Identifying The Root Causes Of Accidents On Construction Construction Essay

The building industry is one of the biggest industries in the whole universe. The part of this industry towards the planetary GDP is tremendous. The building industry is besides a possible employment generator and employs big figure of skilled and unskilled labours. In UK the building industry employs more than 2.1 million people and histories for around 9 % of the entire employment within UK ( Howarth and Watson. , 2009 ) . Since the industry employs big figure, it besides has a important impact on the wellness and safety of the people working in it. The procedure of building involves assorted activities such as working at highs, working in confined infinites, manual handling, raising operations, destruction plants and land plants. These all activities involve hazards and are really risky in nature, so the opportunities of accidents taking topographic point on building sites are high. Now in order to cut down the degree of hazard it is really of import to implement proper safety direction systems on building sites.

The UK building industry is successful in many respects. The building industry in UK has shown a steady betterment in the safety public presentation after the Egan Report ( 1998 ) but still faces legion challenges with respect to safety on its journey to better its public presentation record whilst presenting increased volume and complex building undertakings ( Howarth and Watson. , 2009 ) . Harmonizing to HSE statistics, more than 200 people are killed at work in United Kingdom every twelvemonth excepting work related route accidents. In 2006, 30 million on the job yearss was lost in UK to occupational sick wellness and hurt which imposed an one-year cost of ?30 billion i.e. more than 3 % of GDP.

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As per Lingard and Rowlinson ( 2005 ) , the building industry consists of several SMEs and little sum of big houses. These little and average size houses lack cognition and resources required to implement safety direction activities so the issues related to wellness and safety are more in little and average size houses. Eakins ( 1992 ) stated that international research confirms that the issues related to wellness and safety are more in SMEs as compared to larger houses and besides smaller houses are hapless in execution of safety programmes. Therefore smaller houses have higher hurt frequence rates as compared to larger houses.

The Company- Millennium Contractors Ltd.

Millennium Contractors Ltd. is a little and average size house which has been working in the UK building industry for the last 25 old ages. The company has a much diversified work force, employees from different cultural background and of different age group works in the company. Diverseness in building organisations in footings of civilization and ethnicity has many advantages but at the same clip there are many disadvantages related to it. In the status of uncertainness and complexness diverseness does non do good which may take to confusion and defeat. In a multicultural organisation it is really difficult to get at an understanding on a peculiar class of action, and can ensue in negative kineticss and cultural clangs. The other chief disadvantage of multicultural organisation is the deficiency of coordination and communicating between the workers which can be a conducive cause of an accident. Apart from this the company is committed to bar of hurts and sick wellness at work topographic point but has failed in advancing an incident hurt free civilization. The recent record of the company related to wellness and safety has non been really good. There have been many accidents which included one fatal accident ensuing from the autumn from tallness and other major/minor hurts and besides some incidents of unsafe happenings. The chief countries of concern for the company have been ; manual handling ; hit by falling objects ; hit by traveling vehicles ; prostration of impermanent constructions and stagings. The company was besides served with a prohibition notice because of a fatal hurt caused by falling from Mobile elevated working platform.

The company ‘s policy towards wellness and safety is besides non up to tag. The direction has been irresponsible in implementing the policies in an organized mode, which has contributed to the chief cause of accident. Harmonizing to Baxendale and Jones as cited in ( Kashyap et al. , 2005 ) , the bulk of the accidents are non caused by the sloppiness of the worker but by the carelessness or by the failure to command by the direction. Furthermore the direction should be able to judge the capablenesss of the employee before apportioning the occupation and the employees in response should be capable of making the allocated work. Hence with an involved and committed staff a positive wellness and safety civilization can be maintained. Harmonizing to Cooper ( 1998 ) , the impact of organisational safety civilization non merely affects the accident rates but has important impact on work methods, absenteeism, quality, committedness, trueness and satisfaction. Harmonizing to HSE the positive wellness and safety civilization can merely be achieved through 4Cs ; competence- enlisting, preparation and consultative support ; control- allocating duty, committedness, direction and supervising ; co-operation- between single and group ; communication- spoken, written and seeable ( Clarke, 1999 ) .

Issues related to Health and safety in Millennium Contractors Limited

As mentioned above, the company has failed to implement structured policy towards wellness and safety, as a consequence of which there has been regular incidents of unsafe happenings. The common issues that the company is confronting on a regular basis and the legal action that could be taken against the company are as follows.

Manual handling

The manual handling ordinances ( 1992 ) defines manual handling as “ any transporting or supporting of a burden ( including the lifting, seting down, forcing, drawing, transporting or traveling thereof ) by manus or by bodily force ” . In consequence, any activity that requires an single to raise, travel or back up a burden is classified as manual handling operations ( Stranks, 2006 ) . Manual stuff handling is one of the most important hazard factors for back jobs, whole organic structure quiver, set and distorted places ( Roy et al. , 1999 ) . If proper safety steps are non involved while manual handling of stuffs, it may take to hurts and occupational diseases. Harmonizing to HSE, manual handling hurts are the most common type of occupational ailment wellness in UK. As per Helander ( 1991 ) , 15 % of the back hurts due to manual stuff managing occur in the building industry.

The chief causes of incidents due to manual handling were ;

The usage of hapless techniques to travel stuffs.

Lack of proper preparation and guidelines provided to the workers by the direction.

Lack of communicating and co-operation among the workers.

The above figure shows the proper method of traveling and raising stuffs which can be really effectual in cut downing the hurts caused by manual handling of stuffs.

Legal facets related to manual handling ;

“ Section 2 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 and ordinances 10 and 13 of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 states that it is the responsibility of employers to supply their employees with wellness and safety information and preparation. This should be supplemented as necessary with more specific information and preparation on manual managing hurt hazards and bar, as portion of the stairss to cut down hazard required by ordinance 4 ( 1 ) ( B ) ( two ) of the Regulations ( HSE ) .

Hit by Falling Object

The other chief issue faced by the company is “ hit by falling objects ” . The little objects like bricks, cocks, nails and tiles when dropped from the tallness can do fatal caput hurts and other serious hurts to the worker working below it or any other individual go throughing by it as shown in the figure.

The chief causes of this type of hurt were ;

Poor criterions of housework.

Failure of direction in supplying safety cyberspaces at highs.

Inadequate undertaking be aftering which leads to inadequate storage of stuffs.

Lack of proper guidelines provided to the workers working at tallness.

Absence of prophylactic mark boards.

Legal facets related to hit from the falling object ;

Regulation 8 ( B ) portion 1 of agenda 3, of the Work at Height Regulation, 2005, states that it is the responsibility of the employer to forestall, where necessary, hurt to any individual so far as moderately operable and besides the employer shall supply adequate storage infinite so as to forestall hazard of motion of such stuff.

Fall from tallness

The company has a record of one fatal accident ensuing from the autumn from tallness. Harmonizing to the information of HSE in 2005/06 falls from tallness accounted for 46 fatal accidents at work and around 3350 major hurts. This was the individual biggest cause of workplace deceases and one of the chief causes of major hurt. The workers working at highs are prone to hold fatal hurts such as skull breaks. Therefore it is perfectly necessary to supply proper preparation and counsel to the workers working at tallness.

The chief causes of this type of incident were ;

Lack of proper preparation and guidelines provided to worker by the direction.

Negligence and insecure action of the worker.

Inadequate usage of personal protective equipments.

Lack of planning and supervising.

No barrication provided.

Legal facets related to fall from tallness ;

The Work at Height Regulation 2005 applies to all work at tallness where there is a hazard of autumn apt to do personal hurt. It place responsibilities on workers, employers, the freelance, and any individual who controls the work of others ( eg installations directors or edifice proprietors who may contract others to work at tallness ) to the extent they control the work.

Hit by traveling vehicle

The other issue of the company is workers being hit by traveling vehicles. This type of issues is really unsafe in happening and can do fatal hurt. The accident involved vehicle like trucks.

The chief causes of this type of incident were ;

Inadequate site planning

Improper marks and absence of prophylactic ( rush bound ) boards

Insecure conditions of working

Legal facet related to hit by the traveling vehicle ;

Section 2 ( 2 ) ( a ) of HSWA 1974 states that it is duty of the employer to keep works and system at workplace, so far as is moderately operable. Harmonizing to Workplace ( Health, Safety and Welfare ) Regulation ( 17 ) , there should efficient segregation of prosaic from vehicular traffic of entrance and outgoing.

Collapse of impermanent constructions and scaffolding

The other chief issue of the company related to wellness and safety was prostration of impermanent constructions and stagings. The incident took topographic point due to miss of review. Incompetence of the inspectors to place hazard and jeopardy involved. Furthermore the employer failed to supply the workers with suited equipment and supply corporate steps along with personal protective steps.

Legal Aspect:

The Work at Height Regulation 2005, Regulation6 ( 4 ) ( B ) , 6 ( 5 ) ( a, B ) , 7, 8, 12 and 13, provinces that it is necessary for the employer to supply suited equipment, take history of working status and strict review by a competent individual. Further harmonizing to subdivision 2 ( 2 ) ( a ) of HSWA 1974, there should be proviso and care of works and machinery at work.

Apart from these issues the company was served with three enforcement notices and one prohibition notice by HSE because of unsafe happenings at work topographic point. The company failed to implement proper construction of wellness and safety policy due to inadequate direction system. Hence for successful execution of the policy the company should hold proper safety direction system.

Safety Management purposes at minimising the opportunities of hazards, hurts and accidents by implementing hazard direction techniques and safety direction operations, bettering the criterion of wellness of the employees, supervising the operating systems and bolstering the safety steps of an organisation.

Management patterns and certification

In order to cut down the hazards of accidents in the company the company should hold proper direction patterns and associated certification associating to safety initiation processs, tool-box negotiations, developing demand, accident record book and method statements. The proper safe direction patterns involve ;

Hazard appraisal:

During hazard appraisal, the jeopardies or risky work is first identified before beginning of any work activity. The evaluation information is so passed on for readying of method statement, which must be read and understood by every worker set abouting the activity before the beginning of work.

Method statement:

It is the papers that shows or states how an activity needs to be carried out in a safe mode. The statement is normally prepared by a competent individual and passed to the rule contractor and the safety coordinator for its inclusion in sites wellness and safety program.

Site initiation and preparation:

The site initiation and preparation is normally provided to the worker before the start of any work by the employer. The workers are informed about the assorted safeguards that are to be taken while working on sites. The site initiation includes brief on public assistance installations, brief on site jeopardies, brief on how to describe onsite hurt or accidents and the usage of PPEs.

Accident record book:

The accidents that take topographic point on sites are to be entered in this book. Any reportable accident should be reported under RIDDOR, to the site supervisor instantly.

Tool box negotiations:

ToolboxA talksA are safety talks aimed at the building trade. The talks are intended to educate workers about making and keeping safer work conditions, and attending is compulsory with many companies. Many companies provide toolboxA talksA in modular signifier, so that a safety pedagogue has aA curriculumA readily available.

The Millennium Contractors Ltd do non hold organized construction of direction and hold failed in implementing the wellness and safety constabularies due to which the company is unable to follow safe direction patterns.

Get the better ofing the Barriers

The possible barriers that the company needs to get the better of to take for zero accident policy on sites are as follows ;

Cultural and linguistic communication barrier:

The company has mixed work force, workers from different cultural background works in the company now because of cultural diverseness the direction might happen it hard to convey all the messages expeditiously, ensuing in difference in apprehension of instructions which may do jobs sing safety on sites.

Fear of alteration:

New ways and methods of working may make confusion and sense of uncomforting amongst workers, taking them to traditional ways of working which can do some jobs related to safety. Therefore in order to get the better of this barrier the company should actuate the workers and should develop them decently.

Difference in instruction degree: Different workers might hold studied till different degrees in instruction. It may impact their ability to understand instructions clearly.


Although the company has huge experience it had failed in implementing the safety policies which are really indispensable for cut downing the hazards of accidents. The company has unequal safety direction system which has resulted in several major and minor incidents. An effectual safety direction system will be most effectual if a safety civilization permeates the organisation and this can merely be achieved through pass oning leading, personalising safety results, prosecuting persons in safety duties, bettering apprehension of safety system and increasing hazard/risk consciousness and preventative behaviours. In order to better the safety direction system the Millennium Contractors Ltd must follow these stairss which would indirectly assist them in cut downing the accidents.


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