How does the body defend itself against pathogenic organisms?

1.

We will write a custom essay sample on
How does the body defend itself against pathogenic organisms?
or any similar topic only for you
Order now

Defined in the dictionary as ‘a bacteria, virus, or other micro-organism that can do disease.

Which can so be divided into different classs, – bacteria, virus, fungus and eventually Protozoas.

Bacterias can be in the signifier of many sizes and can do such things as cholera and enteric fever febrility. The virus type of pathogens are much smaller than bacteriums and have a ‘fragment of familial stuff inside a protective protein coat’ . They are besides particularly common of doing grippe. Fungi can look like molds and can do such things like athlete’s pes. Protozoa can come in the signifier of contaminated nutrient and some are parasites. They are organisms that live in or on, certain things. A really serious illustration of this type, is malaria.

2.

Features

Virus

Bacterias

Fungus

Protozoa

Nutrition

Do non hold or necessitate nutrition and do non eat anything

Largely are heterotrophic, which means they live from and off other beings. Besides ‘At an simple degree, the nutritionary demands of a bacteria such asE. coliare revealed by the cell ‘s elemental composition’ .

Absorbs foods like saccharides ( glucose, fructose, xylose, sucrose ) and besides starches, cellulose, hemicelluloses and proteins.

Require organic stuffs ‘which may be particulate or in solution’ . They are holozoic.

Reproduction

Rely on host cells for the ‘machinery needed to last and reproduce.’ Once happening a host, it so looks for host cells to take over and ‘slowly implants its familial make-up into the cell.’

Reproduce by the procedure binary fission. Where the cells split into and split into 2 indistinguishable girl cells and ‘When conditions are favorable such as the right temperature and foods are available, some bacteriums like Escherichia coli can split every 20 minutes’ .

Environmental conditions can act upon how this happens and normally sexual or nonsexual reproduction are the chief methods. Some barms and funguses thrive in warm environments, and can multiply at an highly fast gait.

Besides may be a sexual, and besides reproduction by binary fission is really common here.

Structure

Their construction consists of a strand of nucleic acid, which is either DNA or RNA. Then it has something called a ‘capsid’ which is a protective protein coat.

Bacterias have a cell wall with no karyon and have two types of DNA- plasmid and chromosomal.

Some are unicellular but most are multicellular which have cell walls and they are made of chitin.

Single celled beings that have a cell membrane, nucleus, cytol and vacuole.

Beginnings used for this TAQ

*Bbc bitesize. ( 2015 ) .What ‘s in a cell? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_edexcel/cells/cells1.shtml. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Chris Sherwood. ( 2015 ) .How Do Viruses Reproduce? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/how-does_4567511_viruses-reproduce.html. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Constantine John Alexopoulos. ( 2015 ) .Fungus.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/222357/fungus/57967/Nutrition. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*G gingham. ( 2014 ) .Bacteria.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/bacteria. Last accessed 17th March 2015

*Kenneth Todar. ( 2014 ) .Nutrition and Growth of Bacteria.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //textbookofbacteriology.net/nutgro.html. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Robert G Yaeger. ( 2015 ) .Protozoa.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8325/ . Last accessed 17th March 2015.

TAQ 2

*See attached fact sheets

Beginnings used for this TAQ

*Ananya Mandal. ( 2014 ) .Cholera Transmission.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.news-medical.net/health/Cholera-Transmission.aspx. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Arthur Schoenstadt. ( 2012 ) .Malaria Transmission.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-transmission.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ( 2014 ) .Influenza.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Eric J. Nelson, Jason B. Harris, J. Glenn Morris, Jr, Stephen B. Calderwood & A ; Andrew Camilli. ( 2014 ) .Life rhythm of infective Vibrio cholerae..Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v7/n10/fig_tab/nrmicro2204_F2.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Kalyan Das. ( 2015 ) .Influenza A life cycle..Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nature.com/nsmb/journal/v17/n5/fig_tab/nsmb.1779_F1.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Lisa minu. ( 2014 ) .Understanding Athlete ‘s Foot.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/understanding-athletes-foot-basics. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Thomas Urbauer. ( 2014 ) .What Is the Life Cycle of Tinea Pedis? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/about_6513541_life-cycle-tinea-pedis_.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

* WHO. ( 2015 ) .10 facts on cholera.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/features/factfiles/cholera/en/ . Last accessed 16th March 2015.

TAQ 3

*See affiliated word papers ( didn’t have resources for PowerPoint presentation ) and notes.

Beginnings used for this TAQ

*Great Ormond. ( 2015 ) .Infection bar and control.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gosh.nhs.uk/parents-and-visitors/coming-to-hospital/infection-control-and-prevention/ . Last accessed 18th March 2015.

*Kristeen Cherney. ( 2014 ) .What is Cross Infection? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthline.com/health/cross-infection # Overview1. Last accessed 18th March 2015.

*Public Health England. ( 2015 ) .Infection control: New best pattern usher will bolster battle against health care associated infections – See more at:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buildingbetterhealthcare.co.uk/news/article_page/Infection_control_New_.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buildingbetterhealthcare.co.uk/news/article_page/Infection_control_New_best_practice_guide_will_bolster_fight_against_healthcare_associated_infections/71006. Last accessed 18th March 2015

* Toni Rizzo. ( 2015 ) .Hospital-Acquired Infections.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Cross_infection.aspx. Last accessed 18th March 2015

TAQ 4

How does the organic structure support itself against pathogens which cause infective disease?

Pathogens can come in the organic structure by ‘route of transmission’ . Peoples can pick up a pathogen by individual to individual contact with touch, spit and contaminated blood or bodily fluids. Pathogens can besides be transmitted through nutrients, H2O, insects and vehicles. Food can be contaminated by dirty custodies, dirty utensils, and is transverse contaminated. Water can be contaminated by homo or animate being fecal matters which spreads the infection when drank, and insects can besides transport a pathogen for illustration malaria. Last vehicles are really inanimate but can distribute pathogens by manner of bedclothes, playthings and wire for illustration. A common 1 is besides athlete’s pes. Airborne pathogens enter through the nose and oral cavity of the organic structure as you breathe, and nutrient pathogens enter through your oral cavity and so into the digestive system. Besides they can besides come in into the blood watercourse through ‘vectors’ which is transmitted by mosquitos, fleas, ticks and contaminated acerate leafs. Interruptions in the tegument are besides ways of come ining.

From the exterior of the organic structure the physical defense mechanisms and barriers we have to assist us are the tegument which is a physical barrier, coagulating which if tegument is broken the blood coagulums to halt any entrance, greasy and sweet secretory organs that produce chemicals that kill bacteriums, muramidase which is in spit and cryings that kills bacteriums, mucose membranes which secretes mucose and traps pathogens, rhinal hairs that remove the beings from the air, cilia force mucous secretion to the throat for get downing, hydrochloric acid putting to deaths micro-organisms, and the vagina produces lactic acid which stops growing of pathogens and has a low pH and mucose membranes that kill bacteriums.

If the physical barriers can non support against pathogens, so a ‘second defense mechanism line’ takes over which is a general defense mechanism system. Phagocytes that are white blood cells engulf pathogens and macrophages which are a longer life scavenger cells help digest the bacteriums and protect the organic structure. Substances that are produced by other proteins called complement defense mechanism proteins can assist contend pathogens, and are produced in response to cognizing the presence of foreign stuffs in the organic structure and ‘burst or steep the pathogen.’ Besides interferons are proteins that aid forestall spread of the virus, and redness are infected cells that produce a chemical histamine, and assist more white blood cells get to the country to assist fight infection.

Antibodies play a particular portion to contend pathogens as they are ‘lymphocytes that produce antibodies as a consequence of antigens.’ These are proteins in the group called Igs. Each antigen will merely excite the production of one specific antibody that will suit into its receptor country. This is called natural active induced unsusceptibility. It is protection gained against a peculiar pathogen by the production of specific antibodies after the antigen on the pathogen has been detected.’ Pathogens are prevented from come ining a host cell by antibodies adhering to the antigens which are on the surface of the pathogen, and pathogens can be burst by antibodies triping the complement system.http://leavingbio.net/The%20Human%20Defence%20System-web-2_files/image004.gif-see diagram here

T and B cells are lymph cells, while t cells mature in the Thymus secretory organ and B cells mature in the bone marrow. The point of T cells, is that they are guardians that are activated in the Thymus secretory organ and make non really bring forth antibodies but do assist to protect in other ways. They have helper T cells which recognise antigens particularly macrophages that multiply and enlarge and signifier assistant T cells that produce chemicals ( interferon ) that so excite the forming of B cells. Then they stimulate the reproduction of slayer T cells. Killer T cells produce and destroy unnatural organic structure cells and let go of a protein named perforin which signifier pores in the membranes of the cells they attack andWater and ions from the milieus flow into the cells and split them. This is called lysis.’ Suppressor T cells inhibit working after the pathogen is destroyed, and memory T cells survive for a long clip and stimulate memory B cells to bring forth antibodies. B cells work in the lymphatic system ‘especially the lien and lymph nodes’ and work on merely one specific antigen and comes into contact with an antigen to so reproduce at a rapid gait which are plasma cells. They are really efficient and effectual, but do merely last a few yearss. Most b cells die within a few yearss like said before, but some do remain alive which are referred to as memory B cells and ‘When the same antigen becomes present in the being these memory B-cells are already at that place to get down the production of plasma cells and antibodies.’ Which is secondary B cell response. These are more powerful because they are produced faster, more are produced, and they are produced to a smaller sum of antigen.

The primary response of the immune system to infection is on the first clip it is encountered and ‘Depending on the nature of the antigen and the site of entry this response can take up to 14 yearss to decide and leads to the coevals of memory cells with a high specificity for the inducement antigen.’ As shortly as a foreign antigen is exposed, an even though no antibodies are produced activated B cells differentiate to plasma cells. Secondary response is the response to the antigen where there is a big production of sums of antibodies.

Memory cells help bring forth what type of antibodies to bring forth during an immune response. It is like a B cell that keeps a “ memory ” of the older lymph cell that was generated when there was an immune response for a specific antigen. They act as defenders waiting for the return of the same antigen so they can enroll the immune system and mount an onslaught Oklahoman and more sharply.

Beginnings used for this TAQ

*Alexander A Ademokun. ( 2015 ) .Immune Responses: Primary and Secondary.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0000947.html. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*bbc bitesize. ( 2015 ) .Defending against infection.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/human/defendingagainstinfectionrev1.shtml. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*ico praver. ( 2015 ) .Paths of Transmission.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/microbes-and-the-human-body/routes-of-transmission. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

* S Detea. ( 2015 ) .secondary response.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //thesciencedictionary.org/secondary-immune-response/ . Last accessed 17th March 2015.

TAQ 5

Unsusceptibility

Natural

Acquired

Similarities

Defy a specific disease. ‘Inflammation.’

Defy a specific disease. Inflammation.’

Involve the action of antibodies in the organic structure somehow

Involve the action of antibodies in the organic structure somehow

Technically use white blood cells to seek and contend pathogen/ infection

Technically use white blood cells to seek and contend pathogen/ infection

Differences

Natural is from birth, and acquire it from being born and is ‘genetic’ .

You get this unsusceptibility after exposure to a pathogen.

Remainss throughout your life

Can be short lived or life long

This unsusceptibility has barriers that prevent entry of foreign agents

Consists of particular T and B cells and besides antibodies that are in organic structure fluid

Response is immediate

Response can take a few yearss, and is non immediate

Unsusceptibility

Active

Passive

Similarities

Are cell specific

Are cell specific

Require unsusceptibility

Require unsusceptibility

Both protect the organic structure and battle against pathogens

Both protect the organic structure and battle against pathogens

Differences

Active requires energy

Passive voice does non necessitate energy

Direct contact with pathogen is required.

No direct contact with pathogen is required.

No side consequence

Can hold side effects or cause reactions, for illustration ‘the organic structure reacts to the induced antisera. The status is called serum sickness.’

Exposed to ‘germs’ .

You receive antibodies from another beginning, for illustration a babe gets some in chest milk. The female parent made the antibodies, because she was “ active ” , her kid ‘s unsusceptibility is “ inactive ” – but the babe ‘s organic structure did nil to bring forth the antibodies.

Beginnings used for this TAQ

*Christopher Hassell. ( 2014 ) .Acquired Immunity.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //greaterimmunity.com/Files/acquired_immunity.html. Last accessed 18th March 2015

*Garland scientific discipline. ( 2015 ) .The immune system in wellness and disease.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27090/ . Last accessed 18th March 2015

Mentions and bibliography

*Alexander A Ademokun. ( 2015 ) .Immune Responses: Primary and Secondary.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0000947.html. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Ananya Mandal. ( 2014 ) .Cholera Transmission.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.news-medical.net/health/Cholera-Transmission.aspx. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Arthur Schoenstadt. ( 2012 ) .Malaria Transmission.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //malaria.emedtv.com/malaria/malaria-transmission.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Bbc bitesize. ( 2015 ) .Defending against infection.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/aqa_pre_2011/human/defendingagainstinfectionrev1.shtml. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Bbc bitesize. ( 2015 ) .What ‘s in a cell? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/add_edexcel/cells/cells1.shtml. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. ( 2014 ) .Influenza.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Eric J. Nelson, Jason B. Harris, J. Glenn Morris, Jr, Stephen B. Calderwood & A ; Andrew Camilli. ( 2014 ) .Life rhythm of infective Vibrio cholerae..Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nature.com/nrmicro/journal/v7/n10/fig_tab/nrmicro2204_F2.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Christopher Hassell. ( 2014 ) .Acquired Immunity.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //greaterimmunity.com/Files/acquired_immunity.html. Last accessed 18th March 2015

*Chris Sherwood. ( 2015 ) .How Do Viruses Reproduce? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/how-does_4567511_viruses-reproduce.html. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Constantine John Alexopoulos. ( 2015 ) .Fungus.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/222357/fungus/57967/Nutrition. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Garland scientific discipline. ( 2015 ) .The immune system in wellness and disease.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27090/ . Last accessed 18th March 2015

*G gingham. ( 2014 ) .Bacteria.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/introducing-microbes/bacteria. Last accessed 17th March 2015

*Great Ormond. ( 2015 ) .Infection bar and control.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.gosh.nhs.uk/parents-and-visitors/coming-to-hospital/infection-control-and-prevention/ . Last accessed 18th March 2015.

*Ico praver. ( 2015 ) .Paths of Transmission.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/microbes-and-the-human-body/routes-of-transmission. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Kalyan Das. ( 2015 ) .Influenza A life cycle..Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.nature.com/nsmb/journal/v17/n5/fig_tab/nsmb.1779_F1.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Kenneth Todar. ( 2014 ) .Nutrition and Growth of Bacteria.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //textbookofbacteriology.net/nutgro.html. Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Kristeen Cherney. ( 2014 ) .What is Cross Infection? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.healthline.com/health/cross-infection # Overview1. Last accessed 18th March 2015.

*Lisa minu. ( 2014 ) .Understanding Athlete ‘s Foot.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/understanding-athletes-foot-basics. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

*Public Health England. ( 2015 ) .Infection control: New best pattern usher will bolster battle against health care associated infections – See more at:hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buildingbetterhealthcare.co.uk/news/article_page/Infection_control_New_.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.buildingbetterhealthcare.co.uk/news/article_page/Infection_control_New_best_practice_guide_will_bolster_fight_against_healthcare_associated_infections/71006. Last accessed 18th March 2015

*Robert G Yaeger. ( 2015 ) .Protozoa.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK8325/ . Last accessed 17th March 2015.

* S Detea. ( 2015 ) .secondary response.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //thesciencedictionary.org/secondary-immune-response/ . Last accessed 17th March 2015.

*Thomas Urbauer. ( 2014 ) .What Is the Life Cycle of Tinea Pedis? .Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.ehow.com/about_6513541_life-cycle-tinea-pedis_.html. Last accessed 16th March 2015.

* Toni Rizzo. ( 2015 ) .Hospital-Acquired Infections.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Cross_infection.aspx. Last accessed 18th March 2015

* WHO. ( 2015 ) .10 facts on cholera.Available: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.who.int/features/factfiles/cholera/en/ . Last accessed 16th March 2015.

×

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one? Check it out