Humanoid Breast Phantom In Radiotherapy Biology Essay

The purpose of this survey is to manufacture Rhizophora spp. Particleboard humanoid chest apparition and compare it with perspex apparition, and H2O apparition in therapy scope by utilizing TLD and other sensors to find the dosage in apparition at different deepness in different type of apparition utilizing photon and negatron beam.

Fabricate Rhizophora spp atom board torso apparition of an grownup medium female and compare it with perspex apparition that fabricated by Dr Ahmad Alzoubi ( Alzoubi 2009 ) for the same female in USM labaratory in therapy scope.

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In radiation therapy, the term apparition is a tissue tantamount stuff used to mensurate the dose distribution alternatively of the patient to correlate the absorbed dose to the tissue.The primary apparition recommended for dosimetry is H2O apparition, but since it is non ever practical to execute dosimetric measurings in H2O medium, solid homogenous apparitions such as polystyrene, acrylic and apparitions made from proprietary stuffs have found considerable popularity ( Khan, 1994 ) .

The most late surveies were done on Rhizophora spp Phantom ( Tajuddin A.A et Al 1996, Tajuddin & A ; Banjade 2000 ) . Rhizophora spp is a genus of tropical trees which is hard to manage, to cut and determine due to it ‘s compact construction, heavy and strong in strength. While fabricated Rhizophora spp. Particle board can get the better of this job by being easy to manage, cut and determine into the needed size and form.

1.1 Literature reappraisal

Che Wan Sudin ( 1993 ) has studied the composing of Rhizophora spp, happening favorable composing between this medium and H2O. Further probe of this wood by Tajuddin et Al. ( 1996 ) , showed Rhizophora spp to hold similar sprinkling and radiographic belongingss to that of H2O and modified gum elastic. Eid ( 1999 ) measured dose distribution around brachytherapy beginnings, demoing for dose distributions around 137Cs and 192Ir beginnings, that there is general understanding between consequences for Rhizophora spp and H2O. In D.P. Banjade survey ( 2001 ) Rhizophora spp was evaluated as a H2O tantamount apparition medium for high energy photon and negatron beams both in footings of deepness ionisation and energy deposition. The depth-dose distributions in Rhizophora spp apparition have been found to be comparable with those for H2O, one exclusion being at deepnesss beyond Rt, for the 12MeV negatron beam.

Further survey of dose mapping techniques was done by D P Banjade et Al ( 2002 ) to look into the dose distribution throughout a planned mark volume ( PTV ) in a humanoid chest apparition exposed to a 6 MV photon beam.

1.2 Problem Statement

While fabricated Rhizophora spp was surveies by other research workers as noted in the literature reappraisal, but none of these surveies used this type of apparition in radiation therapy scope. Besides this survey will plan the fancied Rhizophora spp as humanoid chest apparition and torso apparition of an grownup medium female so that the hazard effects of radiation during chest malignant neoplastic disease radiation therapy intervention can be studied by mensurating the dosage in the lung, bosom and contralateral chest by utilizing this apparition. Furthermore, this survey will widen to analyze the dose function technique to look into the dose distribution throughout a planned mark volume ( PTV ) in a humanoid chest apparition exposed to a 6 MV photon beam.

1.3 Research Aims

The purposes of this survey are:

To manufacture Rhizophora spp. Particle board as tissue tantamount apparition

To analyze the response behaviour of thermolominensce ( TLD-100 ) for photon and negatron beam by utilizing Rhizophora spp. Particle board apparition.

To determine the fabricated Rhizophora spp. Particle board as android chest apparition and analyze the dose function techniques at 6 MV photon beam

To analyze the dosage in the lung, bosom and contralateral chest during radiation therapy intervention.

To compare Rhizophora spp. Particle board with Lucite apparition, and H2O apparition in therapy scope.


Procedure of Rhizophora spp Particleboard

The phonograph record of Rhizophora spp. wood is traveling under come offing procedure to do it smaller in size like chip-shape. Then, these will be put in crunching machine to bring forth flakes. Resin will be sprayed over these flakes to beef up the particleboard. Phenol Formaldehyde ( PF ) will be used in this survey, because it is more upwind resistant, better thermic features and highly lasting than other adhesives ( e.g. Urea methanal ) .

Then the mixture of flakes and PF will be put into the mold, after which it will undergo hot pressure. Last, particleboard must be cooled, so that it can be carried out from mold without any clefts.

Response Behavior of TLD

Reproducibility: utilizing 100 CGy, 100 centimeter SSD, 10 ten 10 cm2 Field size, TLDs placed at deepness ( 1.5 centimeter ) and ion camber in Rhizophora spp apparition.

Linearity Response: survey the one-dimensionality of TLD for different doses utilizing 6 MV X ray at fixed SSD and field size.

Field Size Response: the end product factor will be determined as a ratio of mensural doses at different field size to the calculated dosage at fixed field size ( 10 x 10 cm2 ) .and study the relationship of the end product factor and the field size.

Consequence of cuneus: the cuneus rectification factor is the ratio between the cuneus transmittal factor for a 10 x10 cm2 field size measured with the ionising chamber placed at dmax, and the cuneus transmittal factor for the same field size, measured with the TLDs placed at the field at dmax, in the apparition. The relationship between the Correction Factor calculated with the cuneus angle will be studied.

Dose rate dependance: exposing TLD and ion chamber for different SSD value and mention scene will be used for all measuring.

Percentage Depth Dose Curve ( PDD ) by exposing TLDs and ion chamber at different deepness in the fancied apparition, mention scene will be used for all measuring.

Fabricated Rhizophora spp Humanoid Breast and Torso Phantoms

The CT scan of 1 cm piece thickness of a medium built female will be used to bring forth the existent size and contour of her trunk including the lungs.

Flow chart for the methodological analysis

General Mentions:

Alzoubi.A.S.2009.Post-Mastectomy Radiotherapy affecting Supraclavical Nodes- Matchline Dose, Tumor Dose and Organs at Risk Dose. School Of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia.PHD Thesis.

Khan, F.M. , 1994. The Physics of Radiation Therapy, 2nd Edition. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore.

Tajuddin, A.A. , Che Wan Sudin, C.W.A. , Bradley, D.A. , 1996.Radiographic and dispersing probe on the suitableness of Rhizophora spp as tissue tantamount medium for dosimetric survey. Radiat. Phys. Chem. 47, 739-740.

Che Wan Sudin, C.W.A. , 1993. Kayu tropika sebagai bahantara setaraan tisu untuk kajian dosimetri. M.Sc.Thesis, University of Science Malaysia.

Eid, M.E.A.M. , 1999. Radiation dose distribution measurings around brachytherapy beginnings in H2O and Rhizophora spp apparition. M.Sc. Thesis, University ScienceMalaysia.

D.P. Banjade et Al. 2001. A survey of Rhizophora spp wood apparition for dosimetric intents utilizing high-energy photon and negatron beams. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 55 ( 2001 ) 297-302

Banjade, D. P. ( 2002 ) . A fresh attack of dose mapping utilizing a humanoid chest apparition in radiation therapy. The British Journal of Radiology. 75: 812-818.

D.P. Banjade et al,2001. Determination of absorbed dose for photon and negatron beams from a additive gas pedal by comparing assorted protocols on different apparitions. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 236 55 ( 2001 ) 235-243

Shakhreet.B.Z.2006.Attenuation and Scattering Studies of Natural and Fabricated Particleboard of Rhizophora Spp.In the mammographic Energy Range. School Of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia.PHD Thesis.

D.P. Banjade 2002. Analyze On Dose Measurement In Different Phantoms Using Different Protocols and the Applicability of Thermolominescence Dosimetry in Radiotherapy. School Of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia.PHD Thesis


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