In The Modern Age Globalization Economics Essay

In the modern age globalisation, trade liberalisation emerges as one of the most serious policy apprehensiveness for authoritiess all over the universe, peculiarly for lifting states. Trade liberalisation is believed to better economic growing and development through technological progresss ( Hoque and Yusop, 2010 ) .

The relationship between trade liberalisation and economic growing has been good documented in the economic literature. It has been suggested a strong and positive nexus between trade liberalisation and economic growing. It has been argued that trade and fiscal liberalisation policies cut down the inefficiency in the production procedure and positively influence economic growing.

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At the clip of the independence of Pakistan, there were several policies implemented to develop its economic growing.At the beginning Pakistan has made enormous advancement and its per Capita GNP remains the highest in South Asia.But the period of 1970 is non good because in this epoch the divider of E and West Pakistan occur. The separation of East Pakistan became a large loss for the economical state of affairs of West Pakistan. Furthermore, Oil monetary value hiking of 1973 become the ground to increase the poorness ratio. In this clip period the import measure increased. In1977 during the authorities of General Zia ul-Haq, the socialist experiment was halted. Pakistan ‘s poorness diminution during the 1980s was the rise of little industrial activities borne out of a more broad import policy for steel and other natural stuffs. In 1980-81openness of the economic system has increased as portion of trade in GDP. The impressive growing was accompanied by decrease in income inequalities. Government more liberalized trade during the clip period of 2000 in this clip period. Government promoted such policies by which services of export better flourished. Over all trade liberalisation has positively impact the economic growing.

Theoretical and empirical research indicates a strong and positive correlativity between trade liberalisation and economic growing over long period of clip. ( Sachs & A ; Warner, Vol.1, pp.1-118. ) has pointed out that unfastened economic systems has grown about 2.5 per cent faster than closed economic systems and the difference is larger among developing states.

( Barro, May, 1991 ) provided grounds that increasing openness had a positive consequence on GDP growing per capita.

Trade liberalisation is a policy in which authorities does non distinguish against import or interfere in trade policy by use duty to imports and subsidies to export. There are different researches which explained that the developing states should acquire an attack of replacing imports by domestic production of the goods. It besides decreases the limitations on the trade between states. Yanikkaya ( 2003 ) found a positive relationship between openness and economic growing.

This research through empirical observation analyses the relation between trade liberalisation and economic growing in Pakistan during the period 1970-2008 utilizing the model of an augmented Cobbaa‚¬ ” Douglas production map.

1.2: Aim OF Survey:

The present survey purposes to analyse the function of trade liberalisation on economic development. Following are the aims of this survey.

To analyse the affect of trade liberalisation on the economic place of Pakistan.

To demo the present scenario of economic development in Pakistan.

To give a few suggestions to heighten economic growing.

1.3: Scheme OF Survey:

This empirical survey is organized into seven chapters ; after the first chapter, the 2nd chapter reviews literature. Third chapter shows the theoretical account of determiner, informations beginning and methodology.Estimation of theoretical account and consequences are provided in chapter four. Conclusion the affect of trade liberalisation on economic growing in Pakistan is given in chapter five. At the terminal mentions are provided.


The correlativity between trade and development remains combative among research workers in malice of different political statement. Some R reappraisals are given below,

Khattak R M et Al ( 2012 ) examined the part of instruction to economic growing.they used clip series informations from 1971-2008. The variable which used were gross fixed capital formation, existent GDP per capita, secondary and simple school registrations and labour force engagement rate.. Ordinary least squares ( OLS ) and johansen cointegration techniques were used. The consequences suggested maintaining instruction on top precedence in public policies. ( Khattak & A ; Khan, 2012 )

Chani I M et Al ( 2012 ) examined the human capital formation and economic development in Pakistan. The survey contained gross domestic merchandise ( GDP ) per capita as a dependant variable and human capital formation, investing in physical capital and labour force as independent variables. There was clip series informations runing from 1972 to 2009.Auto Regressive Distributive Lag ( ARDL ) bound proving attack to co integrating was used to look into the long tally relationship between the variables in the theoretical account. The consequences showed that there is bidirectional causal relationship between economic development and human capital formation. ( Chani, Hassan, & A ; Shahid, 2012 )

Talukder.D ( 2011 ) studied the agricultural trade liberalisation and economic growing in Bangladesh. By utilizing secondary informations, it regarded as the grounds for policy displacement of Bangladesh economic system from agricultural munition to merchandise liberalisation. It was found that big and medium husbandmans gained from productiveness betterment but lost from lessening in maker monetary value. His survey recommended that agricultural trade policy reform positively impacted on growing. ( Talukder, December 2011, )

Asongu A.S ( 2010 ) studied jurisprudence, economic growing and human development. He examined a sample of 38 African states with British. The informations used from 1996 to 2008. He applied Two-Stage-Least Squares ( TSLS ) and hausman trial. The dependent variable was regulation of jurisprudence and independent were Inflation, population growing, authorities outgo, GDP per capita growing. IHDI[ 1 ]. He fined that regulation of jurisprudence policies play a critical function in economic growing and allotment of human beginnings.

Herath P M, examined the impact of trade liberalisation on economic growing of Sri Lanka. The clip series informations was used from 1960 to 2007. The variable which used were economic growing, trade liberalisation, GDP, investing, entire exports, entire imports, intermediate goods imports, And investing goods imports. Ordinary least square method was used. The determination of the survey showed a positive relationship between trade liberalisation and economic growing of Sri Lanka. ( Herath )


This survey specifies the building of variables. GDP is taken as a dependent variable while trade liberalisation and labour force engagement are considered as independent variable.


We use clip series informations for the period1970 to 2008. The information is collected from Economic study of Pakistan and from the site of province bank of Pakistan.

We have derived the theoretical account for appraisal from the following augmented signifier of Cobb Douglas Production Function.

A°A?’A’= ( A°A?A?A? , A°A?A?A? , A°A?A?A? ) ( 1 )

So, the empirical signifier of the theoretical account for appraisal becomes

A°A?’a„?A°A?’aˆ?A°A?’A’=A°A?aˆ?A?0+A°A?aˆ?A?1A°A?’a„?A°A?’aˆ?A°A?A?A?+A°A?aˆ?A?2A°A?’a„?A°A?’aˆ?A°A?A?A? +A°A?’E†A°A?’- ( 2 )

Yttrium is denoting Real GDP Per capita ; Real GDP has been used as step for economic growing. Capital is introduced as trade liberalisation ( TL ) . Trade is measured as an trade openness. Trade Liberalization ( TL ) is constructed by showing amount of entire existent exports and existent imports as ratio of GDP. Labor is taken as a labour force engagement in an economic system.

The concluding equation of economic growing for appraisal is given as below

A°A?’a„?A°A?’aˆ?A°A?’A’=A°A?aˆ?A?0+A°A?’A?1A°A?’a„?A°A?’aˆ?TL+A°A?’A?2A°A?’a„?A°A?’aˆ?A°A?A?A?+A°A?’E†A°A?’- ( 3 )

Augmented Dickey Fuller ( ADF ) trial has been used to happen the stationarity of informations. The ADF trial consequences show that all variables of survey are stationary at degree.we used the method of Ordinary Least Squares ( OLS ) technique for information analysis.


In this subdivision we perform econometric trials to happen out the impact of Trade Liberalization on Economic Growth of Pakistan.


At the first measure of the probe the relationship between variables, the unit root trial is applied to all the variables to prove stationary of these variables. Test is applied to the original series and at 1st differences

H0=There is unit root

H1=Series is stationary

The consequence of unite root trial are given below,




1st difference



-0.164848 ( -2.943427 )

-4.980369 ( -2.945842 )

I ( 0 )


-1.75647 ( -2.943427 )

-5.201721 ( -2.945842 )

I ( 0 )


-2.315630 ( -2.94327 )

-9.274570 ( -2.945842 )

I ( 0 )

Table no 1 of unit root indicate that existent GDP, trade liberalisation and labour force are stationary at degree. The consequence suggests utilizing ols technique.

Table No.2

Arrested development Results for Economic Growth Model



Std. Mistake


















In table no.2 the value of t-statistic Tells about the important of the variable, it shows the relationship of independent variables with dependent variable. F-statistic shows that overall theoretical account is important

The consequence of the appraisal indicates that the labour force ( LNL ) has important but negitivly affected the economic system of Pakistan. In consequences, Trade liberalisation has important and positively impact on economic system.

Table No.3



Average dependant volt-ampere


Adjusted R-squared


S.D. dependant volt-ampere


S.E. of arrested development


Akaike info standard


Sum squared resid


Schwarz standard


Log likeliness




Durbin-Watson stat


Prob ( F-statistic )


In table2 the value of f -statistic shows that overall theoretical account is important, while the value of R-square shows that theoretical account is normal. Here D.W. trial demoing that there is no job of autocorrelation in the information

5. Decision:

By utilizing a Cobbaa‚¬ ” Douglas production map and the OLS attack with one-year clip series informations from 1970 to 2008, the survey has estimated and analyzed the impacts of trade liberalisation on the economic growing in Pakistan economic system. It has found that the variables in the economic growing map are cointegrated. Trade liberalisation has significantly influence on GDP. On the whole, the extant literature on trade liberalisation and economic growing has found that trade liberalisation has contributed to economic growing, and consequences shows that trade liberalisation has positively and significantly impact on the economic growing. There is still besides need to advance initial trade liberalisation policies to more develop the GDP.


Asongu, A. ( 2010 ) . aa‚¬A“Law, Economic Growth and Human Developmentaa‚¬A? . LiAA?ge, Belgium: HEC-Management School.

Barro, R. J. ( May, 1991 ) . Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, , Vol. 106, pp. 407-443.

Chani, M. I. , Hassan, M. U. , & A ; Shahid, M. ( 2012 ) . Human Capital Formation and Economic Development in Pakistan: An Empirical Analysis. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, Paper No. 38925.


Khattak, N. U. , & A ; Khan, J. ( 2012 ) . THE CONTRIBUTION OF EDUCATION TO ECONOMIC GROWTH: Evidence FROM PAKISTAN. International Journal of Business and Social Science, Vol. 3 No. 4.

Malik, S. , Chaudhry, I. S. , & A ; Javed, H. I. ( 2 December 2011 ) . Globalization and Employment: Evidence from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Social Sciences, 215-226.

Sachs, J. D. , & A ; Warner, A. ( Vol.1, pp.1-118. ) . Economic Reforms and the Procedure of Global. Brooking Papers on Economic Activity, , 1995.

Talukder, D. ( December 2011, ) . Agricultural Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth in Bangladesh: Analysis of Technological Transformation and Distributional Consequences. History Research, ISSN, Vol. 1, No. 1, 1-18.


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