I grew up and exhausted much of my life populating in two universes, Britain and Iran. A deep sense of belonging to Iran is still with me. A topographic point of inspiration and beauty where each country of the state holds something different, whether it be its edifices, history, civilization or the conditions or the terrain, all of which have grounds as to how there is so much fluctuation in architecture and art in one state, with a big history of innovation and architectural design.
Iranian architecture goes back to about 5000 BCE. Persia, or Iran as it is now known, is a huge state, 6 times every bit large as Britain. Due to factors such as the conditions and the different civilizations in the parts of the state, architecture differs, this is because the people had to accommodate to a manner of life that would be suited to the elements of the conditions and besides the natural resources which were available to them. Natural edifice stuffs available are besides a major factor to the different signifiers of constructions. The state besides has a big history of innovation and architectural design.
I will reason whether we would be able to use the basic characteristics of old Iranian inside and exterior design today, to be able to plan more Eco friendly environments.
MATERIALS AND TYPES OF BUILDINGS:
Persian architecture has several basic features:
Symmetry and anti symmetricalness
The design of the edifice is normally dictated by the natural stuffs which are available. Heavy clays, clay, lime howitzer and heavy plastic Earth and wood. A batch of these stuffs and the edifice methods developed by the usage of the stuffs are still being used today. Most of the stuffs can be found in Britain and although we do non desire to be constructing crude huts, the stuffs and methods could be implemented when planing today.
In the northern countries of Gilan and Mozandaran ( Caspian sea ) due to the sum of rainfall and the copiousness of wood, most of the constructions are built with wooden frames, similar to British edifice design with wooden model in the edifice and roof. Many edifices have thatched roofs and due to the sum of rainfall, overhanging roofs so that a covered patio can be utilised at all times.
A small town house in rural, Babol, Mozandaran, North Iran.
This house would hold been built by utilizing a wooden frame, the infinites are filled with subdivisions, which act as a muss. The model is so coated with a mixture of clay, lime howitzer and straw, ( STUCCO ) which is thrown at the model, in order to make full in any crannies. The subdivisions, which sometimes still have foliages on them, act as insularity. The construction is so covered once more both on the interior and the outside with mud/lime mortar/straw mixture and left to dry. It is so white washed. The ceilings are made from tree short pantss, which are overlaid with either subdivisions or canes. This once more provides insularity to the edifice, which is crude, but Hardy. The roof is either thatched or covered in slates, which is another natural resource, which is readily available. Window frames and doors are all manus crafted from wood which is available in the many woods of the part. All of the characteristics of the edifice are bio-degradable.
( Could this signifier of insularity be used in eco friendly edifices? happen illustrations )
“ Natural edifice ” has become a gimmick phrase for a assortment of constructing techniques that by and large employ unrefined natural stuffs, such as Earth, rock, and straw. The focal point is chiefly on the stuff itself, and to some extent the methods that are used to work with the stuff, instead than the architectural design or other facets of edifice that might be explored. If the phrase is reversed to “ edifice of course, ” this opens up a whole new degree of consideration. Just what does it intend to construct of course, or to construct with nature? ” ( Hart 2001 )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.greenhomebuilding.com/articles/buildingwithnature.htm
Kelly ‘s house is non much different from a traditional edifice found in the northern states of Iran. Built by a similar method.
Another illustration of edifice with nature and utilizing natural resources can be found once more in the northern states in a small town high in the mountains, called, Masuleh.
The architecture of Masuleh, is different from anyplace else. The apparatus is that the roofs of the house lower down are the gardens of the following house. Its beautiful to see and the original thought has worked good.
( Could this type of structural design be implemented in Britain – illustrations of this? )
The houses were built in this manner due to them being built on a mountain side.
The small town is formed on several different degrees which are irregular. These are traveling up the mountain side. There is nowhere else in Iran where a edifice development like this can be found. There are no streets or roads and each roof is a path to another degree. The roofs are besides classed as gardens.
In the cardinal parts and the South there is an copiousness of clay and clay and this led to constructions being built from these substances and the devising of brick and therefore brick built constructions. In countries of the state such as Kerman, where there are comeuppances and an waterless countryside, most edifices were made from clay or clay. The stuffs which were locally available, such as clay and clay, played a big portion in the design of edifices. Mud was moulded to determine edifices and to this twenty-four hours, this method is still in usage.
The bi-millenium old bastion of Arg-e-bam. The universes largest adobe construction.
“ Adobe is an ancient edifice stuff which is in broad usage in many desert parts of the universe. It has besides experienced a revival in popularity in countries of the universe where people are concerned about environmentally sustainable architecture, because adobe is renewable, efficient, and of course sourced. You can see many illustrations of adobe architecture across the Middle East, American Southwest, and Latin America, running the gamut from modest places to sprawling composites. ”
To do adobe, people mix sand, clay, and straw. Many people like to utilize soil, which has a natural mixture of sand and clay, to do their adobe. Once the stuffs are assorted, they are packed into casts or shaped by manus into bricks which are allowed to dry in the Sun. After around a month of drying, the adobe bricks can be used to construct a construction which is mortared together with fresh adobe.
Ancient Persian designers were great users of geometry, utilizing pure signifiers such as the circle and the square, edifice programs and designs were based on symmetrical layouts. Scale was of great importance to plan, as it is today. Persian architecture is still based on harmoniousness with people, their environment and their life styles.
British designers and applied scientists build to line, if we take a expression at our lodging developments, from an aerial position, we would see row after row of edifices of the same form and size which look regimented and there is no existent beauty about them, no psyche to them. It is like no feeling has gone into the designing of these constructions and there is no cosmetic work on the outside of the edifices. We do hold modern architecture, once more this has no psyche and there are architectural freaks which are based on glass and Fe which glow in the Sun, but give you the feeling that you are populating on another planet and do up for the fact that we in the West are working and populating like machines, because that is how we have developed and modernised our lives, all simpleness has been removed there is no feeling of belonging left to the constructions in which we design and live in. There is small harmoniousness and it appears to be a shell we live in non a place based on all facets of life.
Air conditioning – air current backstops ( Badgir )
In the state of Kerman where the Arg-e-bam is situated, is where the first signifier of natural air conditioning was invented.
The Persians were superb designers and interior decorators. They designed and built utilizing the conditions of their natural environment to their advantage. In the desert part of Kerman, the yearss are really hot, and the darks become really cool, sometimes really cold.
Architects designed a manner to utilize natural resources as a coolant agent. They did this by constructing towers on the edifices, so intricate and yet so simple, but able to catch the slightest zephyr in the tower, which would so be passed through a channel up through canals keeping H2O, as the air passes over the H2O, it is cooled and by this procedure, a changeless transition of cool air is blown through the edifice.
The towers are square in form a few metres higher than the existent roof. Each tower is unfastened on all sides and is connected by shafts to each degree of the edifice. Depending on the size of the edifice, the figure towers and shafts would change.
Wind backstops have been used since about 1300B.C.
This is a typical house in the state of Kerman. It is made from brick and stucco. On the roof of the edifice the air shaft can be seen. These shafts were invented by ancient Persians to move as air conditioning.
( Argument as to whether this signifier of air conditioning could be implemented in edifices today to cut down fuel ingestion and besides be ego friendly? )
Yakchal – Ice HOUSES: 6 ( would these be feasible / self-importance friendly? )
An Ice doing edifice ( yakchall ) near Kerman, these have been used for seven centuries and are still being used in Iran today. It is an antediluvian and the first signifier of icebox.
hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yakhchal
The ancient Iranians designed these edifices so that they could hold ice in the hot summers. The Yakchal was a big belowground infinite, which could be up to 5000 three-dimensional metres, with the thickness of the walls being a lower limit of 2 metres at the base. They were made from a mixture of sand, clay, egg Whites, calcium hydroxide, caprine animal hair and ash, there was a particular formula to do this howitzer which was called “ sarooj ” . The good thing about this was that it was heat resistant. It was besides rainproof. The edifice besides had air current towers which would enable the control of the temperature.
hypertext transfer protocol: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ab_Anbar
Ab anbar of Sardar-i Bozorg, in Qazvin, is the largest individual domed Bachelor of Arts anbar in Iran.
This was a signifier of reservoir for imbibing H2O and ice devising. In Ghazvin Ab Anbars were non cylindrical as in Kerman, but rectangular in form. The under screen reservoir enabled the town to hold cold, uncontaminated imbibing H2O during the summer, as there was no vaporization during the hot summer months.
The yakchals and ab anbars were filled from under H2O watercourses or canals called ganats. These are constructed in a really imaginative manner.
Interior infinites in Iranian architecture optimise the usage of techniques for modulating visible radiation, temperature and heat.
As we are looking for ways to halt planetary heating and CO2 emanations, cheaper lodging and a greenish manner of life, it becomes more evident that we need to take a measure back in clip and get down looking at old building engineerings.
This does non intend that we should be populating in hovels or clay huts! we can still construct modern sustainable edifices utilizing old techniques, but implementing new eco friendly techniques alongside the old methods of edifice.
As mentioned before in the articles about edifice methods and edifices in Iran, the sustainability of these is proven, as they are still standing today after being built 100s of old ages ago.
There are assorted natural edifice techniques which have been used for 100s of old ages ; even recycled stuffs can be used for building.
The techniques available which I will discourse in deepness screen, shocking, foundations, walls, ceilings, roofs and interior design. These methods can be used to bring forth keen places. Interior design is much more flexible, as, some of the techniques provide us with the ability to model instead than pre concept and fit utilizing man-made stuffs.
Cob is made up of Earth, sand and clay assorted with straw. This produces a midst clay which can be moulded. This is so made into brick like forms, which are easy to pare to size as a construction is being built. Cob produces good insularity, it can besides be used alongside other methods of natural edifice. Cob has been proven to be highly lasting. By utilizing hazelnut we can convey new dimensions to interior design.
Hazelnut can be used to transform an interior infinite into an earthen wonderland.
Doors can be arched out, doing them look like subdivisions.
Windows can be rounded to make a hobbit like hut.A
Inside and outside corners can be curved with hazelnut.
Trees can be sculpted straight on the walls or corners.
Cosmetic shelves can be made.
Nooks for tapers or sacred objects.
Cob benches can be built in a clay room.
Cob art can be sculpted on the wall.
Cob as seen in the images is cosmetic, flexible and inexpensive. Anything built from hazelnut is made to dimensions required and to any form or signifier. Most of the benches are made with a fire in them which non merely heats the seating to a certain extent, but can besides supply an outdoor oven which can be used for cookery and warming, this thought can besides be used in the inside of a edifice.
If we look at the nest eggs which could be made when utilizing this natural method of building, it could be tremendous. We would n’t hold to purchase furniture as tabular arraies, chairs, beds, closets and other signifiers of trappingss could wholly be moulded and built into the house. Of class other natural stuffs could be implemented into the construction, but this is merely giving a little penetration into the flexibleness and economic sciences of natural edifice.