1. Introduction of Study: Human Resource Development (HRD) at micro level or organizational level is a process by which employees of an organization are helped in systematic and continuous way to: Develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employees training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, succession planning, key employee identification, tuition assistance and organization development.
Human Resource Development (HRD) is a subject of national importance, with much more relevance from developed as well as developing countries. Of all the material and living resources “Human Resource” is the most crucial and difficult to tackle but of great importance. Without this resource, the countries development of physical / financial / technological resource is not possible. The aim of this study to describe, analyze and compare the operation of Human Resource Development in United Kingdom with Pakistan.
This study is a comparison of a two systems, developed country United Kingdom and developing country Pakistan. The focus will be on institutional pattern of Human Resources Development department in Pakistan and United Kingdom; their similarity or differences. In the present era of the 21st century, it is deemed imperative that management socialize there Human Resource in the culture of organization so that they could become efficient, dynamic and effective member for the organizational setup.
One of the best ways to socialize the work force is through training and development process. The present scenario all over the world indicates that the need of learning organization may have arisen by the emerging trends of creativity and revolutionary technology in the organizations. It is not important to be the best but also to stay the best, means, to maintain the quality within organization. Thus the practices of learning organization in terms of creativity, institutionalized learning, developing system thinking, proactive approach, leadership, learning from istake and risk taking have always been emphasized. Consequently, the human resource should become adaptive and capable to improve their skills and intellect from these re-educational programs. Further more, the accessibility of training opportunities to enhance the skills, employees, contentment with their jobs and better working condition results in improved moral, productivity and limited turn over rates. Background of the study:
Human Resource Development can be defined as a set of systematic and planned activities design by an organization to provide its members with the opportunities to learn necessary skills to meet current and future job demands. Learning is at the core of all hrd activities should begin when an employee joins an organization and continue throughout his or her career, regardless of whether that employee is an executive or a worker on an assembly line. Human Resource Development programs must respond to job changes and integrate the long-term plans and strategies of the organization to ensure the efficient and effective use of resources.
The Revolution Period of Human Resource Development: While the term “Human Recourse Development” has only been in common use since the 1980s, the concept has been around a lot longer than that. To understand its modern definition, it is helpful to briefly recount the history of this field. Apprenticeship training programs: The origins of Human Resource Development can be traced to apprenticeship training programs in the eighteenth century. During this time, small shops operated by skilled artisans produced virtually all house hold goods, such as furniture, clothing, and shoes.
Vocational school: In 1809, a man named Dewitt Clinton founded the first recognized privately, funded vocational school, also referred to as a manual school, in New York city the purpose of the manual school was to provide occupational training to unskilled young people who were unemployed or had criminal records. Manual schools grew in popularity. In 1917, congress passed the Smith-Hughes act, which recognized the value of vocational education by granting funds (initially $7 million annually) targeted for state programs in agricultural trades, home economics, industry, and teacher raining. Today, vocational instruction is an important part of each state’s public education system. The establishment of the training profession: With the out break of World War II, the industrial sector was one again asked to retool its factories to support the war effort. As had happen in World War I, this initiative lead to the establishment of new training programs with in larger organizations and unions. Emergence of human resource development: During the 1960s and 1970s professional trainers realized that their role extended beyond the training class room.
The move towards employee involvement in many organizations required trainers to coach and council employees. In the 1990s efforts were made to strengthen the strategic role of Human Resource Development, which is, how Human Resource Development links to and supports the goals and objectives of the organization. Components of Human Resource Development Training and development: Training and development focus on changing or improving the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of individuals.
Training typically involves providing employees the knowledge and skills needed to do a particular task or job, through attitude change may also be attempted (e. g. , in sexual harassment training). Developmental activities, in contrast, have a longer-term focus on preparing for future work responsibilities, while also increasing the capacities of employees to perform their current jobs. Human Resource Development Professionals are also responsible for coordinating management training and development programs to ensure that mangers and supervisors have the knowledge and skills necessary to be effective in their positions.
Organization development: Organization development is defined as the process of enhancing the effectiveness of an organization and the well-being of its members through planned interventions that apply behavioral science concepts. Organization development emphasizes both macro and micro organizational changes: are directed individuals, small groups, and teens. The role of Human Resource Development professional involved in an organization development intervention is to function as a change agent.
Career development: Career development is “an on going process by which individuals’ progress through a series of stages, each of which is characterize by a relatively unique set of issues, theme, and tasks. ” Career development involves two distinct processes: career planning and career management. Career planning involve activities perform by an individuals, often with the assistance of counselors and others, to assess his or her skills and abilities in order to establish a realistic career plan.
Strategic management and human resource development: Strategic management involves a set of managerial decisions and actions that are intended to provide a competitively superior fit with the external involvement and enhance the long-run performance of the organization. It involves several distinct process, incident strategy formulation, strategy implementation, and control. At the formulation level, top management must first assess the viability of the current mission, objectives, strategies, policies, programs, technology, workforce, and other resources.
Roles of Human Resource Development Professionals: The role of Human Resource Development Professionals has become more important and visible as organizations make the necessary transition to a global economy. One of the important tasks of the Human Resource Development Professionals is to promote the value of Human Resource Development as a means of insuring that organizational members have the competences to meet current and future job demands. A Human Resource Development Professionals must perform a wide variety of functional role.
A functional role is a specific set of task and expected outputs for a particular job. We will briefly discuss the role played by two types of Human Resource Development Professionals. Training or human resource development need: The concept of need typically refers to a discrepancy or gap between what an organization except to happen and what actually occurs. Identified need in the cense focus on correcting substandard performance. in some cases, an Human Resource Development intervention such as coaching and skills training may be necessary to correcting the discrepancy.
Some times an other Human Resource Management strategy (such as improving compensation or changing selection and recruiting practices) or an other management action may be more appropriate solutions. Understanding the learning process and how learning can be maximized are critical issues in designing and implementing Human Resource Development programs. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or cognitions that occurs as a result of one’s interaction with the environment. Trainee characteristics play a significant role in the learning rocess. Three trainee characteristics that affect the extent to which trainees learn are trainability, personality, and attitudes Organizational analysis: Needs assessment at the organization level is usually conducted by performing an organization analysis. Organization analysis is a process used to better understands the characteristics of the organizations to determine where training and Human Resource Development efforts are needed and the conditions with in which they will we conducted.
The Purpose of Human Resource Development Evaluation: Human Resource Development evaluation is defines as “the systematic collection of descriptive and judgmental information to necessary to make effective training decisions related to the selection, adoption, value, and modification of various instructional activities. ” The definition makes several important points. First, when conducting and evaluation, both descriptive and judgmental information may be collected.
Descriptive information provides a picture of what is happening or has happened, where judgmental information is communicates some opinion or believe about what has happened. Human Resource Development Professionals assist the Human Resource management in the design and development of the Human Resource systems that effects organizations performance. Outputs include Human Resource programs designs, intervention strategies, and implementation of Human Resource programs. Advices management in the design and implementation of change strategies used in transforming organization.
Identifies needs of learners, develops and design appropriate learning programs, and prepares material and other learning aids. 2. Statement of Problem: This topic will basically highlight the Human Resources Development Strategies in United Kingdom and Pakistan: A comparative and analytical study This study mainly seeks to address the comparative study of Human Resource Development in Pakistan & United Kingdom. The major quest is to determine the extent of effectiveness and efficiency of Human Resource
Development department in organizations. This research intends to explore the new methods and technologies of training and development for human resource specifically in Pakistan & United Kingdom. The research work aims at investigating the general profiles of organizations Human Resource Development Department in order to analysis the existing opportunities of training and development to their employees. In this context, the research study emphasis to investigate the result of these training and development to the Human resources.
Additionally, this thesis intends to analyze the extent to which organizations are using what type of training and developmental program to the skills of their employees. 3. Scope of Research: This research study is essentially a futuristic approach as it offers recommendations for the measures to adopt the modern approaches of training and development adopted by Human Resource development Department in organizations, its output Furthermore, this study analysis the awareness of human resource development department in organization and current trends of training methodology.
For this purpose these very important areas of society have been considered for the study. it is also find out where United kingdom Organizations is performing better then Pakistan one and highlight the gaps if any , for improving it future . There sectors in focus are education, hospital, bank. Where NED University of Engineering and Technology will be compared with ——–, Agha khan health hospital v/s ——–. These are backbone of modern society play a vital role in a society.
In these sectors the Human Resources are professional and need to grow their skills time to time as per international standards and hence there is scope for further improvement. • The scope of study is specifically extended to various views mentioned below. …. This paper reflects the quality of human resources plays a critical role in the success and failure of an economy • The research will provide a comparison of what kinds of Human Resource Department challenges are being faced by developed country and by developing country. Compare the Human Resource professionals ratio which will shows that one Human Resource Professional is managing a how many number of workforces in developed and developing countries selected organizations • This study will be affected to explore the major Human Resource challenges • The premature existence of Human Resource Development in the organizations is causing major hindrances in the development of Human Resource.
This study makes a valuable contribution to resolve these obstacles by focusing on the current situation of Human resources development • investigated of following human resource functions used in selected organizations. Recruitment, Selection and Placement, Training and Development, Management Development, Performance Appraisal, Employees Welfare and Rewards. • The research will provide a comparison of what kinds of Human Resource Department challenges are being faced by developed country and by developing country. • …..
This study enables to comprehends …. The paper is supportive in introducing …. The study encompassing …. The research study cover-up. The researches deeply examines the above mentioned aspects through comparative study of Human Resource development Department in Pakistan and Unite`d Kingdom 4. Objectives: The Human resource development establishes the bright horizon for the success and survival of employees in the today’s “Learning Organization”. The basic aim of this research study is to determine the role of Human Resource Development in organization.
The study intends to expound that improved effectiveness and efficiency of training and development boost up the skills of employees. The study covers various aspects of objectives which are described as follows 1. To carry put comparison and evaluation of Human resource Development of Pakistan & United Kingdom so that lesson drawn be used to fill in the gap of any 2. To evaluate the present / current status of selected organization in Pakistan and United Kingdom against the standards of efficient and effective leaders as revealed from the survey of the literature. . To identify the gap between the ideal excellent human resource development department and the actual human resource department 4. To make recommendations for improving human resource development department performance as a means of organizational productivity and quality of work life in Pakistan. • To identify the existence of Human Resource Development Department in selected organizations of United Kingdom and Pakistan • Role of Human Resource Development in organization • To explore the proactive role in respective organizations. To find out barriers faced in the organizations to run the Human Resource Development department. • Compare 2 organizations with Human Resource Development in the United Kingdom • Compare 2 organizations with Human Resource Development in the Pakistan • To find out detail details / qualification experience of Human Resource Development staff in the to countries • To explore the nature / duration of trainings provided to personal in the two countries. • To compare the performance of professionals in the two countries. To develop the recommendation for Human Resource Development department in organization of Pakistan. • To find out why an European organizations’ Human Resource Development department are formal and dedicated what role of development • To explore the role of the Human Resource Development department in economic development of a country. 5- Hypothesis of the study: This research study conducted to hypothesize different aspects relevant to the Human Resource Development comparative study of Pakistan and United Kingdom.
The paper would theorize the following aspects. • Organizations in developed countries do have Human Resource Development Departments? • In developed countries Human Resource Development Department play important role in development of organizations. • Most of the organizations in Pakistan Human Resource Development department not perform the proactive role. • Unawareness and lack of knowledge are the causes of failure of Human Resource Development department in organizations. • Human Resource Development department play a vital role in economy of country. In United Kingdom the Human Resource Development Department are formal and dedicated as compared to Pakistan. Definition of key terms: Human Resource Development: Human resource Development is the frameworks for helping employees develop their personal and organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Human Resource Development includes such opportunities as employee training, employee career development, performance management and development, coaching, succession planning, key employee identification, and organization development.
Organization: Structural frameworks which establish the basis for determining the responsibility authority and relationship pf the members of the enterprises organization design should address functions, coordination, authority, responsibility and accountability Human Resource Management: Human Resource Management is the function within an organization that focuses on recruitment, management, and the direction of the people in the organization.
Human Resources management is also performed by line managers ]Training and Development In the field of human resource management, training and development is the field concerned with organizational activity aimed at bettering the performance of individuals and groups in organizational settings. It has been known by several names, including employee development, human resource development, and learning and development