Abstraction: Accurate clip appraisal is really critical to guarantee smooth operation and timely completion of any building undertaking bringing. In finding the clip of the undertaking completion the lone known methodological analysis presently used by JKR is based on anticipation from the experience of finishing past undertaking. The cause of inaccurate of clip appraisal was determined by analysed the information from JKR ‘s database and questionnaire. The survey analysed the cause of the Extension of Time given to contractors. A sum of one hundred 50 ( 150 ) questionnaires were distributed to JKR ‘s staff and contractors involved in undertaking direction and building Fieldss to obtain building professional experience that how much the hold causes have been impacting the timely completion of the undertakings. All the questionnaires were processed and analysed utilizing statistical package. Consequences of the questionnaires were ranks based on the frequence and comparative importance indices. Statistical package such as SPSS and Microsoft Excel was employed to observe the differences between the respondent groups with regard to overall in agreement hold causes. From SKALA ‘s record analysis was done to four standards that related that could be related to detain of the undertaking. The criterias were clip, cost, location and causes of extension of clip to the undertaking. Based on the analysis conducted it was found that the undertaking with lower cost would hold lower hazard of hold. By utilizing current clip appraisal by JKR shows that 25.18 % of edifice undertakings completed with out EOT and 74.82 % were completed with EOT. Location of the undertaking shows that the undertaking at developed province had less delay undertaking. From the cause of EOT shows that most of the hold was due to the direction squad by both JKR and the contractors. Scheduling should be used for the full undertaking rhythm and should to the full utilize as tools for tracking and supervising the undertaking exactly to cut down the hold of the undertaking.
In undertaking direction presenting the undertaking within the stipulated clip in the contract is the most of import factor to be focused by the contractor and the implementer. Time is one of the three factors in undertaking direction should be given precedence beside cost and quality. These three factors are related to each other and give an consequence if one of these factors is neglected. Time appraisal has been identified as one of the cardinal public presentation to be addressed in supplying best value to building client. To foretell the building continuance of undertaking based variables which are building continuance, constructing type, procurement path, contractor choice method, type of client, contract value, constructing map and complexness of the edifice.
Construction direction determinations are made based on agendas that are developed during the early planning phase of undertakings, many possible scenarios besides should be taken into consideration during building. Construction plans are of extreme importance for a successful timely bringing of edifices or substructure undertakings. A well developed undertaking agenda theoretical account is a dynamic tool that can be used to foretell the expected completion day of the month of the undertaking.
There is no specific tool in finding the accurate clip for undertaking continuance patterns in JKR. Most of the undertaking continuances were based on old continuances of the undertaking which were non the same constituent of each undertakings. By utilizing the old experience it may non bespeak the right continuance for the undertaking. From this appraisal of undertaking continuance, JKR use the history of undertaking continuance based on the cost of the undertaking, the size of the undertaking, location and complexness of the undertaking. This method is used since the being of JKR. No specific method to gauge the continuance of the undertaking.
+ Master Student, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
++ Supervisor, PM Dr, Lecturer of Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia.
A well planned undertaking execution agenda is comparatively important to work consequently in finding completion of undertaking without hold as a consequence could impact the other activities expected by the end-user.A Good agenda ensured the execution of realistic ; given ample clip for activities such as design blessing procurance, building, tests the line and so on.A
Improper programming will do the undertakings holding extension of clip, or termination.A This will impact the terminal user hence affecting extra disbursals, including fiscal liability, employee resettlement and storage of equipment and jobs stock list. Delaies in the completion of an full undertaking due to hapless programming can besides make mayhem for proprietors who are eager to get down utilizing the constructed installations ( Gomar et al. , 2002 ) .
1.1 ProblemA Statement
Delivering the undertaking within the stipulated clip frame as stated in the contract to the client is extreme of import to JKR as an implementer. The chief job in JKR ‘s current pattern is gauging accurate clip in their undertaking. Failing to run into date lines in presenting the undertaking to the client will find the public presentation of JKR. One of JKR ‘s aims is to present the full undertaking in clip as agreed with the client. Inaccurate clip appraisal can take to the hold in completion of the undertaking. Inaccurate clip appraisal can do the client extra operational cost.
Improper finding of the undertaking continuance would demo the public presentation capableness of JKR as a proficient section in authorities. This is one of the grounds for undertaking to be given an extension of clip ( EOT ) beside other ground such as the contractor selected can non give full committedness to the undertaking. Base on the JKR ‘s record most of the undertaking have at least one EOT.
1.2 Aim of the survey
The chief purpose of this survey is to find the cause of the hold in the building stage that lead to inaccurate clip appraisal in JKR ‘s undertaking.
1.3 Aims of the survey
To place the factors that contribute to holds in JKR undertakings
To analyze the relationship between JKR ‘s estimated times with the existent completion base on 5 old ages historical informations
To identifies factors to better JKR clip gauging
1.4 Scope of the survey
This survey was focused on edifice undertaking by JKR merely. Historical information for this survey rely on undertaking that had been completed within past six ( 6 ) old ages ( 2004 to 2010 ) . Data were taken from JKR undertaking database faculty, SKALA ( Sistem Kontrak, Selia dan Lapor ) . The information extracted from SKALA mainframe was analysed and segregate consequently. The informations were extracted into smaller point base on the nature of work. The informations were comprise of all undertakings that supervised by JKR. From that database merely data on edifice undertaking was extracted and analysed. Besides document hunt uses informations from SKALA, questionnaire distributed to acquire related informations from the individual who involved straight with JKR undertaking. Questionnaire was distributed to all JKR District Engineers, Head of Project Team ( HOPT ) , Head of Design Team ( HODT ) and contractors involved in JKR undertaking.
2.0 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
The methodological analysis used in carry oning this survey is through literature hunt, informations aggregation from JKR ‘s SKALA database and questionnaires study to JKR ‘s staff who straight involved in finding the clip frame of the undertaking and contractors.
Data aggregation gathered from the undertaking database as stated in the range of survey. From the consequences, the questionnaires study conducted among JKR staff within the class of the survey to measure their sentiments of the findings towards the aims of the survey. The qualitative informations generated from the questionnaires have been analysed utilizing statistical method to back up the survey findings.
Based on the records from SKALA ( 2004 to 2010 ) out of 3,027 undertakings supervised by JKR, 762 ( 25.18 % ) undertakings were delivered in front and on clip stated in contract. Entire figure of 2,265 ( 74.82 % ) undertakings was delivered beyond the date lines of the contract.
The questionnaire was, distributed via e-mail and was besides distributed manus to manus, ordinary station, facsimiles etc. to the respondent. The sample consisted of JKR ‘s technology professionals working all over Malaysia and contractors involve in JKR undertaking. There is no any logical or mathematical procedure for trying was employed in this survey.
The five points Likert-scale was used as an instrument in the field study questionnaires. Respondents were asked to bespeak their degree of understanding or dissension harmonizing to the undermentioned graduated table: 1 – Least Agreeable, 2 – Slightly Agreeable, 3 – Reasonably Agreeable, 4 – Agreeable and 5 – strongly Agreeable. The purpose of the questionnaire was to acquire the important cause of the hold and the factors that can be considered to better JKR clip gauging for building undertakings based on the respondents ‘ experience and cognition.
All returned questionnaires were browsed to place mistakes, mission and ambiguities. All the informations were coded before input into the database and analysed utilizing statistical computing machine plans such as Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Science ( SPSS ) to bring forth diagnostic information used for analyzing the information consequently.
SKALA ‘s information was used for existent informations analyzing. Detail informations were extracted from mainframe database and was authorised by the officer from SKALA Section. The informations were a real-time information as for 1st. November 2010. Detailss of the informations were extracted base on the extension of clip given to contractors. All informations were sorted base on type of building ( i.e. , route, edifice, H2O plants, ICT ) . All the relevant information was ranked based on frequence of happening. For this research merely constructing undertakings were analysed for the cause of hold and for the per centum of EOT continuance given to the contractor.
3.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Sum of one hundred 20 ( 120 ) questionnaires were distributed to JKR ‘s District Engineers, selected undertaking squad at JKR Headquarters and 30 ( 30 ) to contractors involved in JKR undertaking. Merely 50 one ( 51 ) respondents returned the questionnaire. ( Appendix A )
The questionnaire was divided into three subdivisions. Section A requested background information about the respondents. Section B of the questionnaire focused on the factors that contributed to detain of JKR undertaking. Section C of the questionnaire was to indentify factors to better JKR clip gauging.
The informations were analysed utilizing frequence, average value and comparative importance index. Using average value the inquiry was ranked consequently to acquire the concluding value that determines the aim was achieved.
3.1.1 Section A – Respondent background
Section A inquiry chiefly about the background of the respondent. The human ecology of the respondents were 42 ( 82.4 % ) from JKR inclusive of all subject and nine ( 17.6 % ) from contractors.
Experience of the respondents was asked in this subdivision, whereas the respondent was group and ranked based on working continuances. The respondents with working experience less than five old ages were 23.52 % , six old ages to ten old ages ( 17.65 % ) , 11 old ages to 15 old ages ( 13.73 % ) , 16 old ages to 20 old ages ( 9.80 % ) and more than 21 old ages were 27.45 % . Discipline of the respondents was classified as Civil Engineer ( 49.02 % ) , Mechanical Engineers ( 13.73 % ) , Electrical Engineers ( 11.77 % ) , Architect ( 9.80 % ) , Quantity Surveyors ( 13.73 % ) and others were 1.96 % .
3.1.2 Section B – Factors that contribute to holds of JKR undertaking
In this subdivision respondent were given 43 inquiries about the factors that contributed to detain of JKR undertaking. The inquiries were divided into six chief factors. The factors were experience, locations, fiscal, direction, scheduling and monitoring of the undertakings. All the informations were analysed utilizing SPSS package and MS Excel. The informations were foremost analysed on the dependability of the factors utilizing Cronbach ‘s Alpha. George and Mallery ( 2003 ) provide the undermentioned regulations of pollex: “ & gt ; 0.9 – Excellent, & gt ; 0.8 – Good, & gt ; 0.7 – Acceptable, & gt ; 0.6 – Questionable, & gt ; 0.5 – Poor and & lt ; 0.5 – Unacceptable ” . Results of Cronbach ‘s Alpha for Section A were acceptable as it ranged from 0.8607 to 0.9004. ( Appendix A )
Ranking of the inquiries were conducted based on comparative importance index ( RII ) utilizing the expression
RII = a?‘W
A * N
where W is the burdening given to each factor by the respondents ( runing from 1 to 5 ) , A is the highest weight ( i.e. 5 in this instance ) and N is the entire figure of respondents. Kometa et Al. ( 1994 ) used the comparative importance index method to find the comparative importance of the assorted causes and effects of holds. The RII value had a scope from 0 to 1 ( 0 non inclusive ) , higher the value of RII, more of import was the cause or consequence of holds. From analysis conducted the consequences were runing from 0.49 to 0.87. The ranking were done based on highest RII to the lowest. The ranking would demo the factors that contribute to holds of JKR undertaking base on the questionnaire.
Following ranking would be based on the average mark from the questionnaire. The value of the mean is developed from SPSS package for each inquiry. The mark were runing from 2.4 to 4.94. Nirmal Kumar Acharya et Al. ( 2006 ) developed scope for mean as
Very important hold factors ( Mean score above 3.5 ) ,
Reasonably important hold factors ( Mean mark between 3.0-3.5 ) ,
Reasonably important hold factors ( Mean mark between 2.5-3.0 )
Slightly important hold factors ( Mean mark between 1.5-2.5 ) .
From that range the inquiries were arranged and top 5 of the inquiry were selected. ( Appendix B )
3.1.2 Section C – Indentifies factors to better JKR clip gauging.
In Section C, 24 inquiries were divided into seven factors. The factors were experience, cost, undertaking size, location, the design facet, programming and guidelines. The procedure of analyzing the information was conducted same as in Section B. The consequences of dependability utilizing Cronbach ‘s Alpha were runing from 0.6827 to 0.9087. The consequence is acceptable base on a scope stated by George and Mallery ( 2003 ) . The following method of analyzing used in this subdivision was comparative importance index. The value ranged from 0 to 1 as mentioned by Kometa et Al. ( 1994 ) . The values of RII for this subdivision were runing from 0.682 to 0.894. It is acceptable and the top 5 of the superior be analysed.
Following measure was ranked the inquiry utilizing average value. The values were runing from 3.4118 to 4.4706. Based on Nirmal Kumar Acharya et Al. ( 2006 ) the mean from the questionnaire were acceptable and top 5 of the inquiry were chosen to find the factor to better JKR clip gauging. ( Appendix B )
3.2 Document Search from JKR ‘s undertaking database.
Completed undertaking that recorded in SKALA database has been divided into clip, cost and locations of the undertaking. The cause of EOT given to the contractors were analysed to happen what was the highest cause that lead to project can non finish within the original estimated clip in the contract.
The information from JKR ‘s undertaking database were sieved by type of undertaking. Merely constructing undertakings completed from 2004 to 2010 were selected for farther analysis. Merely data related to clip or continuance were analysed. From the database the contractual continuance and existent completed continuances were calculated. The ratio between existent and contractual continuance in per centum were taken as one of the standards for comparing. The informations were ranged harmonizing to the ratio and tabulated as
& lt ; -51 % ,
& lt ; 0 % to -50 % , Completed on clip and in front of agenda
0 % ,
1 % to 25 % ,
26 % to 50 % ,
51 % to 75 % , Completed behind agenda
76 % to 100 %
& gt ; 101 % .
From the analysis merely 25.18 % of edifice undertakings completed without EOT and 74.82 % were completed with EOT. This shows that about 75 % of JKR ‘s edifice undertaking was inaccurate clip appraisal. ( Appendix C )
It was found that cost of undertaking contributed an impact on the completion of the undertaking. From the analysis carried out on the cost it shows that cost of undertaking less that RM5 1000000s ( 41.03 % ) completed on clip or in front of agenda. Undertaking that cost between RM51 1000000s to RM100 1000000s were the undertakings that completed behind agenda ( 100 % ) . From the analysis it was found that low cost undertaking can finish within or in front of estimated clip of the undertaking. For the undertaking with higher cost, the estimated clip of the undertaking can non be achieved. ( Appendix D )
Locations of the undertaking gave an impact to completion of the undertaking. From the informations analysed 41.67 % of undertakings in Putrajaya were completed on clip or in front of agenda and 88.9 % of the undertakings in Perlis were completed behind agenda. The analysis shows that location of the undertaking within developed province were the provinces that have more undertakings completed within or in front of estimated clip of the undertakings. In this analysis the province that have a completed undertaking more than 25 % in front of estimated clip were considered and the provinces are Putrajaya ( 41.67 % ) , Kelantan ( 35.03 % ) , Selangor ( 33.91 % ) , Negeri Sembilan ( 31.21 % ) , Johor ( 30.39 % ) , Perak ( 29.74 % ) , Kuala Lumpur ( 29.42 % ) and Pulau Pinang ( 26.88 % ) . ( Appendix E )
3.2.4 Cause of EOT
Beside the continuance the cause of the EOT besides analysed to happen out what were the factor that cause JKR edifice undertaking were given EOT. The cause of EOT were categorised as
Current issue ( deficit of labor ) ,
JKR ‘s direction ( late issue building pulling ) ,
particular privilege ( authorities ‘s direction for Variation of monetary value ( VOP ) ) ,
contractual demand ( auxiliary understanding ) ,
All causes of EOT analysed and categorised consequently and frequence of happening were used to happen the causes that often make the edifice undertakings non completed as per contract. The causes of the hold were ranked and arranged to happen the most causes used for O.K.ing the EOT. From the analysis, it was found that the causes of that contributed to EOT were by Third Party ( 24.75 % ) , Contractual Need ( 19.37 % ) and JKR ‘s Instructions ( 11.12 % ) . ( Appendix F )
From the analysis conducted through a questionnaire on Section B, four factors were determined contributed to the hold of JKR undertakings. The factors were Monitoring ( by JKR and Contractor ) , Experience ( planning and programming ) , Management ( design alterations ) and Financial ( payment to sub-contractor ) ( Appendix B ) . Survey consequences by Chan and Kumaraswamy ( 1997 ) indicated that five major causes of holds were ; hapless site direction and supervising, unanticipated land conditions, low velocity of determination doing affecting all undertaking squads, client initiated fluctuations and necessary fluctuations of plants.
Base on informations from JKR database it was found that with the current method of clip appraisal for JKR undertakings, merely 25.18 % of undertakings completed on clip as per contract and 74.82 % were completed behind clip stated in the contract and was given EOT to finish the undertaking. Harmonizing to Frimpong et al. ( 2000 ) , indicated that 75 % of the undertakings exceeded the original undertaking agenda and cost whereas merely 25 % were completed within the budget and on clip.
Analyzing JKR ‘s database of the undertaking it shows that the estimated clip by JKR were related with cost and location of the undertaking. Low cost undertaking can finish within the estimated clip comparison to high cost undertaking. Location of the undertaking contributed to detain of the undertaking where most of the undertaking in developed provinces completed within the clip.
From the analysis of cause of JKR undertakings delay it was found that 24.75 % were contributed by 3rd party ( supplier to the contractor ) .
In Section C, two factors needed to better JKR clip appraisal. The factors were design facet ( JKR has to be clear what the client privation and complexness of the design to take into history when finding the clip for the undertaking ) and Scheduling ( both JKR and Contractor need to understand the importance of scheduling as all planned plants or undertakings in work programming must be follow ) ( Appendix B ) .
With the fact that was stated above it is recommended that farther research should be done in order to find the method to better clip appraisal in JKR undertakings. Further research can be done to bring forth mathematical expression for finding the clip of the undertaking.