In the modern university instructors play an of import function in the acquisition procedure and the scope of its psychological and pedagogical impact on pupils is spread outing. Teacher can non be merely a usher of cognition and information ; he should be an pedagogue, psychologist, and clinical psychologist. On this depends the success his pedagogical activity and authorization.
Recently, Russia has a turning figure of pupils who require replacing instructors. Students defend their right and kick about the incompetency of instructors professedly and demand their surrender. Not so long ago the pupils of the Moscow State University of Printing achieved the surrender of the university curate [ 4 ] .
In this connexion the undermentioned thesis was advanced: I demonstrate that interaction on the line – A«teacher and student» is impossible without of contradiction and struggles because of mismatch of value – normative positions.
The purpose of this work is to analyze the kernel of struggle between two closely related groups – instructors and pupils. In this connexion, the undermentioned aims put frontward:
1 ) To uncover the kernel of struggles between instructors and pupils and to analyze forms of behaviour ;
2 ) To analyze the causes of struggle between two groups – instructors and pupils ;
3 ) To analyze ways of pull offing struggle and ways to decide them.
Features of interpersonal struggles in the university
Cross-cultural struggle can be defined as struggle generated, and possibly exacerbated or perpetuated, by cultural differences among the groups involved in the struggle. A individual ‘s civilization informs his or her worldview, moral codification, judgements, and thoughts or perceptual experiences about others [ 1 ].
The most common ground for struggles between pupils and instructors – the insufficiency of measuring pupils. Often ( during scrutinies and trials ) there are state of affairss when subjective sentiment of instructor comes up against subjective outlooks of the pupil. Many pupils, for illustration, unreasonably require to increase the mark. And besides, there are instructors who are about ne’er put “ first-class ”, such instructors are convinced that merely they have an first-class cognition of the topic. Such a instructor is ever in struggle with the pupils. Some instructors however understate appraisal based on the personal features of the pupils. Besides pupils rejoinders in practical categories and their unacceptable behaviour during talks cause negative attitudes of the instructor. Sometimes, sing appraisal of their cognition as inadequate, pupils come into struggle with the instructor. But most of the pupil merely does non demo negative emotions – ill will, hatred, green-eyed monster, misgiving, retaliation, and so offended pupil tells his friends about it.
For today, developed many categorizations of pedagogical communicating between instructors and pupils. I consider that the most accurate is the categorization suggested by M. Talen. He divided all possible manners of pedagogical communicating on 7 theoretical accounts.
Model 1 – “ Socrates. ” A instructor with a repute as a lover of differences and treatments in category. He is characterized by individuality and unsystematic in the acquisition procedure because of the changeless confrontation. In this theoretical account, pupils reinforce the protection of their ain place, learn to support them.
Model 2 – “ The caput of the group treatment. ” Chief thing in the educational procedure is the accomplishment of understanding and the constitution of cooperation between pupils. This instructor is a go-between, for which a democratic consent is more of import than the consequence of argument.
Model 3 – “ Maestro ” . The instructor acts as a function theoretical account. Students try be similar to this instructor, chiefly non merely in instruction, but in attitude to life in general.
Model 4 – “ The General ”. Avoid any ambiguity, demanding, stiffly achieves obeisance because he believes that he is ever right. Students, as an ground forces recruits must obey implicitly. Harmonizing to the writer ‘s typology, this manner is most common than all together, in learning pattern.
Model 5 – “ Manager ”. Style, was extended in a radically oriented schools and closely related with an ambiance of effectual schoolroom activities, the publicity of their enterprise and independency. Teacher tends to discourse with each pupils sense of the job, he seeks to a qualitative control and assessment the concluding consequence.
Model 6 – “ Coach. ” Students in this instance are similar to the participants of one squad, where each person are non of import, but together they can accomplish great things. Teacher plays the function of the originator, for which the chief thing – the terminal consequence, a superb success, triumph.
Model 7 – “ Guide ”. Teacher plays the function of walking encyclopaedia. Concise, accurate, subdued. He knows replies to all inquiries in progress, as the inquiries. Such a instructor is technically perfect and that is why frequently deadening. [ 5 ]
These theoretical accounts are a sort of extreme. Most frequently in the instruction pattern pupils are faced with a combination of manners in changing proportions. Picture of the common outlooks of the pupils and instructors is as follows. Students expect that the instructor will: esteem the pupils ; will give the class plan and the demands for the test ; A on a regular basis attend categories ; offer modern stuff ; usage effectual methods of instruction ; start and complete the lesson on agenda ; adequately assess pupil cognition. Teacher expects that the pupil will: esteem the instructors ; on a regular basis attend categories ; fix for categories ; work actively during the lesson.
Causes of the struggle in interaction of pupils and instructors
Specificity conflicts “ teacher – pupil ” is that the pupil is an independent topic of the pedagogical procedure. In fact, he acts as a “ client ” of instruction and is able to consciously assess “ the proposed merchandise. ”
The acquisition procedure, every bit good as all development is impossible without contradictions and struggles. The confrontation with the pupils is a common phenomenon which today can non be considered favourable. Surveies indicate that the pupils in relation to the subject respond really negatively to: the attitude of some instructors ; sudden testing on the subject which is non passed ; acquiring negative appraisals due to personal ill will to the pupil or a personal struggle between instructors and pupils ; prepossession of instructors without any justification ; violation of the rights ; incompetency of instructors ; lessons frustration due to detain or absence of the instructor in the workplace [ 2, 3 ].
Assessment is a sort of a statement of handiness of cognition about the topic. Not merely in universities but besides in schools can be observed that the appraisal is non carry throughing its basic maps. There are instances when instructors use appraisal to penalize the pupil.
Harmonizing to estimations of the pupils the causes of struggles with instructors are: unfairness, bias, instructors in categories and exams – 39 % ; haughtiness, derogative attitude toward pupils -29 % ; incompetency, negligent attitude to surveies, inefficient organisation of learning – 23 % .
It ‘s difficult non to detect the big figure of statements associating to the instability of instructors. In the description of this type of struggle explains that “ instructors yell at pupils, ” “ humiliate and abuse. ” Study of life style of instructors found that they have symptoms of neuroticism. The inquiry: “ Have you of all time had the province of crossness, restlessness, distraction or any other manifestations of uncomfortableness? ” 77 % of instructors have called a periodic province. The survey confirmed the thought of aˆ‹aˆ‹the societal beginnings of neuroticism: instructors with lower position, low rewards and chances more frequently notice upseting symptoms. However, pupils besides live in the same neurotic environment. Teachers observe their “ discourtesy ” , irresponsibleness and unwillingness to fit the position of the pupil.
Methods of struggle direction in the acquisition procedure
There are several common ways of pull offing struggle in the acquisition procedure, in this paper revealed four of the most effectual ways.
Resolution is a joint activity of its members, aimed at work outing the jobs. It requires the activity of both parties to alter the footings of battle and extinguish the causes of the struggle. Ie instructor and pupil must hence give grounds for its place to each of them to understand the ideas of another.
Colony is riddance of contradictions through engagement in the struggle a 3rd party. If the pupil does non hold with the appraisal, he may recapture the topic in the presence of the committee, or to reply the same inquiries other instructors chosen by the university or the pupil straight.
Attenuation – impermanent surcease of neutralization with saving the chief characteristics of the struggle. It can happen due to depletion of resources of both sides ( deficiency of statements, may complete the clip allotted for the talk ) ; loss of motive – pupil accept the appraisal, or teacher agrees to set the appraisal required by the pupil ; reappraisal of motivations – the pupil can accept the appraisal in order to better a relationship with the instructor.
Elimination – this method based on riddance of the basic structural constituents of the struggle – that is, when pupils are transferred to another group.
Learning activity is regulated by the pupil programs and plans. She is a purposeful procedure of acquisition, accomplishments and development of a pupil ‘s personality. In the procedure of larning activity pupil act as its topic. Teachers have a immense function ; depend on them how pupils will come out of the university and what is the hoarded wealth of cognition in his caput. But we can non deny that non lone instructors but besides pupils have an impact on the acquisition procedure. They determine what will be the attitude of the instructor to the pupil group as a whole and to each of the pupils separately.
Therefore, we can state that the struggle in the university is a specific signifier societal interaction. It is a procedure of deciding contradictions that arise in the educational procedure, with a peculiar signifier of societal interaction, which is characterized by high grade of mismatch of values and normative positions.
There are many grounds for struggle, both groups have certain demands. Therefore, the chief undertaking of the instructor and the pupil to happen the optimal center in which their interaction will be much more successful and productive. The demand find a via media to do contact, to be loyal is a necessary demand for the well-coordinated interaction, clear vision of possible jobs and their solution.
Most negative manner struggle could intensify into personal non-perception of people. , ie ailments to the curate, dean, which can do harm to concern repute, or refusal to pass on with each other. In any instance, struggle must be solved, without moral hurt and effects on damage of personality and self-respect. The chief standard for declaration of the struggle must be the consequence of the satisfaction of the parties. Parameters such as the grade of declaration of struggle and the triumph of the right opposition are of import.