioxide C) white blood cells D) fibrinogen E) globulins 5. If you hold your breath for one minute A) The kidneys will increase sodium ion reabsorption * B) Hydrogen-ion concentration in the blood will increase C) Your heart rate will greatly slow D) Hemoglobin will bind to oxygen more strongly 6. Most of the carbon dioxide produced by tissues is transported to the lungs as: A) Small gas bubbles in the plasma B) Gas bound to hemoglobin in the red blood cells C) Bicarbonate ions in the plasma D) Gas bound to white blood cells and albumin E) Gas transported through the lymphatic system 7. To prevent blood loss after a tissue injury, blood vessels first A) Form a platelet plug B) Form a clot C) Initiate the coagulation cascade * D) Constrict and form barriers 8. You take a blood sample from a male cyclist at the end of a long race. The hematocrit is 60%. The most likely conclusion is: A) This is within normal range for most adult males B) This cyclist is anemic C) This low of a hematocrit could indicate liver damage or leukemia * D) The cyclist is dehydrated
E) The cyclist has been taking pharmaceutical erythropoietin 9. In a normal blood sample, which of the following cells will be the most abundant? * A) Neutrophils B) Basophils C) Eosinophils D) Monocytes E) Lymphocytes 10. A bag of donated blood does not clot because A) There is not enough oxygen B) It cannot dry out C) It is kept refrigerated * D) There is no free calcium E) All of the above  The cardiovascular system 1. This conducts electricity like nerves A) Epicardium B) Pericardium * C) Myocardium D) Subvalaular Apparatus E) None of these, only nerves conduct electricity 2.
This carries the most blood at any given time in the body * A) Veins B) Capillary Beds C) Veins D) Aorta E) Vena Cava 3. The following contract together to pump blood A) Right atrium with the right ventricle and left atrium with the left ventricle * B) Right atrium with left atrium and right ventricles with left ventricle C) Tricuspid valve and mitral valve D) Aorta and pulmonary artery E) Aorta, pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein 4. This is the pacemaker of the heart A) AV node B) Purkinje fibers C) AV Bundle * D) SA node E) None of these, a pacemaker is surgically inserted 5.
When reading an EKG, this letter shows the depolarization from the AV node down to the AV bundle A) S B) P C) U D) T * E) Q 6. The T wave in an EKG shows A) Resting potential B) Atrial depolarization C) SA node excitation * D) Ventricle repolarization E) Purkinje Excitation 7. Blood pressure is the measure of * A) Pressure exerted by the blood on the walls of the blood vessels B) Pressure exerted by the blood on the arteries C) Pressure exerted by the blood on the veins D) Pressure exerted by the blood on the aorta 8. Systolic Pressure is A) An average of 120 mm Hg B) Lowers steadily during ventricle systole
C) The highest when blood is being pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta D) An average of 80 mm Hg * E) Both A and C F) Both B and D 9. The heart has how many chambers? A) One B) Two C) Three * D) Four (two ventricles and two atria) 10. End diastolic volume in human A)120mL b)50mL c)70mL d)100mL  The Immune System 1-When neutrophils and macrophages squeeze out of capillaries to fight off infection it is called: A) phagocytosis B) hemolysis C) interleukin * D) diapedesis E) folliculitis 2-During a great battle between your WBC’s and an aggressive microbe, an inflammatory response has been initiated.
Reddness and edema has kicked in what else does the body do to protect itself? A) Histamine cause vasodilation B) Hypothalmus raises the thermostat C) Neutrophils engulf and destroy the microbe D) Living and dead WBC and bacteria accumulate * E) All of the above 3-Specificity and memory are associated with which body defense mechanism? A) inflammatory response B) phagocytosis by macrophages and neutrophils C) interferon * D) T cell and B cell responses E) anatomical barriers in the body 4-An additional chemical defense found in tears and saliva? A) T lymphocytes B) saline * C) lysozyme D) EFC -Which of the following does complement protein perform A) They cause antibody release B) T cell development C) The release if histamine D) Promotes tissue repair * E) Mast cell degranulation 6-Which substance induces fever? * A) Pyrogen B) Pus C) Monocytes D) Edema E) Interferon 7-Major function(s) of the lymphatic system is/are? A) provide route for return of extracellular fluid B) act as drain off for inflammatory response C) render surveillance, recognition , and protection against foreign materials via lymphocytes, phagocytes, and antibodies. D) a and c * E) all of the above 8-An antigen is:
A) a chemical messenger that is released by virus infected cells B) a lymphocyte responsible for cell-mediated immunity C) something that coats the inside of lungs, causing infection * D) a protein or other molecule that is recognized as non-self E) a thick yellow-white fluid 9-A foreign substance, usually a protein, that stimulates the immune system to react, such as by producing antibodies is a ______________. A) allergen * B) antigen C) histamine D) mast cell E) interferon 10-When a macrophage ingests an invading bacteria and takes the antigen to a lymph node, what happens next?
A) the macrophage will present it to the first B-cell it encounters, and the B-cell will in turn change its surface receptors to match the antigen * B) a B-cell will only become activated if it already has a match for the antigen C) a matching B-cell will become activated into a cytotoxic T-cell D) the cells of the lymph node will release histamine E) the lymph node will increase production of neutrophils 11-What is the most common portal of entry for diseases, into the body? * A) Respiratory system B) Endocrine system C) Hematacrit system D) Any opening into the body. 2-This gland shrinks in size during adulthood, and has hormones that function in maturation of T-lymphocytes: A) lymph nodes * B) thymus C) spleen D) GALT E) tonsils 13-Which of the following is not a mechanical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection? A) Layers of cells B) Tears C) Saliva * D) Lysozyme E) None of the above 14-Where is the site of maturation for a B cell? A) thymus * B) bone marrow C) pancreas D) cortex 15-Nonspecific resistance is A) The body’s ability to ward off diseases. * B) The body’s defenses against any kind of pathogen. C) The body’s defense against a particular pathogen.
D) The lack of resistance. E) None of the above. 16-What is an Antibody? A) An antimicrobial substance applied to a living tissue to prevent infection. B) Programmed cell death * C) A protein generated by the immune system in response to a foreign substance. D) A chemical involved in inflammation.  The Urinary System 1. While reading a blood test I notice a high level of creatinine, I could assume from this that A) There is a possibility of a UTI B) There is a possibility of diabetes * C) There is a possibility of kidney failure D) There is nothing wrong, this is normal 2.
Direct control of water excretion in the kidneys is controlled by * A) Anti-diuretic hormone B) The medulla oblongata C) Blood plasma D) Sodium amounts in the blood 3. Nephrons A) Eliminate wastes from the body B) Regulate blood volume and pressure C) Control levels of electrolytes and metabolites D) Regulate blood pH * E) All of the above 4. If I am dehydrated, my body will increase A) ATP B) ADP C) Diluted urine * D) ADH 5. Which part of the nephron removes water, ions and nutrients from the blood? A ) vasa recta B ) loop of henle C ) proximal convuluted tubule * D ) peritubular capillaries E ) glomerulus . Kidneys have a direct effect on which of the following A ) Blood pressure B ) How much water a person excretes C ) Total blood volume D ) pH * E ) all of the above 7. Why do substances in the glomerulus enter the Bowman’s capsule? A ) the magnetic charge of the Bowman’s capsule attracts the substances B ) the substances are actively transported into the Bowman’s capsule * C ) blood pressure of the glomerulus is so great that most substances in blood move into capsule D ) little green men force it in with their ray guns 8. What happens in tubular excretion? A ) urine bonds are formed between the wastes
B ) wastes are diffused from the tubule * C ) wastes move into the distal convoluted tubule from the blood D ) blood pressure forces wastes away from the kidney 9. The countercurrent exchange system includes_________and_________. A ) glomerulus and macula densa B ) proximal convoluted tubule and distal convoluted tubule * C ) loop of Henle and collecting tubule D ) afferent arteriole and efferent arteriole E ) ureters and bladder 10. The function of the loop of the nephron in the process of urine formation is: * A ) reabsorption of water B ) production of filtrate C ) reabsorption of solutes D ) secretion of solutes edit] The respiratory system 1. This is total lung capacity * A) Vital capacity B) Tidal volume C) Expiratory reserve volume D) Inspiratory reserve volume 2. Involuntary breathing is caused by the A) Pituitary gland B) Exocrine gland C) Cerebral cortex * D) Medulla oblongata E) Endocrine gland 3. Carbon monoxide is dangerous because * A) It binds strongly to hemoglobin, making it unavailable to oxygen B) It binds strongly to plasma, making it unavailable to carbon dioxide C) It raises the blood’s pH level, causing a person to hyperventilate D) Carbon monoxide is not harmfull, we have it in our bodies normally 4.
Clubbing of the fingers could be a sign of A) A viral infection B) An upper respiratory infection * C) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease D) Nothing, it’s inherited 5. The need to breathe is caused by * A) A decrease in blood pH B) An increase in blood pH C) A decrease in blood oxygen levels D) A decrease in carbon dioxide levels 6. A person more susceptible to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease would be A) A long time smoker B) A long time fireman C) A child whose parents smoke D) A farmer that deals with pesticides * E) All of the above 7.
The exchange of gases between the blood within the capillaries and tissue fluid surrounding the body’s cells is called? A) external respiration B) cell metabolism C) cellular respiration * D) internal respiration 8. The medulla oblongata and pons regulate and measure what? * A) The pH level of your blood B) Your body temperature C) The amount of O2 in your blood D) The amount of air in your lungs 9. About how many alveoli are there in the lungs? * A) 300 million B) 300 billion C) 300 trillion D) 300 thousand E) None of the above 10. In relation to atmospheric pressure, intrapleural pressure is: A) more pressurized B) less pressurized C) about the same 11. Hemoglobin gives up oxygen when the environment is more _______. * A)Acidic B)Alkaline C)Icey D)Open 12. The sac that surrounds your lungs is called what? A) Diaphragm * B) Visceral Pleura C) Pulmonary Thorax D) None of the above 13. In what cellular organelle is the oxygen actually consumed and carbon dioxide produced? A) Nucleus B) Cytoplasm C) Microfilaments * D) Mitochondria 14. Which of these are protective reflexes? A) Hiccuping B) Sobbing * C) Sneezing D) Itching 15. Where does gas exchange take place? A) Bronchioles B) Conchae C) Pulmonary Capillaries D) Roots of the Lungs 16. When you hyperventalate you release large amounts of CO2 and drop your O2 levels. As a result you loose the urge to breathe and may pass out. This is called what? A) Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease B) Asthma * C) Shallow water black out D) Pulmonary Fibrosis 17. Acidosis is when you blood pH is below ? A) 7. 05 B) 7. 15 C) 7. 25 * D) 7. 35 18. When we exhale deeply some air is still left in the lungs, this air left is called? A) Tidal Volume B) Vital Capacity C) Expiratory reseerve Volume * D) Residual Volume  The gastrointestinal system . This is released in the duodenum in response to acidic chyme A) Cholecystokinin B) Gastrin * C) Secretin D) Peptide 2. In the GI tract, this layer is responsible for absorption and secretions * A) Mucosa B) Sub mucosa C) Muscularis D) Serosa 3. This digestive enzyme is produced in the salivary glands and the pancreas A) Maltase * B) Amylase C) Pepsin D) Nuclease E) Lipase 4. This keeps the chyme in the stomach until it reaches the right consistency to pass into the small intestine A) Esophageal sphincter B) Intrinsic sphincter C) Cardiac sphincter * D) pyloric sphincter 5.
The site where most of the chemical and mechanical digestion is carried out A) Pylorus B) Fundus C) Stomach D) Large intestine * E) Small intestine 6. Parietal cells secret A) Serotonin B) Mucus C) Pepsinogen * D) Hydrochloric Acid E) Gastrin 7. The cells at the base of fundic or oxyntic glands * A) Chief cells B) G cells C) Argentaffin cells D) Goblet cells E) Parietal cells 8. The movement and the flow of chemicals into the stomach is controlled by A) Nervous system B) Pancreas C) Various digestive system hormones D) Liver * E) Both the nervous system and various digestive system hormones 9.
The function of the Ileum is A) Absorb nutrients * B) Absorb vitamin B12 and bile salts C) To introduce bile and pancreatic juices D) Absorb alcohol and aspirin 10. The liver does this A) Glycogen storage B) Plasma protein synthesis C) Bile production D) Drug detoxification * E) All of the above 11. How many layers is the G. I tract composed of? A)Two B)Three * C)Four (mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, serosa) D)Five 12. Name the 7 accessory organs. * Salivary glands, parotid gland, submandibular gland, sublingual gland, tongue, teeth, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, vermiform appendix The Endocrine System . My child just fell and was hurt, the anxious feeling that I feel is caused by A) glucagon B) insulin * C) epinephrine D) adrenocorticotropic E) None of these 2. All of Bob’s life he has had to take insulin shots, this is caused because * A) his beta cells don’t function correctly B) his alpha cells don’t function correctly C) his DA hormone isn’t functioning correctly D) his GHRH hormone isn’t functioning correctly 3. The reason iodine is in salt is A) to prevent diabetes * B) to prevent simple goiters C) to prevent addison’s disease D) to prevent cushing syndrome 4.
All hormones react to a negative feedback except A) progesterone B) estrogen C) prolactin * D) oxytocin E) none of these 5. If I have a high blood calcium level it may be due to A) calcitonin * B) parathyroid C) glucocorticoids D) glucagon 6. Hormones that are lipids that are synthesized from cholesterol A) protien B) amino acid-derived C) polypeptide * D) steroids E) eicosanoids 7. This type of hormone must bind to a receptor protein on the plasma membrane of the cell A) water soluble B) lipid soluble C) steroid D) polypeptide * E) a and d F) b and c 8. Endocrine glands release hormones in response to
A) Hormones from other endocrine glands B) Chemical characteristics of the blood C) Neural stimulation * D) All of the above 9. The anterior pituitary secretes A) oxytocin * B) endorphins C) ADH D) TRH 10. Chief cells produce A) epinephrine B) glucagon C) insulin D) mineralocoticoids * E) parathyroid hormone 11. Name the eight major endocrine glands. * Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, pancreas, testes/ovaries, adrenal gland, pineal gland 12. Name the four major groups hormones can be chemically classified into. * Amino acid-derived, polypeptides/proteins, steroids, eicosanoids