Implementation of information systems in abc Essay

Chapter 1 Introduction

This assignment is aim to larn the cognition of information system direction base on the endeavor ABC. There is a complex proficient cognition country for pupil to concentrate on. Too many constituents design squad has to analysis. To catch the new, powerful and innovated equipments which are utilizing on information systems.

On the Software country, a batch figure of information theory we have to happen out them and place them. All subdivisions of information system for ABC should hone, powerful and effectual.

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In the 2nd chapter, it will concentrate on hardware and package brief analysis. A clear thought of design the information system will demo out after acquiring all the utile theory and information signifier this chapter.

Chapter 2 Hardware fFor Computer Network

Central processing unit

Blundell ( 2008 ) said that CPU was cardinal processing unit. It is running by the arithmetic logic unit ( ALU ) and command unit ( CU ) with a few registries formed. Responsible for implementing bid and control, coordination of assorted faculties, all the operations and plans covering with have to trust on CPU.

Three Major Manufacturers:


This trade name is the most normally heard. The chief latest merchandises are Core 2 Duo series and Celeron series. The difference between them is the size of L2 cache and different FSB. Core 2 are better, but besides much more expensive. For illustration, the Core I7 950 is ? 250 in the market.

Age-related macular degeneration:

The chief merchandises of AMD are Athol and Phantom series. The relationship is like rather a Core series and Celeron series. However, the same monetary value degree than Intel ‘s merchandises are much lower, but the temperature is higher.


VIA bit motherboard was originally done. And the acquisition of Cyrix & A ; IDT after the CPU has production capacity. Their merchandise is chiefly called Cyrix series.

Points To Measure The Performance Of CPU

1. Internal Computing Architecture:

For illustration CPU ‘s internal design is a scalar or a superscalar ( superscalar ) design. The constitutional cache memory, direction, reading and composing informations and memory design will impact the full CPU ‘s operation efficiency.

2. Bit processing Capabilities:

For illustration, 8-bit and 16-bit CPU. Normally this with the CPU internal registries, informations or direction coach breadth of the. On the Intel definition 8086/286 cosmopolitan registry ( General Purpose Registers ) GPR is a 16-bit, so they are regarded as a 16-bit CPU ;

3. Memory Capacity:

We say that control of the CPU ‘s memory the figure of MB such as 386/486 and 32-bit CPU. Its maximal memory capacity of 2 of the 32-th power is equal to 4096MB ( 4GB ) .

4. Working Clock ( Clock ) :

The higher the CPU clock of each work, the execution of direction unit of clip ( rhythm ) the smaller the faster. For illustration that Intel 486DX-33 is based on 33MHz ( = 33,000,000 Hz / per second ) as its clock. it is with the same type 486DX-25 ( 24MHZ clock hours of work ) compared to the former velocity is faster than the latter is about 33 % .

5. IC Procedure:

There are two types of BiCMOS and CMOS. In general, things had gone is based on preciseness lines to points based on micrometer ( micrometer, = 10 negative 6-th power M, that is, one in a million metres ) . The current CPU procedure has evolved to 0.25um and the hereafter will be extended to 0.18um.


1 ) CPU slot

Of class, where cup stopper Hello! it Is divided into: socket7, socket370, socket423, socket478, slot1 and give althon ( K7 ) used in slot A. There are different depending on the type CPU such as the socket370 be inserted Celeron and some Pentium III.

2 ) RAM slots

Now available in the market ram slots on the motherboard are all SDRAM slot. Because now the computing machine is to utilize the mainstream SDRAM Well! General motherboard normally has 3 RAM slots. There are other Numberss, depending on what chipset utilizing the.

3 ) AGP slot

Artworks card is the usage of a really big AGP slot. So AGP slot as basic equipment.

4 ) PCI Slots

PCI slot is inserted to our sound cards, web cards, SCSI cards and other devices topographic point. In short, about all the constitutional devices are besides inserted here. PCI stopper is high-performance devices and processors, the channel, which provides a full 32-bit coach. Supply more than 100MB of informations exchange.

5 ) ISA Slot

ISA slot is ancient ( abbreviated: Old-timers ) left over from the merchandise. It can be said to hold witnessed computing machine history. But old people, and finally, is to be eliminated. Microsoft and several industry-mediated big companies developed AC99 specification besides abandoned ISA. But it is besides inevitable. It is merely 16-bit coach. Per second, the velocity is normally merely in 5MB up and down, in fact, truly do non suit today ‘s computing machines.

6 ) North Bridge bit

CPU North Bridge bit is in the locality of the sinking. it is a heat sink bundle is travel once more! Let me speak about its map. It is responsible for the coordination of the higher velocity. Such as central processing unit, cacha, drachm, etc. , all of its control. Like the existent universe traffic constabulary, but it is a bid of information. Case is this: When the processor needs informations, it will steer the processor to the cache ( Internet Explorer: central processing unit cache memory ) if cache does non hoard to pound it to steer the re-update the information. When the processor operation is completed, turn out the consequences of conveyance. Now the heavy work load of the computing machine ( such as the computation of 3D artworks, etc. ) and a batch of people will do a big figure of heats over clocking, and some interior decorators for its safety and take it with heat sink.

7 ) South Bridge Chip

South Jiao bit is responsible for the slow I / O work ( by and large working rule and map the same as with the Northbridge ) , but besides act as traffic constabulary, directing PCI BUS usb interfaces out of work.

Give a sum-up of north and south span chipset, when the CPU clip to manage the information. random-access memory, PCI, ISA, cache, etc. channel is really busy ( as category, the traffic ) North and south span will presume the coordination of exchange of information. all of these are to do the information rapidly and swimmingly to make a topographic point to travel to avoid traffic congestion.

8 ) BIOS

BIOS ( Basic Input Output System ) function is to hive away some basic information and scenes for hardware, such as when users upgrade the host pull detected new hardware, such as BIOS information in this respect, the computing machine will acknowledge this hardware. Users can besides tune to learn basic computing machine constellation.

For illustration, the day of the month whether is to open some of the characteristics and see the hardware information.

RAM ( Memory )

There is a really of import portion is the memory ( RAM ) . Memory is used to hive away plans and informations constituents. For illustration, a computing machine with the memory that is merely memory map in order to guarantee that work decently. Many different types of memory their usage can be divided into the chief memory and secondary memory Supporting memory, besides known as external memory ( referred to as external memory ) .

External memory is normally magnetic media or CD-ROM such as difficult discs, floppy discs, tapes, Cadmium and so on. long-run saving of information and does non trust on electricity to salvage the information. but driven by the mechanical constituents, velocity becomes slow in comparing with the CPU multi. Memory refers to the storage constituents on the motherboard is the CPU to pass on straight with them and utilize its informations storage constituents. storage presently being used ( ie, execution ) of the informations and plans ( Grembergen, 2002 ) . its physical kernel is that one or more sets with informations input and end product and informations storage capablenesss of the integrated circuit. the memory used merely for impermanent storage of plans and informations, one time the power off or during power outages in which plans and informations will be lost.

The latest memory is DDR2 and DDR3 sdram, which can enlarge your computing machine to 8G memory or 16G, etc.

Secondary Storage

The edifice blocks that constitute the computing machine system among the position of the difficult disc can be said that the major stakeholders, because regardless of your CPU or memory of how fast, their huge bulk of instructions and informations from the difficult disc. Another particular function in the difficult disc is, as all applications and informations bearer. Hard thrust has ever been the anchor of storage media, although both the capacity and public presentation facets of the earth-shaking alterations, but now as a personal computing machine the place of the chief storage devices is still unshakeable.

In English bases for the difficult disc ( Hard Disk ) , literally translated as “ strong disc ” from the form looks like a boxlike difficult metal box size 5.25,3.5,2.5 and 1.8-inch ( the latter two normally used in notebook and some minor preciseness instruments ) are several, and now normally used in desktop computing machines is the 3.5-inch phonograph record. The difficult disc is a computing machine system, informations storage centre ; we run the computing machine plans and informations presently used by the huge bulk are stored on your difficult thrust. Hard disc storage devices in a assortment of fixed-position is the most of import ( and other storage devices include floppy discs, CD-ROM, tape, removable thrusts, etc. ) , It is indispensable to the computing machine storage device.

There are four chief difficult disc makers, which are Seagate ( Maxtor ) , Western Digital, Samsung and Hitachi.

Chapter 3: Software For Computer Network

The Definition Of Network Operating System

Network runing system is a web of the bosom and psyche of the computing machine to the web services provided by a particular operating system. It is in the computing machine runing system so that the computing machine runing system to increase the web capacity required operating. For illustration, it has been mentioned earlier in the LAN when utilizing word processing plan, the user ‘s Personal computer, the operating system acts as if does non represent a LAN. This is the LAN runing system package manages user entree to word-processing plan. Network runing system running on a computing machine called a waiter by the networked computing machine users to portion such users as clients.

NOS and running on the workstation runing system on a single-user or multi-user operating system due to the type of service provided by different makes a difference. Under normal fortunes, NOS is related to features of the web to accomplish the best for the intent such as shared information files, package applications, and shared difficult thrusts, pressmans, modems, scanners and facsimile machines. There are general computing machine ‘s operating system such as DOS and OS / 2, etc. The purpose is to enable users and systems applications running the best on the interaction ( Galliers, 2003 ) .

If the system does non hold this functionality, users will non work right. File locking characteristic can be tracked in the usage of each file and to guarantee that a user can merely redact it. Documents may besides be locking the user ‘s watchword in order to keep the particular nature of particular paper.

NOS are ever available to track each one pressman every bit good as each user ‘s print petitions. How to run into those petitions are managed so that each terminal user to run the pressman as if it was their computing machines straight connected to.

Network Operating Primarily In The Following Classs:

1. Windows

Microsoft ‘s Windows operating system is non merely the person has an absolute advantage which is besides in the web runing system has a really strong force. Type of operating system constellation in the whole LAN constellation is the most common. But because of its waiter hardware demands for higher and stable public presentation is non really high, so Microsoft ‘s web operating system will by and large be used in in-between and low waiter, high-end waiters normally used UNIX, LINUX, or Solairs and other non-Windows runing systems. In the LAN, Microsoft ‘s web operating system are chiefly: Windows NT 4.0 Serve, Windows 2000 Server / Advance Server, and the latest Windows 2003 Server / Advance Server, etc. Workstation System can utilize either a Windows or non-Windows operating systems, including personal operating system, such as Windows XP/Vista/Seven so.

Throughout the Windows web runing systems in the most successful thing is to bury Windows NT4.0 this system. It is about as little and average endeavors LAN standard runing system which one is that it inherits the Windows household of incorporate interface that leting users to larn to utilize easier. Furthermore it is so more powerful characteristics can fundamentally run into all the little and average endeavors of the web demand. Compared to the Windows 2000/2003 Server systems that are functionally inferior to many, it was the waiter ‘s hardware constellation demands are much lower. You can run into the greater figure of medium and little concern Personal computer waiter constellation demands.

2. NetWare

NetWare runing system is far less than a few old ages ago. But the NetWare web runing systems ‘ hardware demands are still lower by a figure of comparatively backward equipment, little and average endeavors. Particularly is the school of all ages. Peoples forget it for a minute with the formation of the strengths of diskless workstations. But besides non bury that there is no inordinate demand for its generousness. Because it is compatible with DOS bids, similar to their application environment and DOS. After a long period of development, with a rich application package support, technically sound and dependable. The most normally used versions of 3.11,3.12 and 4.10, V4.11, V5.0, etc. in English and Chinese versions, NetWare waiter to back up diskless Stationss and the game is better. It is normally used in the instruction web and game room. The current operating system is a market portion diminution. This portion of the market chiefly by Windows NT/2000 and Linux systems carved out.

3. Unix

Now normally used version of UNIX systems are chiefly: Unix SUR4.0, HP-UX 11.0, SUN ‘s Solaris8.0 so. They are back uping web file system services, informations applications, powerful, from AT & A ; T and SCO launched. This web runing system public presentation, stableness and security is really good. But because it means the bulk are ordered to run and non easy to hold on, particularly for primary users. For this ground, little local country webs do non utilize Unix as the basic web runing system. UNIX by and large used for big sites or big endeavors, the concern LAN. UNIX web runing system has a long history. The bulk of Internet users with a rich application package support have accepted its good web direction functionality. The current version of UNIX web runing system are: AT & A ; T and SCO ‘s UNIXSVR3.2, SVR4.0 and SVR4.2 so. UNIX minicomputer mainframe environment for the development of the operating system is a centralised time-sharing multi-user architecture. Not sensible because of its architecture, UNIX market portion diminution.

4. Linux

This is a new web runing system, and its greatest characteristic is the unfastened beginning, free of charge by many applications. Now they are besides available in Chinese versions of Linux such as the REDHAT, Red Flag Linux. Users in the state has been to the full affirmed, chiefly reflected in its security and stableness. It has many similarities to Unix. But these are chiefly used in the operating system, which remains at nowadays, the high-end waiter.

In general, the support of a specific calculating environment so that each has an operating system suited for in their ain workplace which is the system for specific calculating environment. For illustration, Windows 2000 Professional for desktop computing machines, Linux is presently more applicable to small-scale web. Windows 2000 Server and UNIX are applicable to large-scale waiter applications. Therefore, we need to take the right intents to web runing system for different web applications

Chapter 4 Network Security

What Is Network Security ( NS ) :

Network security is a national security, sovereignty, societal stableness, and national civilization and carries forward the of import issues ( Maiwald, 2003 ) . Its importance is with the accelerated gait of planetary information and alterations to the progressively of import.

Network security is one related to computing machine scientific discipline, web engineering, communications engineering, cryptanalysis, information security engineering, applied mathematics, figure theory, information theory and other subjects, comprehensive subject. Network security refers to the web system hardware, package and system informations to be protected from accidental or malicious devastation of grounds, alteration, revelation, the system usually uninterrupted and dependable operation of web services non be interrupted ( McNab, 2007 ) .

DMS ( Database Management System )

Database direction system is a big database use and direction package is used to make, usage and care of database. It unified database direction and control to guarantee the safety and unity of the database. The users come through the DMS to entree informations in a database. The database decision maker to carry on through the DMS database care. It offers a assortment of maps and enables multiple applications and users in different ways at the same clip or different times to construct, modify, and inquired about the database. Sarkar ( 2006 ) said that divided by map, database direction systems can be loosely divided into six parts:

( 1 ) Mode interlingual rendition: informations definition linguistic communication ( DDL ) . Use it to compose the database theoretical account is translated into internal representation. The logical construction of the database, unity restraints, and the physical storage construction of the informations are stored in the internal lexicon. Database, a assortment of informations use ( such as hunt, modify, insert and delete, etc. ) and database care and direction are based on database scheme based.

( 2 ) Application of the compilers: to entree the database contains the statement that applications compiled to run in the DBMS supported by an object plan.

( 3 ) Synergistic question: Provides easy to utilize synergistic question linguistic communication such as SQL. DMS is responsible for execution of the question bid and question consequences displayed on the screen.

( 4 ) Data organisation and entree: Provide informations in the external storage device, the physical organisation and entree methods.

( 5 ) Services operation and direction: proviso of services operation and direction and operational logs, dealing supervising the safety of operation and informations unity cheques, dealing concurrence control and system recovery maps.

( 6 ) Database care: database decision makers to supply package support, including informations security control, unity protection, database backup, database restructuring and public presentation monitoring care tool. Based on the relational theoretical account database direction system has been perfected and has been widely used in all walks of life as a commercial package. It is in all households, distributed waiter architecture in the application of multi-user environment, so that farther enlargement of the application of database systems. With the new informations theoretical account and informations direction techniques to advance the execution can be expected DMS package will besides update and better the public presentation, applications will besides be farther broadened.

Object Oriented Programming ( OOP )

Object-oriented scheduling ( Object Oriented Programming, referred to as OOP, besides translated into object-oriented scheduling ) , refers to a scheduling paradigm, but besides is a plan development methodological analysis. Its most outstanding characteristic is the ability to dramatically increase the success rate of package undertakings, cut down future care costs and better package portability and dependability.

Its characteristics include the undermentioned facets:

  • The usage of an object – the object construct is widely used to construct from the patterning facets of the process.
  • Abstract – will be broken down into a assortment of independent operations can be named distinguished unit.
  • Encapsulation – different operations have different range.
  • Polymorphism – different informations types for similar operations utilizing the same name.
  • Inheritance – categories can be inherited, in order to accomplish different degrees of objects.

Abstraction is an of import characteristic of object-oriented but non its alone features. Reuse is an of import advantage of object-oriented.

When we talk about object-oriented, it refers non merely to a plan design method. It is more sense, is a sort of plan development paradigm. In this respect, we must larn more about Object-Oriented Analysis ( Object Oriented Analysis, abbreviated as OOA ) and object-oriented design ( Object Oriented Design, referred to as OOD ) of cognition.

Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP )

ERP is the ( Enterprise Resource Planning, Enterprise Resource Planning System ) concept? It is the United States GartnerGroup company submitted in 1990 and its precise definition is: MRP ( enterprise fabrication resource planning ) systems and the following coevals of fabricating resource planning package. In add-on to the bing production of MRP resource planning, fabrication, finance, selling, buying and other maps, every bit good as quality direction, research lab direction, concern procedure direction, merchandise informations direction, stock list, distribution and transit direction, human resources direction and on a regular footing coverage system.

ERP to client demands and in-house fabrication activities, every bit good as providers, fabrication resources together to organize a complete supply concatenation concern, the nucleus of direction thought in the undermentioned three facets:

First, to give look to the full supply concatenation direction resources thought ;

Second, to reflects the thin production, agile fabrication and coincident technology thoughts ;

Third, to reflects the pre-planning and pre-control theory.

A mark of the success of ERP applications are: the system is running integrated, package, runing across multiple sectors ; the concern procedure rationalisation at all degrees of concern procedures under the to the full optimized to re-build ; the public presentation monitoring of dynamic, public presentation system immediate feedback in order to be able to rectify the direction jobs ; direction, uninterrupted betterment, endeavor to make a uninterrupted self-evaluation and uninterrupted betterment of direction mechanism.

Model View Controller ( MVC )

MVC is a Model, View, and Controller of the abbreviation. MVC design form is the Application Development. In the MVC design form, which includes three types of objects:

( 1 ) Model ( Model ) object: is the application the chief portion of the plan.

( 2 ) The position ( View ) object: It is the application responsible for bring forthing the user interface portion.

( 3 ) Controller ( Control ) object: It is based on user input, control and update the user interface informations show that portion of the Model object province. Application development requires you to concern logic, interface, show and informations separation.

MVC applications are ever composed of three parts. Event consequence in Model or Controller to alter the Position or both at the same clip to alter. Equally long as the Controller changed the Models of the informations or properties, all depend on View is updated automatically. Similarly, every bit long as the Controller change the View, View of the Model from the possible to obtain informations to review their ain

MVC form is a complex model. Its execution has become really complex and a assortment of design forms together. So execution of MVC form becomes comparatively easy. Positions can be seen as a tree evidently with the Composite Pattern to accomplish. Positions and Models of the relationship can be reflected. Controller Control Views of the show, you can utilize Strategy Pattern to accomplish. Model is normally a go-between. It can be used to accomplish the Mediator Pattern.

Decision Support System ( DSS )

Decision support system has the undermentioned thrust manner: data-driven, model-driven, knowledge-driven, based on the Web, based on simulation, based on GIS, communication-driven.

Chapter 5 Decision

Information direction system is a computing machine that composed of people and can supply information to back up an organisation ‘s internal operations, direction, analysis and decision-making maps of the system. Information direction system utilizing computing machine hardware and package, manual processs, analysis, planning, control and decision-making, theoretical accounts, and database for information aggregation, transmittal, processing, saving, care and usage. Therefore, information direction system is an information processing system. Power endeavor information web and information direction systems ( MIS ) undertaking organisation and building is a systematic undertaking. Research the features of a line with ABC power endeavors can run into the electricity production, operation and direction demands of the power of information webs and information direction system for the building of the route. It is the systems technology determination shapers and proficient forces duties.

Information Management System for the constitution and practical work in order to determine information direction system substructure is the constitution of quality supervising and substructure undertakings. Design papers distribution services such, as instant messaging web is ABC ‘s information systems for information exchange outside the window. Infrastructure direction subsystem continued development is for salvaging a batch of work force and material resources. To better the overall degree of substructure direction, rational direction and operation of substructure, viz. the constitution of the undertaking, feasibleness survey, rating, decision-making, design, reappraisal, command, building, review and other substructure direction procedure to organize, control and drumhead rating. In order to accomplish a sensible control undertaking costs and increase return on investing aim of capital building plan to avoid confusion and supply a comprehensive substructure direction system for direction procedure.

ABC endeavor information direction system construction can be divided into four chief subdivisions. All of them included computing machines and web systems, databases, application package, informations direction bureaus and their care forces. The first three information direction systems are the substructure undertakings in the three proficient pillars. There are Infrastructure, Information Management System package and the composing of the faculty.

Infrastructure technology information direction systems is division of the chief direction theoretical account for the design. It is infrastructural undertakings in the oral cavity of ordinary personal businesss section of scientific direction and invariably to cut down the work load of the traditional substructure direction. It is infrastructure undertakings in information direction through the operation of the system. It is infrastructural undertakings in basic information on the undertaking file, offering information, contract conditions and undertaking support information. Work advancement and project-related certification are utilizing for umbrella surface direction and question statistics. Operation on the undertaking real-time monitoring will run into all authorities sections for substructure undertakings carried out at any clip cheque.

To adhere to ABC information system-building “ phase, seasonableness, consistence ” rule in the bing conditions. It is use to follow the nonsubjective jurisprudence of information technology. It is use to find a realistic development ends, the usage of information technology methods, scientific discipline and execution of the MIS undertaking control scheme which is to fix the key to this work.

Computer and web equipment market monetary values are invariably altering. The operating system and database platform development tools are intensifying. The people of the information web system and apprehension of MIS and demand has non yet reached a mature phase. The web equipment and information resources development organisations are non adequate coordination. In this instance, to be completed in a comparatively short period of clip a system-wide information direction, a incorporate standard pes impossible and should be a phased attack. In the primary phase, ABC is utilizing combination of integrating and development. Besides the original equipment and information resources foremost to incorporate a incorporate criterion for the first two phases are used to accomplish the higher data-sharing footing ( Terence, 2004 ) . The definition of ends must unite the units and sections or the existent state of affairs.

To concentrate attempts on work outing concern leaders are most concerned about a direct impact on concern effectivity and efficiency, production, operation and direction of the outstanding contradictions every bit good as current and future period of clip or the focal point of the work and content. For illustration, practical credence of MIS is the first stage of the indispensable sub-system basic demands. This phase of building undertakings do non necessitate to. It must be good to better the corporate leading and apprehension of all classs of forces. In the capital investing ABC is traveling to better the quality of forces, etc. ABC can be bit by bit resolved.

Information Management System in the Construction of an of import and important issue is to be applied to work out the production, operation and direction of the demand. Once the mark informations to find the overall program should be under the counsel of organisational development every bit shortly as possible to make consequences. It rapidly organizes applications. Application complicated I frequently continuously being replaced by computing machines and information webs. To mobilise and actuate professional and proficient forces actively take part in MIS building enterprise. Measure the initial consequences a mark of good or bad is the incorporate development of the system is able to work out practical jobs. It can bit by bit go indispensable to modern concern direction methods and tools.

The ABC Company is in a new epoch of reform now. Old and new mechanisms of alteration of establishments and forces alterations are in a larger place. Therefore the development rhythm of a MIS longer the lower the chance of success which requires a comparatively stable period work hard to accomplish in the short term ends and phased put into practical application every bit shortly as possible until the user needs to better and restart or keep regular usage. Business leaders felt that investing consequences will be good. The application of those will experience truly solved the practical job: the consequences of there work for the developers to be societal acknowledgment and would beef up our assurance. This is for the following stage of work to make the conditions. Information direction system is a immense systematic undertaking affecting a broad scope. The engineering composite is hard to accomplish which requires corporate leaders, cells at all degrees. The bulk of technology, proficient forces, direction forces and information technology development in close cooperation with direction to finish the:

1) Business leaders support and attending is the key to the success of this work. Business leaders in information direction systems are to steer the degree of engagement. ABC can utilize the formation of a direct impact on the available MIS grade and deepness of the degree of modern direction.

2) A group of love for this work that familiar with the concern and have a high computing machine and web engineering package development capableness of bone. To continuously enterprising and hardworking spirit will assist MIS can be continuously improved to accomplish this end warrant.

3)As the rapid development of computing machine and web engineering and hence demands to go on to put financess to guarantee the development, care and direction costs, the fixed assets of the same drama. Otherwise, They invest a larger function in acquiring smaller and smaller will ensue in upfront investing waste. In short, enterprise information direction system building is a complex, dynamic systems technology. The relationship between technology organisations how to organize a assortment of intervention, a direct impact on information direction system building is the application of the success or failure.


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