How Traditional Principle of Humanitarian Intervention Cope with the Influence of Foreign Policies Essay

FOURAH BAY COLLEGE UNIVERSITY OF SIERRA LEONE PEACE STUDIES DEPARTMENT MODULE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY RESEARCH PROPOSAL HOW TRADITIONAL PRINCIPLE OF HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION COPE WITH THE INFLUENCE OF FOREIGN POLICIES SUBMITTED TO: MR ALIMAMY CONTEH SUBMITTED BY: KABBA LAVALLIE REGISTRATION NO: 22511 CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC 2. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE 4. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 5. SCOPE OF THE STUDY 6. LIMITATION AND DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY 7. HYPOTHESIS . RESEARCH QUESTION 2. THE POLITIZATION OF HUMANITARIAN AID 2. 1 CHAPTER ONE 1. INTRODUCTION “Humanitarian intervention poses a hard test for an international society built on principles of sovereignty, non- intervention, and the non use of force. Immediately after the holocost, the society of states established laws prohibiting genocide, forbidding the mistreatment of civilians, and recognising basic human rights. These humanitarian principle often conflict with principle of sovereignty and non intervention.

Sovereign states are expected to as guardians of their citizens security. But what happens if state behaves as criminals towards their own people, treating sovereignty as a licence to kill ?. Should tyrannical states be recognised as a legitimate member of international society and accorded by the non intervention principle, or should state forfeit their sovereign rights and be exposed to legitimate intervention if they actively abuse or fail to protect their citizens” . {Alex J Bellamy and Nicolas J Weeler, Humanitarian Intervention in world politics} . INTRODUCTION OF THE TOPIC As a result of the frequency and intensity of complex emergencies and also natural disasters for the past two decade has lead to the rapid transformation in the policy and the institutional context of humanitarianism. Initially humanitarian was covered with a narrow set of basic relief activities and carry out by small group of independent actors, has now expanded significantly to an ever widening and much more complex range of rehabilitation work.

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The Rwandan genocide, finally forced humanitarian agencies to think beyond traditional relief assistance that was based on the delivery of food, shelter , basic heath care and take a deeper reflection on how they actually perceived their own role and responsibility as to how they can be accountable in the humanitarian field. It is now clear that there are principle which are to be followed by non governmental organisation in the humanitarian sphere that they are to operate with, especially when it comes to its usefulness in addressing the complex and political conditions that surrounds emergency situation.

Humanitarian assistance has been a highly political activity, it also involves in engaging authorities in conflict affected countries or relying on donor for financial support and that all can be politically motivated. It is also nowadays evident that relief organisation seem to remain even less in control of their working environment due to expanding peacekeeping and military led action. In there action they are confronted with scale of human rights abuses and also the targeting of civilian and humanitarian workers.

However the necessity to interact with armed groups started to blur the line between military policies and relief mission, making humanitarian action appear to be increasingly tied to the overall political response of donor countries to complex emergencies. It is a moral obligation for humanitarian workers to provide aid where ever it may be needed and the alleviation of suffering in humanitarian crisis is supposed to be the basic motivation in this context.

In the area of professionalism the humanitarian workers act to ensure that their action confer no military advantage and that they are driven solely on the basis of need, the humanitarian principle of neutrality and impartiality are respected as far as their operation is concern. What I have been sensing is that in many current wars belligerent rejects the notion or idea that war has limit and attack on civilian and other abuses of International Humanitarian Law is part of a deliberate strategy, and this have led to the question whether this ethical thing is still achievable in practice. . 2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM What has become an issue for the international community is that since the end of the cold war there has been an increase in occurrence of natural and man made disasters, including armed conflicts. This situation of humanitarian emergencies have led to a huge lose of life, damage to property and the long term destruction. In addition to this there are also instances in which disaster have forced countries to postpone national development programmes.

It is clear that every single emergency is accompanied by a high amount of human casualities, with over one million five hundred people been killed by natural disaster in the past decades. According to {UNDP report 2004: 1-8} drought affects some two hundred and twenty million people , flooding one hundred and ninty six million people, cyclones one hundred and nineteen million people and over one hundred and thirty million people live in earthquake risk zone. This is an indicator that there is still an existing problem in the humanitarian sphere.

On the other hand due to better satellite forcasting, improved early warning system and also improved community preparedness in some countries such as India and Bangladesh the potential for natural disaster is reduced because they have put up proactive measures in other to prevent to much causuality . Although natural disaster like floods, droughts, volcanic eruption, wild fires, earthquake and tsunami exist in both developed and developing countries, the poorest and most maginalised urban and rural societies will be list likely to recover livelihoods and rebuild assets quickly.

There are several reasons for this weak coping capacity, which puts large population of the poorest inhabitants at risk for example, the flooding of the Yantze river in china 1998, which displaced over two hundred million people has been officially blamed on deforestation in the highlands of Sichuan by the Chinese government. The typhoon that swept across southern Africa in 2000, producing flooding displaced millions especially in Mozambique and Madagascar, trigged destruction that was excersabated by land use changes and deforestation.

In the area of complex emergencie, deformed and failed processes ofo modernisation and transformation in some regions of the world have caused a fundamental development crisis. Complex emergencies and to a lesser degree natural disaster have a large impact on countries and people, like hyperinflation, massive unemployment, people face episodic food insecurity, and this frequently deteriorates into mass starvation, followed by movement of displaced people and refugees escaping conflict or searching for food.

The lack of knowledge or at least the lack of competent action, has resulted in a visible increase of hazards, which are influence by human activities so in this line the preventive measures use in these risk zone are insufficient so there must be possible proactive measures like land use planning, approite building codes, safety regulations,civic education on land policies and the challenge of environmental exploitation and response plans. I really want to campaign for the better use of the global commons that is the land, river, forest and the natural environment. 1. 3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES This research examines the difficult realities in a humanitarian environment • To address the complex legal and political issues sorrunding an emergency • To expose the impact of natural and man made disaster • To examine the impact of external actors like donors, armed forces and host government • To access the applicability of the principle of neutrality and impartiality 4. SIIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This research would be use for academic comsumption for example, it will be use in the library for other researchers This study will also be used by non governmental organisation {NGOs}

This will also be important to be used by policy makers so that they can have a clear idea or information complex emergency. 5. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope or time of this research starts from the end of the cold war and stretches to 2006. For the simple reason been that I can get a clear look at the issues or problems that involve in the humanitarian field and then make my contributions as to how the problem ca be minimise or as to how humanitarian non governmental organisation or government policy makers can know the existing problem. 6. LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

During the study I am faced with some challenges. The first challenge was that my able lecturer only permits me to do only two literature review. So in this case I was not bale to have as more materials as I wish The second challenge is that the sierra leone community is not equipped in materials of my research topic so in this case the internet was my primary source to find books and the internet is very expensive. 1. 7 HYPORTHESIS DVBJHGJGJBVJDBLJVBLB, ,V S ,VBDLD. MN . KNK NV. M. MV. MDN. VN. N. N. N NA. N. ND. VND N. DAN. MDV. NB. VN. ADNKVN;KAV’JAVMJ

NV;N;KNKVNKNVVEHFLHWIHBI 1. 8 RESEARCH QUESTION 9. SETUP OF THE PAPER After this introduction chapter two gives an overview on the context and scenario of the political environment, which both influences humanitarian work and sometimes even dominates the perception of relief aid in recipient states. This section also points out the geopolitical trends in aid policy and the extremely complex realities that put humanitarian actors in danger of being misused to assert political military or strategic objective. CHAPTER TWO 2. 0 POLITISIZATION OF HUMANITARIAN AID

State almost always have mixed motives for intervening and are really prepared to sacrifice their own soldiers overseas unless they have self interest reason for doing so. 1 This means that genuine humanitarian intervention is imprudent because it does not serve the national interest. So automatically this has point to the idea that the powerful only intervene when it suit them to do so and that stratigies of intervention are likely to be guided by calculations of national intrest than what is best for the victim in whose name the intervention is ostensibly being carried out.

Humanitarianism has always been affected by political trends and therefore cannot be understood or evaluated without analysing the politics that sorrunds intervention. acording to {hammer 2005: 2} in Thorsten Volberg works {The politicization of humanitarian aid and its effect on the principles of humanity, impartiality and neutrality 2006}on a global level donor states might channel huge financial sums into aid because of national security reasons, or to strengthen domestics economies by reinforming trade and export ties. On a local level on the other hand, importing significant resources into poor and politically charged environment creates a concentration of power, which makes humanitarian aid a preferred target for non humanitarian misuse in recipient states{curtis 2001:11} in { hammer 2005: 2}Traditional relief organisation are no longer seen as the sole or only actors in the humanitarian sphere that engages in the reduction of human suffering . Potential partners like military forces and private providers have imarged in the humanitarian enterprice and are active in policy areas of humanitarian interest{Macrea 2003. }This has led to wide range of activities that are now carried out under the banner of humanitarian action or relief some of which run counter to traditional idea of humanitarianism, including the basic principle of independence, impartiality and humanity. In sourthern sudan according to Bouchet Sauliner legal counsel of medicine sans frontier in Thorsten works says in Sudan for instance observers have noted a wide range of non government actors with different religious, political and economic motivation including profit making cooperation calling their operations as humanitarian.

More over humanitarian aid is seen by government as part of a coherent strategy of conflict reduction, which mitigate the effects of political and military action undertaken by donor government themselves. 3. While policy makers therefore incorporate humanitarian assistance in to a political strategy to prove humanitarian credentials to their own domestic audience, and for those in conflict affected countries to legitimise international military and political intervention. 1. THE WESTERN FOREIGN POLICY INFLUENCE

In the absence of an impartial mechanism for deciding when humanitarian intervention is permissible, states might espouse humanitarian motive as a pretext to cover the pursuit of national self intrest {Frank and Rodley 1974}. The classic case of abuse was Hitler’s argument that, it was necessary to invade Czechoslovakia to protect the lives and liberty of that country German population. Creating a right of humanitarian intervention would only make it easier for the powerful to justify interfering in the affairs of the weak.

Acording to{Chesterman 2001} in Thorsten works he argues that a right to intervention would not create more genuine humanitarian action because of self interest and not sovereignty has traditionally been the main barrier to intervention. However this would make the world a dangerous place by giving states more ways of justifying force4 Since the 2001 terror attacks, the line between political military and humanitarian actors have been blurred as never before representing a whole new level of exploitation of relief.

When the humanitarian community was reaching concensus on the failure of political cooperation in aid response and the importance of reinforcing the principle of neutrality, discussion on how humanitarian workers should interact with state. This is important due to the situation of political transistion for example in Afghanistan there was provision for relief and reconstruction and this was vital for political importance{macrea 2003. a} 1. SELECTVITY OF RESPONSE States always apply principles of humanitarian intervention selectively, resulting in an inconsistency in policy.

Because states behaviour is governed by what government judge to be in their intrest, they are selective about when chose to intervene. 5 The problem of selectivity arises when an agreed moral principle is at stake in more than one situation, but national interest dictates a divergence of responses. A good example of of response is the argument that NATOs intervention in Kosovo could not have been driven by humanitarian concerns, because of it has done nothing to address the very much larger humanitarian catastrophy in Darfur.

Selectivity is always a problem of failing to treat like cases alike. 2. HUMANITARIAN PROBLEM WITH FAITH BASED NGSs Humanitarianism in islam often seems to reflect a wider and more complex interpretation of the termas it does for western cultures, inparticular for gulf state the charitable obligation of Islam are strong drivers of assistance and Islamic solidarity and this has been an important factor in aid allocation according to {Barasi 2005 41-43} in Thorsten works.

ACORDING TO Islamic understanding, the idea of relief is suppose to include those things which are needed to fulfil a person religious obligations and sustain their spiritual life . As a result of this situation it can lead to division between western and Islamic tradition. These fundamental differences as well as development in the humanitarian sphere, and since the terrorist attacks have complicated the humanitarian collaboration.

Western government have been creating a climate of deep suspicion towards organised non governmental Islamic organisation accusing them of being “hot bed of terrorism”, while Christian NGOs operating in muslim countries are struggling with local worries that they “spread their religion to create a bulwark against Islam” According to OCHA middle east managing editor Abdel-Rahman Ghanndour in Thorsten works is exposing that few Islamic NGOs actually stay into militant political extremism where violence was accepted as another way of defending Islam whiles the majority however remains enuinely focused on purely humanitarian objectives. Christian graduate on the other hand, have undergone a substantial revival in power and influence since the end of 1990s especially in Africa, southern Asia and latin America where the support among others education, development or medical aid programmes often accompanied by religious institutions. 6 3. EXTERNAL INVOLVEMENT The humanitarian response to an emergency situation should seek to alleviate suffering of the ones in most need.

So for this reason humanitarianism encourages re life agencies to design their response, programmes and projects by aiming to actually close the gap between existing living conditions for humans in distress and their suggested minimum standard. There is also the the moral aspect of this involvement according to Alex J Bellamy and Nicholas J wheeler {poli} work, irrespective of what the laws says there is a moral duty to intervene to protect civilians from genocide and mass killing. . he argues that sovereignty derieves from a state responsibility to protects its citizen and when a state faills in its duty, it loses it sovereign right because a state can only claim sovereignty when she is capable to protect the basic rights of the citizen and when the state fails the international community will intervene to solve the problem through humanitarian intervention

This situation happened in sierra Leone during the ten year rebel incursion when the state was no longer capable of protecting the rights of its citizen so as a result of this we saw the intervention of the military wing of Economic community of west African states {ECOWAS} which is ECOMOG intervening in the political land scape of the country. 1. DONOR INFLEUENCES ON HUMANITARIAN AID In order to meet the millennium development goals {MDGS}

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