Phase 1 of the site probe is the desk study. This is an of import portion of the procedure, due to it salvaging a considerable sum of clip and money for the client and contractor and supplying cardinal information on the building site.
munition study ( besides known as OS ) these maps are shown in a two dimensional paper format every bit good as a digital format. The digital format is normally used, this has been produced by utilizing orbiter function which can be accessed via the cyberspace shown in a assortment of scale sizes ; this could salvage a batch of clip when you are researching information on the possible building site. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) munition study gives inside informations on edifices, constructions and boundaries, environing roads, pathwaies and belongingss, and frequently reveal topographical inside informations, bing characteristic, watercourses, trees ( in appendix 1 it states that there are mature trees around a portion of the site ) and archeological characteristics. This could hold an consequence on the belongings sale once the undertakings finished.
Past usage of the building site significantly impact its hereafter usage. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) historical maps and local archives are used to happen out the history of the site. Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) states it can supply information on
Potential obstructors underground
Boundaries, pathwaies and roadways
Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) Historical papers are included in the archives and show exposure, maps and records that are used to research past history of the site.
Legal facets are an of import characteristic in the desk study, illustrations are
Health and safety
As it can be critical as to whether the site will go through the edifice and planning applications. Harmonizing to Approved Documents [ WWW ] there are 14 parts of sanctioned paperss which make up the edifice ordinances, these criterions need to be met or exceeded when building. Harmonizing to Health subjects in building [ WWW ] the wellness facets can run from asbestos to hand-arm quiver, with these hazards being assessed and managed carefully to halt people being affected. Harmonizing to Safety subjects [ WWW ] the safety subjects include site administration to mobile works and vehicles, these countries of hazard demand to be monitored and assessed invariably to halt people from coming to harm on the building site.
Phase 2 of the site probe is the fieldwork study, as this is besides an of import portion of the procedure. From the walkover study you will be able to visually see what is on the site. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) the walkover study could happen information such as bing constructions, bing services, trees, hedges and boundaries, indicant of topography and degrees, grounds of groundwater degrees and implosion therapy, overhead obstructors such as overhead power lines. This information is important as to see whether the site is executable to build on.
Soil testing is of import to inspect what type of dirt you will be building upon the site. Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) province that there are many different assortments of on-site and laboratory trial that are used to find the dirt status. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) dirt trials will cover denseness and compression, composing, rating profile, wet content, shear strength and the bearing capacity. Ground taint on site can be a serious issue. Harmonizing to Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 ) land taint on site can include chemicals, metals, stuffs, waste and liquids.
Trial cavities are highly utile when it comes to inspecting the dirt types on site. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) they province that the test cavity is a square cavity and the dimensions are 2m ten 2m ten 2m, so an applied scientist will inspect the test cavity to find the land H2O degree or take sample of the dirt if needed. Topliss, S. and Hurst, M. ( 2010 ) besides states that test cavities are limited to 5 metres or less in deepness. Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) emphasises that the test cavity are usually excavated utilizing a back-acter excavator. Topliss, S. and Hurst, M. ( 2010 ) high spots that a record must be taken aboard the dirt profile that will be recorded as the hole is being excavated.
Harmonizing to Regular Soil Augers [ WWW ] Hand plumber’s snakes are normally used in the site probe. Hand plumber’s snakes are used to pull out dirt samples from the site. The plumber’s snake is utile to visually see what is below the undersoil and so take the samples back to the research lab, and so organize a determination on what foundation to utilize on site.
( 1B ) clay is a cohesive dirt type. Harmonizing to Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 ) “ the more cohesive the dirt, the greater the ability to back up itself during the procedure of digging ” . This could salvage money, as this site has firm clay and can back up itself if it was n’t so impermanent support would be needed to keep the dirt type to be excavated and this would be an excess cost.
The likely jobs that could happen for clay dirt are
Trees those are close to the foundations.
In Appendix 1 the top right exposure, it shows the house clay has been excavated and at the underside of the digging its demoing land wet, this could bespeak that the site has a high H2O tabular array content. Harmonizing to Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 ) the little atom sizes which makes up clay, has a high sum of little holes between the atoms, this will do the behavior of clay to demo a alteration in measure, when it is being affected by the altering wet content. Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 ) thought is supported by Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) , who says that house clay suffers noticeable perpendicular and horizontal shrinking when prohibitionist, and expands when the clay is wet, as this is due to the alterations of the season. This could impact the foundations and cause remission due to the shrinkage and puffiness, this could be prevented if the foundation is reinforced.
Frost broken winds occur when the H2O tabular array is high ; in Appendix 1 the top right exposure, the clay dirt has H2O content which is near to the surface degree, this could swell in the clay dirt when the H2O content is frozen. Harmonizing to Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) when the H2O in the clay freezes and expands, this “ is due to crystals of ice forming and spread outing in the dirt and so causing hoar heaving ” . Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) province that in the United Kingdom, the groundwater near to the surface is uncommon to stop dead below 0.5 metres. Frost broken winds could impact the foundation and do it to check due to the H2O freeze and spread outing ; to forestall this, the land needs to be protected and the foundation to a deep deepness.
Trees can hold a significant consequence on the undersoil ; from this it can impact the infrastructure and superstructure of the site. In Appendix 1 the top left and the bottom right exposure, they show that there are mature trees around that portion of the site. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) states that clay undersoil is susceptible to alterations in wet content. Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 ) states that this has a strong connexion to the mature trees being located near to the foundation. Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) states that if the mature trees are located near to the foundations of the site at a distance less than the tallness of the tree, so the roots will be deep in the clay dirt, the trees will so take out all of the wet from the dirt and do the clay dirt to shrivel, this will do the foundations to lessen. Knowing that the mature trees are close to the foundation, there is a demand to take in history the dirt belongingss of the clay dirt.
( 1C ) In Appendix etc. basis – formwork, pumping H2O out of the dirt, so where to take the H2O could filtrate it in with a watercourse
Undertaking 2 – Foundations
( 2A ) Appendix etc.
( 2B ) for the building site, the foundation type that I will utilize is trench fill strip foundation, over other suited alternate such as hemorrhoids and raft foundation. Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) states that trenches are normally formed utilizing a mechanical excavator and excavated to the breadth that is needed for the foundation. Harmonizing to Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) the foundation for the trench fill should be at least 0.9 metres in deepness to supply a suited stable foundation. This is so the foundation will be unaffected from the house clay undersoil, such as crestless wave and shrinking. ( Week 7 PowerPoint ) states that for the trench fill strip there is no demand to utilize formwork due the undersoil being steadfast clay. The advantage of utilizing no formwork is salvaging money for the client and contractor. ( Week 7 PowerPoint ) states that apart from utilizing a digger to unearth the trench there is no demand to utilize specializer works for the diggings. Harmonizing to ( Week 7 PowerPoint ) the bricklaying below land degree will be reduced. Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) states that the trench should be filled with concrete every bit rapidly as possible, to halt the undersoil altering its wet content and the clay get downing to shrivel.
The other suited option was pile foundation. Harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) there are two types of stacking systems that are used on low-rise building undertakings. Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) states that the two systems are bored or precast goaded hemorrhoids, where the deepness they normally reach up to around 6 metres deep. Harmonizing to ( Week 7 PowerPoint ) the pile foundation is utile when the bearing stratum is deep as it will avoid the shrinking in the clay undersoil. The ground for non taking this foundation type is that it needs specialist equipment, this procedure is non cost effectual. The cost for this equipment every bit good as a individual to run the machinery would non be efficient for the building undertaking.
The other suited foundation was raft foundation.
( Week 7 PowerPoint ) states that the positive for this choice would hold been that it is inexpensive to building due it non being a deep digging. The ground why I am non taking this foundation is ( Week 7 PowerPoint ) states that raft foundation needs support below the loadbearing walls. This procedure of support can be dearly-won disbursal if the foundation has already been constructed.
( 2C ) method statement – Trench Fill Foundation
Site ready to get down work
Excavate surface soil
Site clearance complete
Mark out the site foundation boundary
Excavations for the trench fill foundation can get down
Trench excavated by mechanical digger
Batter back the trench
Clean the extra dirt from the digging
Make sure there are no digger teeth Markss are left
Pour concrete to required degree
Compact the concrete to let go of air bubbles
Construct up brickwork and block work to DPC/DPM
Fill the pit below land degree with weak mix concrete
Floor building – back fill dirt
Avoid the howitzer bridging moist cogent evidence class
DPC laid at 150mm above land degree
Undertaking 3 – External Walls
( 3A ) Appendix
( 3B ) Appendix ( hebdomad 12 talk 1 PowerPoint ) Timber frame building is a renewable and sustainable beginning of lumber unlike other building stuffs such as concrete and steel.
External thermal belongingss and public presentation for lumber framed building are high, due to the thickness of the frame and add insularity to run into the u-value that have been set out. The disadvantage to this is adding more insularity to the edifice can impact on the footmark of the floor country.
Offsite fabrication of for lumber framed building is good, as it provides a consistent quality to the stuff compared to if it prepared on site.
Time frame building is speedy to build as it ‘s a dry trade and there are no waiting clip so other trades can get down work quicker, nevertheless, timber demands to be stored right as the disadvantage is that it could acquire moist.
Balloon frame building, harmonizing to Chudley et Al. ( 2011 ) this procedure uses “ full-height he-man from land degree to the roof ” .
The benefits are that it ‘s built to full tallness and this means that it can be H2O cogent evidence in a comparatively short clip. The period of clip that it takes to build the balloon frame is a speedy procedure ; besides it is easier to pack the lumber he-man with insularity. However, the disadvantage is that there is a demand to supply pit barriers between floors to forestall fire spread as it travels quicker than a lumber frame, another issue is that it is difficult to travel around the site and to transport the stuff.
Undertaking 4 – Floors
( 4A ) Appendix
( 4B ) fire hazards
List of mentions
Chudley, R. Greeno, R. Hurst, M. Topliss, S. ( 2011 ) Construction Technology. 5th Edition. Spain: Pearson Education Limited. Chudley et Al. ( 2011 )
Topliss, S. Hurst, M. ( 2010 ) Construction & A ; The Built Environment Level 3. 1st Edition. Spain: Pearson Education Limited. Topliss, S. and Hurst, M. ( 2010 )
Riley, M. & A ; Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 ) Construction Technology 1: House Construction. 2nd Edition. Find Place of Publication: Palgrave Macmillan. Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2008 )
Emmitt, S. & A ; Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) Barry ‘s Introduction to the Construction of Buildings. 2nd Edition. Find Place of Publication: Blackwell Publishing. Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 )
Emmitt, S. & A ; Gorse, C. ( 2006 ) Barry ‘s Advanced Construction of Buildings. 1st Edition. Find Place of Publication: Blackwell Publishing. Emmitt, S. and Gorse, C. ( 2006 )
Riley, M. & A ; Cotgrave, A. ( 2009 ) Construction Technology 2: Industrial and Commercial Building. 2nd Edition. Find Place of Publication: Palgrave Macmillan. Riley, M. and Cotgrave, A. ( 2009 )
Health and Safety Executive ( n.d ) Health subjects in building [ WWW ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hse.gov.uk/construction/healthtopics/index.htm ( Accessed 05/11/2012 )
Health and Safety Executive ( n.d ) Safety subjects [ WWW ] Available from: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.hse.gov.uk/construction/safetytopics/index.htm ( Accessed 05/11/2012 )