How Technology Can Help An Organisation Essay

In this assignment, I am traveling to explicate how engineering can assist or impede an administration to derive a competitory advantage and how Porter ‘s value concatenation explains this. Technology can be seen as the application of cognition to production, normally through innovation and merchandise and procedure invention ( Wetherly and Otter, 2011 ). Duncan et Al ( 1998 ) defined competitory advantage as the consequence of ”an digesting value derived function between the merchandises or services of one administration and those of its rivals in the heads of clients ”. Porter ‘s value concatenation explains how an administration is able to make this utilizing engineering, and I am hence traveling to discourse the benefits and restrictions of this theoretical account.

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The cardinal factor in set uping national fight is the ability to invariably increase productiveness and the chief manner to make this is by making the environment in which technological betterment occurs ( Porter, 1998 ). In competitory footings, value is the sum consumers are willing to pay for what a concern offers them ( Porter, 2004 ). When a house is able to offer consumers greater value, either by lower monetary values or greater benefits ( which justify higher monetary values ), they are likely to derive an advantage over their rivals. Porter ‘s value concatenation suggests that within an administration, there are ‘primary activities ‘ and ‘support activities ‘ which aim to offer the consumer value that will transcend the cost of these activities, accordingly taking to a net income border.

Primary activities consist of ;

Inbound logistics: involves having, hive awaying and managing natural stuffs

Operationss: transforms inputs into the concluding merchandise ( Callon, 1996 ).

Outbound logistics: Collects shops and physically distributes the merchandise to clients.

Selling and gross revenues: identifies markets and what makes consumers want to buy their merchandises or services.

Service: trades with the client support such as fix.

A few illustrations of engineering being used within these activities are ; the usage of cookies for selling and gross revenues. Tracking engineerings are able to follow the behavior of online users, and able to roll up a immense sum of information of personal use. “ Cookies are an priceless tool for on-line profiling and aiming ” ( van Eijk et Al, 2012 ) and hence used for mark advertisement. The recent engineering of Internet cookies has been a immense aid to companies in order to place clients ‘ penchants and mark markets. Another illustration, which helps a combination of both inbound and outbound logistics, is the progresss in transit engineering which helps cut transit costs. Emma Maersk, which is the universes ‘ biggest container ship, is able to transport 11,000 standard containers, offering immense cost decreases every bit good extended economic systems of graduated table in ocean transportation ( Spulber, 2007 ).

Support activities include:

Procurement: map of buying inputs.

Technology development: found in largely every activity. It consists of a scope of activities that can be loosely grouped into attempts to better the merchandise and the procedure ( Porter, 2004 ).

Human resource direction: consists of activities such as preparation and recruiting.

Firm substructure: consists of a figure of activities which includes finance and quality direction.

Each of these activities within Porter ‘s value concatenation can lend to a house ‘s comparative cost place and creates a footing for distinction, for illustration, a cost advantage may be a low cost distribution system, enabling the company to cut costs ( Porter, 2004 ), or if a house has greater entree to raw stuffs or production engineering, it could let it to accomplish cost advantages over its competition ( Papp, 2001 ). An illustration of distinction could be a superior and alone merchandise design doing it attractive to clients taking to the creative activity of a alone merchandising point. Porter ( 2004 ) states that an of import point to do about the Value Chain is that it is applicable to any industry, each holding the same five basic activities and the four back uping maps.

However, there are besides unfavorable judgments of the value concatenation. For case, cost direction, which comes under Porter ‘s support activity as procurance, is now such an of import facet within an administration in order to derive a competitory advantage, and arguably should be within the primary activities instead than support ( Morden, 2007 ). Firms need to be able to give the same degree or exceeded degree of value, but at a lower cost, than their rivals. “ Success at cost direction can hold a phenomenal consequence on the value of a company. ” ( Groth and Kinney 1994, p.52 ). Technology plays an of import function in this, as Groth and Kinney province ; inventions in IT continue to take down the cost of deriving cognition about costs ( 1994 ).

Another theoretical account that explains how a concern can derive competitory advantage is Porter ‘s five forces. This suggests that the regulations of competition are built-in to five competitory forces ( Porter, 2004 ). These five forces are ; entry of new rivals, menace of replacements, power of purchasers, power of providers and competition among bing rivals. Technology can so be used amongst each of these to assist an administration addition a competitory advantage. For case, vouchers and promotional trades can be used via societal media web sites such as Facebook and Twitter to catch consumer ‘s attending and pull them to their merchandise ; this can assist increase the purchaser ‘s power of that peculiar merchandise or service.

To cut down the bargaining power of providers, engineering can be used to assist concerns turn up alternate beginnings of supply through cyberspace web sites to happen B2B market places such as ( Use Of Technology, n.d. ). Technology can besides be used in the signifier to make entry barriers against rivals ; this so makes it more hard for rivals to come in that same market. Google have used this engineering to their advantage and created the new societal web amongst their original hunt engine called ‘Google Plus + ‘ to derive a competitory advantage over Facebook. Businesss are so able to utilize this to make profiles, and this profile will be shown within the hunt consequences of Google ( Use Of Technology, n.d. ).

Porter ( 1985 ) emphasizes the importance of engineering in making a competitory environment for an administration. However, for technological alteration to be successful, it is the combination of entrepreneurial endeavor and factors of the external environment that are important ( Wetherly and Otter, 2011 ). Technological invention is going progressively of import in many administrations for globalization and rapid technological advancement every bit good as amongst other factors, which combine to increase the competitory strength in about all industries. It has become one of the cardinal finding factors of a company ‘s public presentation ( Rothaemel, 2008 ) and harmonizing to Michael Porter, can alter the regulations of competition ( Porter, 2004 ) therefore should be one of the company ‘s chief focal points.

The integrating of engineering into the operations of an administration is critical to its successful direction ( Swann, 1993 ). It is a beginning of new merchandises and new production methods that can both cut costs and heighten grosss ( Tushman and Anderson, 1986 ). Due to engineering, it is a batch easier and quicker for concerns to utilize mass customisation every bit good as mass production. Manufacturers have struggled to run into the wants and demands of their clients without losing some of the efficiencies and net incomes gained through mass production. Developments IT have increased the opportunity of mass customization being implemented within concerns ( Istook, 2002 ). This can assist the concern addition good client relationships by run intoing their exact wants and demands.

The cyberspace is a antic illustration of advanced engineering that is assisting concerns gain competitory leads. Harmonizing to eMarketer, about one and a half billion of us use societal media, companies are hence are able to utilize this build consumer relationships to derive a competitory advantage ( Tarkoff, 2012 ). This enables companies to descry spreads in the market and develop alone merchandises and services before their rivals. ”Being a first mover in regard to a new productaˆ¦ can potentially make competitory advantage by curtailing rivals ‘ options in the same industry. ” ( Papp, 2001, p.28 ). This links to Porter ‘s concluding to make entry barriers, doing it hard for rivals to come in this market successfully without a better, more advanced merchandise, which would take up a great trade of clip and money due to research and development, presuming that the original merchandise was a success and deriving high sums of gross. Franko ( 1989 ) showed that R & A ; D and the outgos on R & A ; D is an of import determiner of corporate strategic public presentation and deriving a planetary competitory advantage.

The Internet has besides helped concerns out dramatically with the enlargement and popularity of online shopping, which is now so simple because of technological developments. More people are now shopping online, whether it is for physical goods electronics or food markets, or music downloads ( Johnson, 2011 ). Today, the lives of consumers are by and large really feverish, so everyone is looking for quicker and more efficient minutess, one being shopping. Consequently, consumers more inclined to shop this manner, instead than traveling to the physical store, since they can buy a scope of merchandises without even traveling from their place at place. In January 2013, on-line gross revenues accounted for 10.1 % of all retail disbursement. In the nutrient sector in peculiar, on-line gross revenues increased 27 %, which meant that now, 3.7 % of entire nutrient gross revenues are made online ( BBC News, 2013 ). This may hold been a consequence of drastic conditions ; nevertheless, if it was n’t for the promotions in engineering, this would non be made available. Etsy, a New York based online market place which launched in 2005, sells everything from apparels and jewelry to digital cameras and other electronics. “ Our whole concern is engineering, ” says Chad Dickerson ( n.d ), the company ‘s main engineering officer. His account of why is simple. “

The best manner to accomplish graduated table is to be on the cyberspace, and to be on the cyberspace you have to be a engineering company, and you have to construct package. ” ( Dickerson n.d. quoted in Johnson 2011 ). Another successful illustration is Domino ‘s pizza. Equally early as 2001, 4 % of pizza gross revenues were made via the cyberspace. ( Mintel, 2001 ). By 2002, they had 85,000 registered users online, and the on-line gross revenues were up 72 % from the old twelvemonth ( Sunday Times Business Section, 2002 ). In September 2012, Domino ‘s entire gross revenues rose 7.9 % to ?136.4m. Domino ‘s stated that gross revenues through e-commerce continued to lift and accounted for 58 % of their entire UK bringings ( BBC News, 2012 ). However, it can be hard for an administration to maintain up with new engineering since it is quickly altering, and is likely to merely maintain developing as clip goes on. Businesss hence have to guarantee they have a good degree of invention in order to hold a sustained competitory advantage.

On the other manus, even though national fight due to technological progresss can be seen as a positive facet for administrations, a restriction is that of authoritiess going progressively concerned. The lessening in authorities, falling transit and communicating costs, and increases in technological alteration are exposing all states to an extraordinary degree of international competition ( Miozzo and Walsh, 2006 ). This brings us to the ruins of engineering. One issue with presenting engineering is the loss of occupations for employees. By conveying in advanced engineering, fewer workers are needed, so 1000s of people are made redundant. “ Robots are cheaper than employees, and makers in every industry are quickly switching to mechanization. ” ( Rifkin, 2005 ). Employees may experience untrusty and could give the company a bad repute.

Besides, even though engineering brings benefits to companies such as mass customisation, the procedures that are involved are far from simple ( Istook, 2002 ), which could take to employees holding to undergo extended preparation in order to be able to manage the new engineering. Another issue that can be raised is the jobs it causes 1000s of people online, such as fraud. The increasing popularity with on-line music downloads and online file sharing such as Napster is one illustration, non merely does it give hazard to consumers, such as on-line hacking, but besides to concerns such as HMV which went into disposal on 15th January 2013. This could be due to the increased engineering that is leting consumers to download music and films online for free.

To reason, engineering has proven to be an of import characteristic in assisting an administration to derive competitory advantage, and is used in every facet of administrations ‘ activities, as shown by Porter ‘s value concatenation frame work. It helps houses to better their merchandises massively, and cut costs, in order to give clients the highest value merchandises possible, but at a comparatively low cost for the house. This has shown to be done through operations such as mass production and inbound and outbound logistics such as containerisation. Through progresss such as these, it helps clients to be speedy with come ining new markets, and potentially deriving a first mover advantage, which in bend helps them to derive the competitory advantage necessary. Technology has besides shown to be used in combination with Porter ‘s five forces in order to derive fight through increasing the bargaining power or purchaser ‘s, utilizing vouchers etc. advertised chiefly on societal networking sites.

However, there are some restrictions that need to be considered when presenting engineering, such as, is it traveling to cut down the repute of the company? Workers may experience untrusty and a bad repute could be spread through word of oral cavity. The biggest issue that has caused the most contention is the loss of 1000s of occupations due to engineering, and so many people are now being made redundant to cut the costs of rewards, since engineering is now able to make a huge sum of merchandises through mass production, but at a lower running cost. Overall, the positives do outweigh the negatives, and if it was n’t for engineering, company ‘s would fight to add every bit much value to their merchandises, as suggested in Porter ‘s value concatenation, and would non hold such an ability to derive an advantage over their rivals.


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