Introduction I. T. I. Ltd. was the first public sector undertaking of the free INDIA. It was established in year 1948. The first manufacturing unit was established at the Bangalore complex in Karnataka under the name of Indian Telephone Industry Limited (I. T. I. ). Ever since, as a pioneering venture in the field of telecommunications, it has contributed to 50% of the present national telecom network.
With state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities spread across six locations and a countrywide network of marketing/service outlets, the company offers a complete range of telecom products and total solutions covering the whole spectrum of Switching, Transmission, Access and Subscriber Premises equipment. ITI has largest production unit situated in Bangalore manufactures most of the equipment needed for telecommunications. Also located at this unit are 2 well – equipped R&D labs.
ITI joined the league of world class vendors of Global System for Mobile (GSM) technology with the inauguration of mobile equipment manufacturing facilities at its Mankapur and Rae Bareli Plants in 2005-06. This ushered in a new era of indigenous mobile equipment production in the country. These two facilities supply more than nine million lines per annum to both domestic as well as export markets. The departments in ITI Bangalore plant are: * Telephone Defense products (TDP) * Information Technology (IT) * Surface Access and SAT-COM (SAS) * Research and Development (R&D)
Their main customers are Railways, Defense and Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited(BSNL). The company is consolidating its diversification into Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to hone its competitive edge in the convergence market by deploying its rich telecom expertise and vast infrastructure. Network Management Systems, Encryption and Networking Solutions for Internet Connectivity are some of the major initiatives taken by the company. Secure communications is the company’s forte with a proven record of engineering strategic communication networks for India’s Defense forces.
Extensive in-house R&D work is devoted towards specialized areas of Encryption, NMS, IT and Access products to provide complete customized solutions to various customers. Chapter 1: Research and Development This department consisted of several sub departments:- * NMS * Elemental as well as Umbrella * Optical * STM Interfaces * O/E & E/O Converters * 2/34 Mbps Optimux * Encryption equipment * Encryption equipment for Voice / Data for Bit Rates of 16 kbps/ 64 kbps * E1, E3, STM-I, STM-4 & STM-16 for various media -wired & wireless * Voice/Data/Fax Encryptor IP Encryptor * Satellite * IDR (Intermediate Data Range) Systems * Ku Band Satellite Systems * Wireless * WISS SVBF (Wireless Siren System with Simultaneous Voice Broadcast) * Microwave Equipment 8 GHz E1/STM-1 Radio * Digital Access Products * 30 Ch1 PCM, MIL PCM MUX * Programmable MUX * Protocol Converters * Consumer Premises Equipment * CLIP (Calling Line Identification Presentation) telephone for Navy * 5B & 5C telephone sets for Defense forces * Sound Powered telephone * System Engineering * Network Planning and Design * Mobile Communication Vehicles Ruggedisation 1. 18GHz RADIO It consists of two main components 1. Indoor Unit. 2. Outdoor Unit. Indoor Unit is housed inside the system. Its various parts are: 1. ARM Controller Card 2. Display Card 3. PC 4. Software Key 5. Plesio digital Hierarchy (PDH) 6. Synchronous digital Hierarchy (SDH) 7. Analog modem card 8. Digital modem card Working The ARM controller card which is LPC 2378 is connected to the PC using RS232 or RJ45. The PC could be desktop or laptop. The ARM controller is connected to display card that has LCD, LED bars and keypad.
General Purpose input-output of ARM is used to communicate with display. The ARM is connected to a software key that uses serial peripheral interface for communication. PDH and SDH help to synchronize with transmission and reception. The software key will choose either PDH or SDH card. The ARM controller has four inbuilt UART. Any data from the PC gets transmitted into the ARM Controller through RS232 or RJ45 line. The ARM controller sends this data to software key through serial peripheral interface which selects either PDH card or SDH card using UART.
Through this card the data is sent to modem through which the antenna can receive. 1. 2Hybrid Micro Circuits A hybrid microcircuit is one that is fabricated by combining two or more circuit types, such as film and semiconductor circuits, or a combination of one or more circuit types and discrete elements. The primary advantage of hybrid microcircuits is design flexibility; that is, hybrid microcircuits can be designed to provide wide use in specialized applications, such as low-volume and high-frequency circuits. Chapter 2: TELEPHONE DEFENSE PRODUCTS 2. ORDERWIRE SECRECY: (OWS) Order wire Secrecy encrypts and Decrypts Voice calls between operators on Radio. During alignment of Radio and setting up of the link the voice information is secured by this encryptor. It uses state of the art Components with Proprietary algorithm. It has additional feature of working in repeater and Regenerator mode during long hop working. It can work in Broadcast mode as well as Voice call mode. It can be customized to work with any type of radio. The system design also use of this in static as well as Mobile application. Fig 1. OWS 2. MIL PCM SECRECY: Mil PCM Secrecy: MIL PCM Secrecy is a ruggedized encryptor to encrypt and decrypt 2 Mbps / E1 data of PCM Format. It can accept various types of Signaling format like CAS, CCS, PRI, ADPCM, ATM etc. , It can work from Internal, External or Recovered clock. It uses Proprietary algorithm. It meets stringent Defense Environmental Specifications of JSS 55555 and EMI/EMC Specifications of MIL STD 461C. It works from 230V AC or -48v DC. Normally works from AC and in case of failure automatically swithches over to DC working. 2. 3Double Sided PTH PCB Manufacturing : Cut to size Plate made of glass epoxy and copper is cut to required size. The board is normally bigger than the required size. Thickness of 17. 5µm in maintained. * Drill Holes are drilled on the plate using drilling machine. * Debur and clean The extra projection that appears while cutting is removed in this stage. * Plated through Hole The board is dipped in Copper sulphate solution. The spreads evenly on the board and well as inside the holes. * Lamination Dry photo resist film called Mylar film is laminated on the board to protect the circuit while handling. Align expose Later this coated board is exposes to UV rays. The area which receives the rays directly becomes hardened, the remaining region becomes soft. * Develop Mixture of sodium bicarbonate and water is sprayed on board as a result film gets removed on the circuit area and remains on the white area. * Electro copper plating In this stage again 17. 5 µm thickness is maintained i. e. total thickness of circuit becomes 35µm. * Tin Casting Long Tin(Pb) rods are diluted and deposited on the board. * Film Strip The remaining film on the board is removed. * Etching
The unwanted Cu below the film is removed using Ammonia sulphate @ 50 degree temperature. * Tin Strip The Tin coating is removed using Nitric acid @ 105 degree temperature. * Solder Masking The whole circuit is covered with solder masking ink in order to protect the circuit from corrosion. * Expose and Develop Align the film and expose to UV rays. The white area gets hardened and remaining area becomes soft. Now pass the board into the solution of sodium carbonate and water for development. * Solder Coating The board is dipped into a mixture of Tin and lead such that the mixture enters the holes.
Later air blown so that soldering is done properly. * Trim to final size The board is finally cut to required size. * Bare Board test Here the board is tested for operational conditions. If any fault exists it’s handled and proceeded to next stage. * Legend marking Finally all marking s like value of resistor, capacitor etc done in this step. Chapter 3: INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY (IT) Information technology (IT) or information and communication technology (ICT) is a broad subject which deals with technology and other aspects of managing and processing information, especially in large organizations.
Particularly, IT deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit, and retrieve information. Over the past 20 years, its prevalence has dramatically increased so that it is now a part of nearly every aspect of daily life. In recent days ABET and the ACM have collaborated to form accreditation and curriculum standards for degrees in Information Technology as a distinct field of study separate from both Computer Science and Information Systems.
SIGITE is the ACM working group for defining these standards. The Worldwide IT services revenue totaled $763 billion in 2009. 3. 1Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS) Interactive Voice Response (IVR) is a technology that allows a computer to detect voice and dual-tone multi-frequency signaling (DTMF) keypad inputs. IVR technology is used extensively in telecommunication, but is also being introduced into automobile systems for hands-free operation. Current deployment in automobiles revolves around satellite navigation, audio and mobile phone systems.
In telecommunications, IVR allows customers to access a company’s database via a telephone keypad or by speech recognition, after which they can service their own inquiries by following the instructions. IVR systems can respond with pre-recorded or dynamically generated audio to further direct users on how to proceed. IVR systems can be used to control almost any function where the interface can be broken down into a series of simple menu choices. In telecommunications applications, such as customer support lines, IVR systems generally scale well to handle large call volumes.
It has become common in industries that have recently entered the telecommunications industry to refer to an Automated Attendant as an IVR. The terms Automated Attendant and IVR are distinct and mean different things to traditional telecommunications professionals, whereas emerging telephony and VoIP professionals often use the term IVR as a catch-all to signify any kind of telephony menu, even a basic automated attendant. The term VRU, for Voice Response Unit, is sometimes used as well. 3 3. 2Technologies used
DTMF signals (entered via the telephone keypad) and natural language speech recognition interpret the caller’s response to voice prompts. Other technologies include the ability to speak complex and dynamic information, such as an e-mail, news report or weather information using Text-To-Speech (TTS). TTS is computer generated synthesized speech that is no longer the robotic voice generally associated with computers. Real voices create the speech in fragments (phonemes) that are spliced together (concatenated) before being played to the caller. An IVR can be utilized in several different ways: 1.
Equipment installed on the customer premise 2. Equipment installed in the PSTN (Public Switched Telephone Network) 3. Application service provider (ASP). 4. Hosted IVR A simple voice mail system is different from IVR in that it is person-to-person, whereas an IVR is person to computer. IVR voice forms can be used to provide a more complex voice mail experience to the caller. For example, the IVR could ask if the caller wishes to hear, edit, forward or remove a message that was just recorded. An automatic call distributor (ACD) is often the first point of contact when calling many larger businesses.
An ACD uses digital storage devices to play greetings or announcements, but typically routes a caller without prompting for input. An IVR can play announcements and request an input from the caller. This information can be used to profile the caller and route the call to an agent with a particular skill set. (A skill set is a function applied to a group of call-center agents with a particular skill. ) Interactive voice response can be used to front-end a call center operation by identifying the needs of the caller. Information can be obtained from the caller such as account numbers.
Answers to simple questions such as account balances or pre-recorded information can be provided without operator intervention. Account numbers from the IVR are often compared to caller ID data for security reasons and additional IVR responses are required if the caller ID data do not match the account record. IVR call flows are created in a variety of ways. A traditional IVR depended upon proprietary programming or scripting languages, whereas modern IVR applications are structured similar to Web pages, using Voice XML, CCXML, SRGS, SALT or T-XML languages.
The ability to use XML developed applications allows a Web server to act as an application server, freeing the developer to focus on the call flow. It was widely believed that developers would no longer require specialized programming skills; however this has been proven to be misguided as IVR applications need to understand the human reaction to the application dialog. This is the difference between a good user experience and IVR hell Higher level IVR development tools are available in recent years to further simplify the application development process.
A call flow diagram can be drawn with a GUI tool and the application code (Voice XML or SALT) can be automatically generated. In addition, these tools normally provide extension mechanisms for software integration, such as HTTP interface to Web site and Java interface for connecting to a database. In telecommunications, an audio response unit (ARU) is a device that provides synthesized voice responses to DTMF key presses by processing calls based on (a) the call-originator input, (b) information received from a database, and (c) information in the incoming call, such as the time of day.
Chapter 4:Surface Access and SAT-COM SWITCHING ACCESS AND SATCOM (SAS): This department manufactures exchanges for BSNL telephone lines. This department has various sections, namely * Surface mounting line (SMT line) * SATCOM ( Satellite Communication) 4. 1Surface Mount Line This Section manufactures the circuits on Printed Circuit Board (PCB) for the line cards. The Following steps are involved: 1. The PCB is put into a stencil and glue is applied wherever required. 2. Firstly, the PCB is passed into a Glue dispenser machine. The Glue is dispensed into the PCB as required. . The card is inspected to find whether the glue is dispensed properly and evenly. 4. Next the PCB is passed through a Chip Shooter machine. This machine consists of many spindles having nozzle. This nozzle picks up components like IC’s, transistors, amplifiers etc. from the spool. 5. Fine Pitch IC’s are placed on the PCB. 6. This board is put into an oven at 120 degree Celsius at all atmospheric condition. 7. Lastly, all the PCB’s are tested for 100% correctness. 8. If any fault exists, the card is sent for further inspection. 4. 2Satellite Communication
This type of communication is used to communicate in remote areas. Multiple Channels per Carrier (MCPC) is the equipment used for this communication. This equipment provides 7 lines which are multiplexed using multiplexer into single line. This line is given to the modem and converted to voice signal of higher frequency around +/- 18 MHz. This high frequency signal needs to be up converted and then received by Local area Network (Low noise amplifier). Vicecersa is also possible. The Low noise signal is received by low noise amplifier, which is down converted.
Later given to modem for demodulation and then retrieved back. 5. Conclusion Information is the basic resource in today’s society. Information technologies in modern computer based information systems are once again being portrayed as measure force for organizational and managerial changes. A centralized computer system would process all the data for an organization, control all of its operation and carry out all the tasks. Naturally, highly automated system does not require as many people as manual methods.
Therefore, there has been significant reduction in the number of people required for performing manual task in the organization. Knowledge and ideas are the heart of the development process and are increasingly over shadowing the natural resource base because knowledge generation and information processing are at the roots of new productivity. IT based processes has enhanced countries access to global knowledge, market and capital. Bibliography Websites * www. google. com * www. wikipedia. com * www. itiltd-india. com * www. educypedia. be/electronics/pcbdesign. htm * en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Communications_satellite