Hrm Training and Development Essay

NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT In simple terms, training and development refers to the imparting of specific skills, abilities and knowledge to an employee. A formal definition of training & development is… it is any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee’s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee’s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge.

The need for training & development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency, computed as follows: Training & Development need = Standard performance – Actual performance. We can make a distinction among training, education and development. Such distinction enables us to acquire a better perspective about the meaning of the terms. Training, as was stated earlier, refers to the process of imparting specific skills. Education, on the other hand, is confined to theoretical learning in classrooms. |Table 1.

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Training and Education Differentiated | |Training |Education | |Application |Theoretical Orientation | |Job Experience |Classroom Learning | |Specific Tasks |General Concepts | |Narrow / Perspective |Broad Perspective | |Training refers to the process of imparting specific skills. | |Development refers to the learning opportunities | |designed to help employees grow. | |Education is theoretical learning in classroom. | Though training and education differ in nature and orientation, they are complementary. An employee, for example, who undergoes training is presumed to have had some formal education. Furthermore, no training programme is complete without an element of education.

In fact, the distinction between training and education is getting increasingly blurred nowadays. As more and more employees are called upon to exercise judgments and to choose alternative solutions to the job problems, training programmes seek to broaden and develop the individual through education. For instance, employees in well-paid jobs and/or employees in the service industry may be required to make independent decision regarding there work and their relationship with clients. Hence, organization must consider elements of both education and training while planning there training programmes. Development refers to those learning opportunities designed to help employees grow.

Development is not primarily skill-oriented. Instead, it provides general knowledge and attitudes which will be helpful to employees in higher positions. Efforts towards development often depend on personal drive and ambition. Development activities, such as those supplied by management developmental programmes, are generally voluntary. To bring the distinction among training, education and development into sharp focus, it may be stated that “training is offered to operatives”, whereas “developmental programmes are meant for employees in higher positions”. Education however is common to all the employees, there grades notwithstanding. AIMS/OBJECTIVES OF TRAINING & DEVELOPMENT

The fundamental aim of training is to help the organization achieve its purpose by adding value to its key resource – the people it employs. Training means investing in the people to enable them to perform better and to empower them to make the best use of their natural abilities. The particular objectives of training are to: • Develop the competences of employees and improve their performance; • Help people to grow within the organization in order that, as far as possible, its future needs for human resource can be met from within; • Reduce the learning time for employees starting in new jobs on appointment, transfers or promotion, and ensure that they become fully competent as quickly and economically as possible. INPUTS IN TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENTS

Any training and development programme must contain inputs which enable the participants to gain skills, learn theoretical concepts and help acquire vision to look into distant future. In addition to these, there is a need to impart ethical orientation, emphasize on attitudinal changes and stress upon decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Skills Training, as was stated earlier, is imparting skills to employees. A worker needs skills to operate machines, and use other equipments with least damage or scrap. This is a basic skill without which the operator will not be able to function. There is also the need for motor skills. Motor skills refer to performance of specific physical activities.

These skills involve training to move various parts of one’s body in response to certain external and internal stimuli. Common motor skills include walking, riding a bicycle, tying a shoelace, throwing a ball and driving a car. Motor skills are needed for all employees – from the clerk to the general manager. Employees, particularly supervisors and executives, need interpersonal skills popular known as the people skills. Interpersonal skills are needed to understand one self and others better, and act accordingly. Examples of interpersonal skills include listening, persuading, and showing an understanding of others’ feelings. Education The purpose of education is to teach theoretical concepts and develop a sense of reasoning and judgement.

That any training and development programme must contain an element of education is well understood by HR specialist. Any such programme has university professors as resource persons to enlighten participants about theoretical knowledge of the topic proposed to be discussed. In fact organizations depute or encourage employees to do courses on a part time basis. Chief Executive Officers (CEO’s) are known to attend refresher courses conducted by business schools. Education is important for managers and executives than for lower-cadre workers. Development Another component of a training and development is development which is less skill oriented but stressed on knowledge.

Knowledge about business environment, management principles and techniques, human relations, specific industry analysis and the like is useful for better management of the company. Ethics There is need for imparting greater ethical orientation to a training and development programme. There is no denial of the fact that ethics are largely ignored in businesses. Unethical practices abound in marketing, finance and production function in an organization. They are less see and talked about in the personnel function. If the production, finance and marketing personnel indulge in unethical practices the fault rests on the HR manager. It is his/her duty to enlighten all the employees in the organization about the need of ethical behavior. Exhibit # 1 White Collar Crimes | | | |The findings of the KPMG’s fraud survey for 1998, confirm the prevalence of white collar crimes in corporate India. The survey has | |pegged the loss due to delinquencies at Rs. 200 crores but KPMG feels that it is only the tip of the iceberg. According to the | |study, 66% of the respondents feel that the frauds will increase. | | | |Respondents have cited kickbacks and expenses accounts as the most frequent types of internal frauds, and patent infringements, | |false representation and secret commissions as the most favored external crimes.

Among management frauds, window dressing of | |balance sheets is the hot favorite followed by more creative ones like fudging MIS and giving wrong information. | Attitudinal Changes Attitudes represent feeling and beliefs of individuals towards others. Attitude affects motivation, satisfaction and job commitment. Negative attitudes need to be converted into positive attitudes. Changing negative attitudes is difficult because – 1. Employees refuse to changes 2. They have prior commitments 3. And information needed to change attitudes may not be sufficient Nevertheless, attitude must be changed so that employees feel committed to the organization, are motivated for better performance, and derive satisfaction from there jobs and the work environment

Decisions Making and Problem Solving Skills Decision making skill and problem solving skills focus on method and techniques for making organizational decisions and solving work-related problems. Learning related to decision-making and problem-solving skills seeks to improve trainees’ abilities to define structure problems, collect and analysis information, generate alternative solution and make an optimal decision among alternatives. Training of this type is typically provided to potential managers, supervisors and professionals. |Exhibit # 2 Training inputs at HLL | | |The training and development affords at HLL are designed to develop the following: | |Helping employees satisfy personal goals through higher level of skills and competencies | |Facilitating higher contribution at there present jobs and preparing them for the next level of responsibilities | |Developing individuals and teams to meet the total needs of the organization | TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AS SOURCE OF COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE Companies derive competitive advantage from training and development. Training and development programmes, as was pointed out earlier, help remove performance deficiencies in employee.

This is particularly true when – (1) the deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation to perform, (2) the individual(s) involved have the aptitude and motivation need to learn to do the job better, and (3) supervisors and peers are supportive of the desired behaviors. Training & Development offers competitive advantage to a firm by removing performance deficiencies; making employees stay long; minimized accidents, scraps and damage; and meeting future employee needs. There is greater stability, flexibility, and capacity for growth in an organization. Training contributes to employee stability in at least two ways.

Employees become efficient after undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of the organization. Growth renders stability to the workforce. Further, trained employees tend to stay with the organization. They seldom leave the company. Training makes the employees versatile in operations. All rounders can be transferred to any job. Flexibility is therefore ensured. Growth indicates prosperity, which is reflected in increased profits from year to year. Who else but well-trained employees can contribute to the prosperity of an enterprise? Accidents, scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training.

Even dissatisfaction, complaints, absenteeism, and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Organizations take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. They are absorbed after course completion. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. A company’s training and development pays dividends to the employee and the organization. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits, the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge.

At the same time, the employee’s personal and career goals are furthered, generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. Ultimately, the objectives of the HR department are also furthered. The Benefits of Employee Training How Training Benefits the Organization: • Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes towards profit orientation. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization • Improves the morale of the workforce • Helps people identify with organizational goals • Helps create a better corporate image • Fosters authenticity, openness and trust • Improves relationship between boss and subordinate Aids in organizational development • learns from the trainee • Helps prepare guidelines for work • Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies. • Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization • Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills • Aids in development for promotion from within • Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually display • Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work • Helps keep costs down in many areas, e. g. production, personnel, administration, etc. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent and knowledgeable • Improves Labour-management relations • Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal consultation • Stimulates preventive management as opposed to putting out fires • Eliminates suboptimal behavior (such as hiding tools) • Creates an appropriate climate for growth, communication • Aids in improving organizational communication • Helps employees adjust to change • Aids in handling conflict, thereby helping to prevent stress and tension. Benefits to the Individual Which in Turn Ultimately Should Benefit the Organization: Helps the individual in making better decisions and effective problem solving • Through training and development, motivational variables of recognition, achievement, growth, responsibility and advancement are internalized and operationalised • Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and self-confidence • Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflict • Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge, communication skills and attitudes • Increases job satisfaction and recognition • Moves a person towards personal goals while improving interactive skills • Satisfies personal needs of the trainer (and trainee) • Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and a say in his/her own future • Develops a sense of growth in learning • Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills; also writing skills when exercises are required. Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks Benefits in Personnel and Human Relations, Intra-group & Inter-group Relations and Policy Implementation: Improves communication between groups and individuals: • Aids in orientation for new employee and those taking new jobs through transfer or promotion • Provides information on equal opportunity and affirmative action • Provides information on other government laws and administrative policies • Improves interpersonal skills. • Makes organizational policies, rules and regulations viable. • Improves morale • Builds cohesiveness in groups • Provides a good climate for learning, growth, and co-ordination • Makes the organization a better place to work and live THE TRAINING PROCESS Figure #1 below outline important steps in a typical training process. [pic] The Training Process NEED ASSESSMENT Needs assessment diagnoses present problems and future challenges to be met through training and development. Organizations spend vast sums of money (usually as a percentage on turnover) on training and development.

Before committing such huge resources, organizations would do well to the training needs of their employees. Organizations that implement training programmes without conducting needs assessment may be making errors. For example, a needs assessment exercise reveal that less costly interventions (e. g. selection, compensation package, job redesign) could be used in lieu of training. Needs assessment occurs at two levels-group and individual. An individual obviously needs when his or her performance falls short of standards, that is, when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem.

The problem of performance deficiency caused by absence of skills or knowledge can be remedied by training. Faulty selection, poor job design, uninspiring supervision or some personal problem may also result in poor performance. Transfer, job redesign, improving quality of supervision, or discharge will solve the problem. Figure below illustrates the assessment of individual training needs and remedial measures. Figure #2 Needs Assessment and Remedial Measures Assessment of training needs must also focus on anticipated skills of an employee. Technology changes fast and new technology demands new skills. It is necessary that the employee be acquire new skills.

This will help him/her to progress in his or her career path. Training and development is essential to prepare the employee to handle more challenging tasks. Deputation to a part-time MBA programme is ideal to train and develop such employees. Individuals may also require new skills because of possible job transfers. Although job transfer common as organizational personnel demands vary, they do not necessarily require training efforts. Employees commonly require only an orientation to new facilities and jobs. Recently however, economic forces have necessitated significant retraining efforts in order to assure continued employment for many individuals.

Jobs have disappeared as technology, foreign competition, and the forces of supply and demand are changing the face of our industry. Assessment of training needs occurs at the group level too. Any change in the organizations strategy necessitates training of groups of employees. For example, when the organization decide to introduce a new line of products, sales personnel and production workers have to be trained to produce, sell and service the new products. Training can also be used when high scrap or accident rates, low morale and motivation, or other problems are diagnosed. Although training is not all, such undesirable happenings reflect poorly-trained workforce.

Needs assessment methods How are training needs assessed? Several methods are available for the purpose. As shown in the below table, some are useful for organizational-level needs assessment others for individual needs assessment [pic] Issue in Needs assessment Needs assessment, individual or group, should consider several issues as shown in Fig. #1 Organizational Support: Needs assessment is likely to make inroads into organizational life. The assessment tends to change patterns of behavior of employees. When the needs assessment is carefully designed and supported by the organization, disruption is minimized and co-operation is much more likely to occur.

Obviously, the analyst needs to take steps to work effectively with all parties and gain the trust and support of the participants in the needs assessment. Organizational Analysis: Having obtained organizational support, the next step in the needs assessment is an organizational analysis, which seeks to examine the goals of the organization (short-term and long-term), and the trends that are likely to affect these goals. The analyst needs to ask and answer the following questions: • Is there a sufficient supply of people? • How does the firm attract, retain and motivate diverse work-force? • How does the firm compete for individuals with the right skills, knowledge abilities and attitudes? • How do employees make the firm competitive, domestically and internationally? Which are the target jobs that require training? These issues enable the analyst identify skill gaps in people, which training seeks to fill. |Organizational analysis seeks to examine the goals of the organization and| |the trends that are likely to affect these goals. | Task and KSA Analysis In addition to obtaining organizational support and making organizational analysis, it is necessary to assess and identify what tasks are needed on each job and which knowledge, skills and abilities (KSAs) are necessary to perform these tasks. This assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the KSAs to be achieved upon completion of the training programme.

Person Analysis: This analysis obliviously targets individual employees. A very important aspect of person analysis is to determine which necessary KSAs have already been learnt by the prospective trainee so that precious training time is not wasted repeating what has already been acquired. Also, employed who need to undergo training are identified at this stage. Benefit of Needs Assessment Training programmes are designed to achieve specific goals that meet felt needs. There is always the temptation to begin training without a thorough analysis of these needs. Should this happen, the training programme becomes inappropriate and its administration turn to be perfunctory.

There are other benefits of needs assessment are other benefits of needs assessment: 1. Trainers may be informed about the broader needs of the trainees. 2. Trainers are able to pitch their course inputs closer to the specific needs of the trainees. 3. Assessment makes training department more accountable and more clearly linked to other human resource activities, which may make the training programme easier to sell to line manager. Consequences of Absence of Training Needs Assessment The significance of needs assessment can be better understood by looking at the consequence of inadequate or absence of needs assessment. Failure to conduct needs assessment can contribute to: • Loss of business Constraints on business development • Higher labor turnover • Poorer-quality applicants • Increased overtime working • Higher rates of pay, overtime premiums and supplements • Higher recruitment costs, including advertising, time and incentives • Greater pressure and stress on management and staff to provide cover. • Pressure on job-evaluation schemes, grading structures, payment system and career structure • Additional retention costs in the form of flexible working time, job sharing, part time working, shift working, etc. • Need for job redesign and revision of job specifications • Undermining career paths and structures • Higher training costs

Deriving Instructional Objectives The next phase in the training process is to identify instructional objectives. Needs assessment helps prepare a blueprint that describes the objectives to be achieved by the trainee upon completion of the training programme. Instructional objectives provide the input for designing the training programme as well as for the measures of success (criteria) that would help assess effectiveness of the training programme. Below are some sample instructional objectives for a training programme with sales people. • After training, the employee will be able to smile at all customers even when exhausted or ill unless the customer is irate. After training, the employee will be able to accurately calculate mark down on all sales merchandise. Designing Training and Development Programme Every training and development programme must address certain vital issues (1) who participate in the programme? (2) Who are the trainers? (3) What methods and techniques are to be used for training? (4) What should be the level of training? (5) What learning principles are needed? (6) Where is the programme conducted? [pic] Fig #3 Steps in training Programme Who are the Trainees? Trainees should be selected on the basis of self nomination, recommendations of supervisors or by the HR department itself. Whatever is the basis, it is advisable to have two or more target audiences.

For example, rank-and-file employees and their supervisors may effectively learn together about a new work process and their respective roles. Bringing several target audience together can also facilitate group processes such as problem solving and decision making, elements useful in quality circle projects. Who are the Trainers? Training and development programmes may be conducted by several people, including the following: 1. Immediate supervisors, 2. Co-workers, as in buddy systems, 3. Members of the personnel staff, 4. Specialists in other parts of the company, 5. Outside consultants, 6. Industry associations, and 7. Faculty members at universities. Who among these are selected to teach, often, depends on where the programme is held and the skill that is being taught.

For example, programmes teaching basic skills are usually done by the members of the HR department or specialists in other departments of the company. On the other hand, interpersonal and conceptual skills for managers are taught at universities. Large organizations generally maintain their own training departments whose staff conducts the programmes. In addition, many organizations arrange basic-skills training for computer literacy. Methods and Techniques of Training: A multitude of methods of training are used to train employees. The most commonly used methods are shown in Table #2. Table #2 lists the various training methods and presents a summary of the most frequent uses to which these methods are put.

As can be seen from Table #2, training methods are categorized into two groups-{I) on-the-job and (ii) off-the-job methods. On-the-job methods refer to methods that are applied in the workplace, while the employee is actually working. Off-the-job methods are used away from workplaces. Training techniques represent the medium of imparting skills and knowledge to employees. Obviously, training techniques are the means employed in the training methods. Among the most commonly used techniques are lectures, films, audio cassettes, case studies, role playing, video-tapes and simulations. Table #3 presents the list of training techniques along with their ranking based on effectiveness. The higher the ranking (1 is the highest rank), the more effective the technique is. Table # 3 Training Methods and the Activities for which they are used | | |Orienting New |Special Skills |Safety Education |Creative, Technical & |Sales, Administrative, | | |Employees, |Training | |Professional Education|Supervisory & Managerial | | |Introducing, | | | |Education | | |Innovations In | | | | | | |Products & Services | | | | | | |1 |2 |3 |4 |5 | |A.

On the Job Training | | | | | | |Orientation Training |Y |N |N |N |N | |Job instruction |Y |Y |N |N |N | |training | | | | | | |Apprentice training |Y |Y |N |N |N | |Internships & |N |y |N |Y |Y | |Assistantship | | | | | | |Job Rotation |Y |N |N |N |Y | |Coaching |N |Y |Y |Y |Y | | | | | | | | |B.

Off the Job Methods | | | | | | |Vestibule |Y |Y |N |N |N | |Lecture |Y |Y |Y |Y |Y | |Special Study |Y |Y |Y |Y |Y | |Films |Y |Y |Y |Y |Y | |Televisions |Y |Y |Y |Y |Y | |Conference or |Y |N |Y |Y |Y | |Discussion | | | | | | |Case Study |N |N |N |N |Y | |Role Playing |N |N |N |Y |N | |Simulation |Y |Y |Y |Y |N | |Programmed Instructions|Y |Y |Y |Y |3 | |Laboratory training |N |N |3 |3 |N | Y=Yes; N-No At this point, it is worthwhile to elaborate on important techniques of training.

We explain the following-lectures, audio-visuals, on-the-job training, programmed instruction, computer aided instruction, simulation and sensitivity training. Lectures: Lecture is a verbal presentation of information by an instructor to a large audience. The lecturer is presumed to possess a considerable depth of knowledge of the subject at hand. A virtue of this method is that is can be used for very large groups, and hence the cost per trainee is low. This method is mainly used in colleges and universities, though its application is restricted in training factory employees. (See Table #3) [pic] Limitations of the lecture method account for its low popularity. The method violates the principle of learning by practice. It constitutes a one-way communication.

There is no feedback from the audience.. Continued lecturing is likely to bore the audience. To break the boredom, the lecturer often resorts to anecdotes, jokes and other attention-getters. This activity may eventually overshadow the real purpose of instruction. However, the lecture method can be made effective it if is combined other methods of training. Audio-visual: Visuals Audio-visuals include television slides, overheads, video-types and films. These can be used to provide a wide range of realistic examples of job conditions and situations in the condensed period of time. Further, the quality of the presentation can be controlled and will remain equal for all training group.

But, audio-visuals constitute a one-way system of communication with no scope for the audience to raise doubts for clarification. Further, there is no flexibility of presentation from audience to audience. On the job Training (OJT) Majority of industrial training is of the on-the-job-training type. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. Often, it is informal, as when an experienced worker shows a trainee how to perform the job tasks. OJT has advantages. It is the most effective method as the trainee learns by experience, making him or her highly competent. Further, the method is least expensive since no formal training is organized.

The trainee is highly motivated to learn he or she is aware of the fact that his or her success on the job depends on the training received. Finally, the training is free from an artificial situation of a classroom. This contributes to the effectiveness of the programme. OJT suffers form certain demerits as well. The experienced employee may lack experience or inclination to train the juniors. The training programme itself is not systematically organized. In addition, a poorly conducted OJT programme is likely. to create safety hazards, result in damaged products or materials, and bring unnecessary stress to the trainees. OJT is conducted at the work site and in the context of the job. It is, much time, informal. An experienced worker shows a trainee how to work on the job.

Programmed Instruction (PI) This is a method where training is offered without the intervention of a trainer. Information is provided to the trainee in blocks, either in a book of thought a teaching machine. After reading each block of material, the learner must answer a question about it. Feedback in the form of correct answers is provided after each response. Thus, programmed instruction (PI) involves: 1. Presenting questions, facts, or problems to the learner 2. Allowing the person to respond 3. Providing feedback on the accuracy of his or her answers 4. If the answers are correct, the learner proceeds to the next block. If not, he or she repeats the same.

The main advantage of PI is that it is self-paced-trainees can progress through the programme at their own speed. Strong motivation is provided to the learner to repeat learning. Material is also structured and self-contained, offering much scope for practice. The disadvantages are not to be ignored. The scope for learning is less, compared to other methods of training. Cost of preparing books, manuals and machinery is considerably high. Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) This is an extension of the PI method. The speed memory and data-manipulation capabilities of the computer permit greater utilization of basic PI concept. For example, the learner’s response may determine the frequency and difficulty level of the next frame.

CAI is an improved system when compared to the PI method, in at least three respects. First, CAI provides for accountability as tests are taken on the computer so that the management can monitor each trainee’s progress and needs. Second, a CAI training programme can also be modified easily to reflect technological innovations in the equipment for which the employee is being trained. Third, this training also tends to be more flexible in that trainees can usually use the computer almost any time they want, and thus get training when they prefer. Not to be ignored is the fact that from CAI is as rich and colorful as modem electronic games, complete with audio instruction displays.

A deterrent with regard to CAI is its high cost, but repeated use may justify the cost. Simulation: A simulator is any kind of equipment or technique that duplicates as nearly as possible the actual conditions encountered on the job. Simulation then, is an attempt to create a realistic decision-making environment for the trainee. Simulations present likely problem situation and alternatives to the trainee. For example, activities of an organization may be simulated and the trainee may be asked to make a decision in support to those activities. The results of those decisions are reported back to the trainee with an explanation of what would have happened had they actually made in the workplace.

The trainee learns from this feedback and improves his/her subsequent simulation and workplace decisions. The more widely held simulation exercises are case study, role playing and vestibu1 training. Case Study: is a written description of an actual situation in business which provokes, in the reader, the need to decide what is going on, what the situation really is or what the problems are, and what can and should be done. Taken from the actual experiences of organizations, these cases represent to describe, as accurately as possible, real problems that managers have faced. Trainee studies the cases to determine problems, analyses causes, develop alternative solutions, select the best one, and implement it.

Case study can provide stimulating discussions among participants as well as excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and judgment abilities. It appears to be an ideal method to promote decision-making abilities within the constraints of limited data. Role playing: generally focuses on emotional (mainly human relations) issues rather than actual ones. The essence of role playing is to create a realistic situation, as in case study, and then have the trainee assume the parts of specific personalities in the situation. For example, a male worker may assume the role of a female supervisor, and the supervisor may assume the role of a male worker.

Then, both may be given a typical work situation and asked to respond as they expect others to do. The consequences are a better understanding among individuals. Role playing helps promote interpersonal relation. Attitude change is another result of role playing. Case study and role playing are used in MDPs Vestibule Training: utilizes equipment which closely resembles the actual ones used on the job. However, training takes place away from the work environment. A special area or a room is set aside from the main production area and is equipped with furnishings similar to those found in the actual production area. The trainee is then permitted to learn under simulated conditions, without disrupting ongoing operations.

A primary advantage of vestibule training it relieves the employee from the pressure of having to produce while learning. The emphasis is on learning skills required by the job. Of course, the cost of duplicate facilities and a special trainer is an obvious disadvantage. The advantage of simulation is the opportunity to ‘create an environment’ similar to real situations the manager incurs, but without the high costs involved should the actions prove undesirable. The disadvantage is (i) it is difficult to duplicate the pressures and realities of actual decision-making non the job and (ii) individuals often act differently in real-life situations than they do in acting out a simulated exercise.

Sensitivity Training: Sensitivity training uses small numbers of trainees, usually fewer than 12 in a Group. They meet with a passive trainer and gain insight into their own and others’ behavior. Meeting have no agenda, are held away from workplaces, and questions deal with the ‘here and now’ of the group process. Discussions focus on ‘why participants behave as they do, how they perceive one another, and the feelings and emotions generated in the interaction process. The objectives of sensitivity training are to provide the participants with increased awareness of their own behavior and how others perceive them-greater sensitivity to the behavior of others, and increased understanding of group’s processes.

Specific results sought include increased ability to empathize with other, improved listening skills, greater openness, increased tolerance of individual difference and increased conflict-resolution skills. The drawback of this method is that once the training is over, the participants are themselves again and they resort to their old habits. Sensitivity training can go by a variety of names-laboratory training, encounter groups, or T- groups (training groups). Table 9. 9 shows some more techniques of training. |Exhibit # 3 Training goes Techno-Savvy | | | |In today’s electronic world, the World Wide Web (WWW) is all pervasive.

The internet and intranet are changing the face of training| |and learning. Using a PC, a modem and a web browser, it has become possible to learn online. | | | |Web-based courses through distance learning are virtual. An employee can simply connect to the Internet study the syllabus options | |available, and enroll for the courses electronically. He or she can then receive a. course work online and even take tests and | |advance to the next level-all from his or her own house. | | | |Global giants like Motorola and Ford Motor are reaping the benefits of virtual learning.

Employees of Motorola have access of | |self-paced computer based training (CBT) material through the firm’s Intranet Motorola offers nearly one hundred online courses, | |mostly in information technology. | | | |Virtual learning presents its own challenges. The biggest being an infrastructure to connect the entire organization across the | |seven seas. Web servers, ISDN lines, laptops, and personnel computers are the basic requisites. But these facilities will payoff in| |the long-run. Firms investing in virtual learning technologies can slash their training budgets by 30 to 50 per cent | | | |Learning through the web can be very convenient for’ employees.

There are no fixed schedules or limitations of time. One can attend| |the course at home, in the evening when one is at leisure, or while traveling to work. The learners do not have to depend on the | |trainer’s availability. | | | |It is not just the technical programs: soft skills can also be learnt electronically. One firm used a CDROM manual to impart | |soft-skills like performance management, coaching, and interviewing skills. The CDROM based training was supplemented with shared | |learning via teleconferencing, where managers discussed key learning’s and asked for clarifications.

Face to face, role-playing | |exercises were added for the human touch. | | | |One advantage of computer-based soft-skills training is that it helps maintain anonymity in situations that may be discomforting | |for trainees. For example, role-playing exercises, may call for sharing personal information with strangers. This can be avoided in| |a virtual-learning setting, till the time the learner becomes more open and flexible. | | | |It reads like who is who in using virtual learning. Motorola and Ford are only the two. There are others too.

IBM, for example, has| |a virtual university, IBM Global Campus, to provide its employees continuous skills-driven-Learning opportunities via the corporate| |intranet across the globe. | | | |Federal Express has turned to interactive multimedia for a more effective training system. Employees have the facility to get | |training via personnel computers during regular working hours at any time convenient to them. | | | |Texas Instrument has been using satellite-based and CBT for a long time. The firm’s satellite broadcast links employees in | |countries all over the world, including Germany, Italy, France, England, Japan, and India. | | |Boeing delivers interactive training to its 22,000 managers globally through a communication service that uses the satellite | |broadcast technology. One application of the service was a short strategic planning skills course for employees in Boeing offices | |in US, Japan, Australia, and Western Europe. The course participants viewed the workshops on monitors in corporate conference rooms| |as well as on large-screen video-projection equipment in auditoriums. The online training was supplemented with small-group work | |with a site facilitator, presentations via satellite from Boeing experts, workbook exercises, and audio interaction with | |instructors. Boeing reported savings of $ 9 million in travel costs alone. | Table #5 Techniques of Training | |Technique |Description | |Ice Breakers |Games to get team members know each other | |Leading Games |Exercise to each different styles of leadership | |Skill Games |Test to develop analytical skills | |Communication Games |Exercise to build bias free listening and talking | |Strategic planners |Games to test ability to plan ahead | |Team building games |Exercise requiring collaborative effort | |Role reversal |Exercise to teach plurality of view | |Doubling |Bring out the ideas that are not often expressed | |Tag Teams |One role played alternately by two participant | |Mirroring |Training with external perspective | |Monodrama |Insight into a given interaction | |Shifting physical position |highlighting of communication problems | |Structured role playing |Role play with predetermined objective | |Multiple role playing |Providing a common focus of discussion | |Built-in-tension |Teaching the importance of resolving matter | |Shadowing |Working under a senior to watch and learn |Outward bound training |Adventure sports for teams | |9 + 1 + 23 |Self-assessment by a leader of leadership skills | |Lateral Thinking |Thinking randomly to come up with new ideas | |Morphological Analysis |Listing of alternative solution to problems | |Gordon Technique |Steering a discussion to crystallize solutions | |Attribute Listening |Isolation, selection and evaluation of a problem | |Cross-Cultural Training |Programmes to tech specifics of varied cultures | What should be the Level of Learning? The next question in designing training and development programme is to decide on the level of learning. As was pointed out earlier, the inputs passed on to trainees in training and development programmes are education, skills, and the like. In addition, there are three basic levels at which these inputs can be taught.

At the lowest level, the employee or potential employee must acquire fundamental knowledge. This means developing a basic understanding of a field and becoming acquainted with the language, concepts and relationships involved in it. The goal of the next level is skills development, or acquiring the ability to perform in a particular skill area. The highest level aims at increased operational proficiency. This involves obtaining additional experience and improving skills that have already been developed. 34 All the inputs of training can be offered at the three levels. How effectively they are learned depends on several principles of learning.

Learning Principles: Training and development programmes are more likely to be effective when they incorporate the following principles of learning: 1. Employee motivation, 2. Recognition of individual differences, 3. Practice opportunities, 4. Reinforcement, 5. Knowledge of results (feedback), 6. Goals 7. Schedules of learning, 8. Meaning of material, and 9. Transfer of learning. Motivation to learn is the basic requisite to make training and development programmes effective. Motivation comes from awareness that training fetches some rise in status and pay. Motivation alone is not enough. The individual must have the ability to learn. Ability varies from individual to individual and this difference must be considered while organizing training programmes.

Regardless of individual differences and whether a trainee is learning a new skill or acquiring knowledge of a given topic, the trainee should be given the opportunity to practice what is being taught. Practice is also essential after the individual has been successfully trained. It is almost impossible to find a professional cricket player who does not practice for several hours a day. Practice can be a form of positive reinforcement. Reinforcement may be understood as anything that (i) increases the strength of response and (ii) tends to induce repetitions of the behavior that preceded the reinforcement. Distinction may be made between positive reinforcement and negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement strengthens and increases behavior by the presentation of desirable consequences.

The reinforcement (event) consists of a positive experience for the individual. In more general terms, we often say that positive reinforcement consists of rewards for the individual and, when presented, contingent upon behavior, tends to increase the probability that the behavior will be repeated. For example, if an employee does something well and is complimented by the boss, the probability that the behavior will be repeated will be strengthened. In negative reinforcement, the individual exhibits the desired behavior to avoid something unpleasant. An example might by an employee who does something to avoid incurring a reprimand from his or her boss.

If an employee who had the habit of coming late to work, assuming this as an unpleasant experience, the employee might begin to come on time to avoid criticism. Thus, the effect of negative reinforcement is avoidance of learning. Knowledge of results is a necessary condition for learning. Feedback about the performance will enable the learner to know where he or she stands and to initiate corrective action if any deviation from the expected goal has taken place. There are certain tasks for which such feedback is virtually mandatory for learning. A crane operator, for example, would have trouble learning to manipulate the controls without knowing how the crane responds to control actions.

Goal setting can also accelerate learning, particularly when it is accompanied by knowledge of results. Individuals generally perform better and learn more quickly when they have goals, particularly if the goals are specific and reasonably difficult. Goals that are too difficult or too easy have little motivational value. 37 further, goals will have better motivational value if the employee has a scope for participation in the goal-setting process. Probably one of the most well-established principles of learning is that distributed or spaced learning is superior to continuous learning. This is true for both simple laboratory tasks and for highly complex ones.

Schedules of learning involve (i) duration of practice sessions, (ii) duration of rest sessions, and (ill) positioning of rest pauses. All the three must be carefully planned and executed. A definite relationship has been established between learning and meaningfulness of the subject learnt. The more meaningful the material, the better is the learning process. What is learnt in training must be transferred to the job. The traditional approach to transfer has been to maximize the identical elements between the training situation and the actual job. This may be possible for training skills such as maintaining a cash register, but not for teaching leadership or conceptual skills.

Often, what is learned in a training session faces resistance back at the job. Techniques for overcoming resistance include creating positive expectations on the part of trainee’s supervisor, creating opportunities to implement new behavior on the job, and ensuring that the behavior is reinforced when it occurs. Commitment from the top management to the training programme also helps in overcoming resistance to change. Though, it is desirable that a training and development programme incorporates all these principles, seldom is such a combination effected in practice. Conduct of Training: A final consideration is where the training and development programme is to be conducted.

Actually, the decision comes down to the following choices: 1. At the job itself 2. On site but not the job-for example, in a training room in the company 3. Off the site, such as in a university or college classroom, hotel, a resort, or a conference centres Typically, basic skills are taught at the job, and basic grammar skills are taught on the site. Much of interpersonal and conceptual skills are learnt off the site. Implementation of the Training Programme: Once the training programme has been designed, it needs to be implemented. Implementation is beset with certain problems. In the first place, most managers are action-oriented and frequently say they are too busy to engage in training efforts.

Secondly, availability of trainers is a problem. In addition to possessing communication skills, the trainers must know the company’s philosophy, its objectives, its formal and informal organizations, and the goals of the training programme. Training and development requires a higher degree of creativity than, perhaps, any other personnel specialty. Scheduling training around the present work is another problem. How to schedule training without disrupting the regular work? There is also the problem of record keeping about the performance of a trainee during his or her training period. This information may be useful to evaluate the progress of the trainee in the company.

Programme implementation involves action on the following lines: 1. Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities. 2. Scheduling the training programme 3. Conducting the programme 4. Monitoring the progress of trainees. Evaluation of the Programme: The last stage in the training and development process is the evaluation of results (see Fig. #1). Since huge sums of money are spent on training and development, how far the programme has been useful must be judged/determined. Evaluation helps determine the results of the training and development programme. In practice, however, organizations either overlook or lack facilities for evaluation.

Need for Evaluation: The main objective of evaluating the training programmes is to determine if they are accomplishing specific training objectives, that are, correcting performance deficiencies. A second reason for evaluation is to ensure that any changes in trainee capabilities are due to the training programme and not due to any other conditions. Training programmes should be evaluated to determine their cost effectiveness. Evaluation is useful to explain programme failure, should finally, credibility of training and development is greatly enhanced when it is proved that the organization has benefited tangibly from it. Principles of Evaluation: Evaluation of the training programme must be based on the principles: 1.

Evaluation specialist must be clear about the goals and purposes of evaluation. 2. Evaluation must be continuous. 3. Evaluation must be specific. 4. Evaluation must provide the means and focus for trainers to be able to appraise themselves, their practices, and their products. 5. Evaluation must be based on objective methods and standards. 6. Realistic target dates must be set for each phase of the evaluation process. A sense of urgency must be developed, but deadlines that are unreasonably high will result in poor evaluation Criteria for Evaluation: The last column in Fig. 9. 1 contains a number of potential goals 1. Training validity: Did the trainees learn during training? 2.

Transfer validity: What has been learnt in training, has it been transferred on the job enhanced performance in the work organization? 3. Intra-organizational validity: Is performance of the new group of trainees, for which the training programme was developed, consistent with the performance of the original training group? 4. Inter-organizational validity: Can a training programme validated in one organization be used successfully in another organization? These questions often result in different evaluation techniques. Techniques of Evaluation: Several techniques of evaluation are being used in organization may be stated that the usefulness of the methods is inversely proportional to the ease with which evaluation can be done.

One approach towards evaluation is to use experimental and control groups. Each group is randomly selected, one to receive training (experimental) and the other not to receive training (control). The random selection helps to assure the formation of groups quite similar to each other. Measures are taken of the relevant indicators of success (e. g. words typed per minute, quality pieces produced per hour, wires attached per minute) before and after training for both groups. If the gains demonstrated by the experimental groups are better than those by the control group, the training programme is labeled as successful. Another method of training evaluation involves longitudinal or time-series analysis.

Measures are taken before the programme begins and are continued during and after the programme is completed. These results are plotted on a graph to determine whether changes have occurred and remain as a result of the training effort. To further validate that change has occurred as a result of training and not due to some other variable, a control group may be included. One simple method of evaluation is to send a questionnaire to the trainees after the completion the programme to obtain their opinions about the programmes worth. Their opinions could through interviews. A variation of this method is to measure the knowledge and/or skills that employee possess at the commencement and completion of a training.

If the measurement reveals that the results after training are satisfactory, then the training may be taken as successful. In order to conduct a thorough evaluation of a training programme, it is important to assess the cost and benefits associated with the programme. This is a difficult task, but is useful in convincing the management about the usefulness of training. Some of the costs that should be measured for a training programme include needs assessment cost, salaries of training department staff, purchase of equipment (computers, videos, handouts), programme development costs, evaluation costs, trainers’ costs, rental facilities and trainee wages during the training period.

The benefits to be compared with the cost are rupee payback associated with the improvement in trainees’ performance, their behavioral change, and the longevity of the period during which the benefits would last Closed-loop System Referring to Figure #1, it may be observed that the model suggests that a training programme should be a closed-loop system in which the evaluation process provides for continual modification of the programme. The information may become available at several stages in the evaluation process. For example, an effective monitoring programme might show that the training programme has not been implemented as originally planned. In other instances, different conclusions might be supported by comparing data obtained from the evaluation of training.

In addition, even when the training programme achieves its stated objectives, there are always developments that can affect the programme, including the new training techniques or characteristics of trainees. Obviously, the development of training programme needs to be viewed as a continuously evolving process. E-LEARNING E-learning refers to the use of Internet or an organizational intranet to conduct training on-line. E-learning is becoming increasingly popular because of the large number of employees, who need training. Take Wipro, for example, out of its 17,500 employees, 2,500 are on site and 15,000 employees are in off-shore centers at Bangalore, Hyderabad, Chennai, Pune and Delhi.

How to organize training for all these? Wipro also has a policy of subjecting any employee for a two-week training every year. E-learning helps Wipro considerably. Similarly, at Satyam nearly 80% of the 9,000 employees are logged into the in-house learning management system for various courses. Infosys has almost 10% of its total training through e-Learning. E-learning has come a long way from its early days when it was used extensively for technical education such as learning new languages and familiarization with new technologies. Today, firms are introducing soft skill modules as well. Satyam uses e-learning modules on management provided by Harvard Manage Mentor Plus.

Satyam has even tied up with Universitas 21-a consortium of 16 international universities and Thomson learning-for an on-line MBA. It is not that e-learning replaces traditional training system. In fact, e-learning becomes more effective when blended with traditional learning methods. Many firms use e-Learning as a prerequisite before classroom training popularly called blended training, a combination of electric learning with classroom approach. Routine training such as orientation, safety and regulation compliance is best handled in classrooms. Learning that requires discussion, tutoring and team-work can go on-line, though it might also stay in the classroom. Requisites for E-Learning: E-Learning does not simply mean putting existing ourses and materials on a website. Following requisites need to be provided before launching learning on-line: • Sufficient top management support and funding needs to be committed to develop and implement e-Learning • Managers and HR professionals need to be “retrained” to accept the idea that training is being decentralized and individualized. • Current training methods (compared to e-Learning) are not adequately meeting organizational training needs. • Potential learners are adequately computer literate and have ready access to computers and the Internet • Sufficient number of learners exists and many of them are self-motivated to direct their own learning.

Advantages and Disadvantages of E-Learning: E-Learning is advantageous in as much as it is self-paced, allows for consistency and incorporates built-in guidance and help. There are problems nevertheless. E-Learning tends to cause trainee anxiety, as many may not be ready to accept or have access to computers and In


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