Information Environments Knowledge Management Information Systems Essay

The alterations are excessively fast and excessively many. In such a dynamic scenario, what was relevant five old ages ago is wholly excess today. This calls for accommodating administrations and person ‘s continuously, upgrading accomplishments, larning and unlearning.

At present, it is knowledge direction which is the relevant system by which organisations will hold to work for growing. There are several constructs and definitions, which organisations will necessitate to accommodate to, in this new and dynamic environment for administrations to hold the competitory advantage.

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A holistic attack to information and information direction:

Administrations and their information environment at present can be better understood, if we examine in brief the history of the manner information and acquisition has been studied and written by taking bookmans in direction. As the innovator in direction pattern, Peter Drucker in 1969 made a major part to the fact that we live in a cognition economic system. Drucker portrayed the director as one who was paid to use cognition and exercising judgement in a responsible manner.

The term cognition worker was coined by him and he saw the cognition worker as a professional at easiness being a instructor, attorney or physician, and the organisation owed its continued being to such directors, every bit good as supplying them with the context in which to use their cognition. Drucker ( 1999 ) said the intent of concern must lie in society and that the lone valid definition of concern intent was to make and maintain a client. Administration is discussed as a agency to an terminal ; a proper construction will give long term benefits. Druckers five elements of direction were 1 ) set aims 2 ) form 3 ) motivate and pass on 4 ) step 5 ) develop people.

Davenport & A ; Prusak ( 1997:3 ) have said Our captivation with engineering has made us bury the cardinal intent of information is to inform people. Davenport who advocated the ecological attack to information goes on to province ( 1997:8 ) For old ages, people have referred to informations as information ; now they have to fall back to the exalted cognition, to discourse information hence, the current roar in cognition direction.

Davenport and Prusak ( 1998 ) give their on the job definition of cognition as Datas: a set of discreet, nonsubjective facts about events: structured records or minutess with or without significances and values, informations direction: in footings of cost, velocity, and capacity ( quantitatively ) in footings of seasonableness, relevancy, and lucidity ( quantitatively ) , indispensable natural stuff for the creative activity of information.

Information: message to alter the manner the receiving system perceives something: inform to give form to ( intending and value ) , Data that makes a difference or informations endowed with relevancy and intent and information direction: in footings of connectivity and minutess in footings of informativeness and utility. Transforming informations into information: that is contextualized, categorised, calculated, corrected and condensed.

Differentiation between information ( or cognition ) and engineering: Knowledge is a unstable mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, and expert insight that provides a model for rating and integrating new experiences and information. Transforming information into cognition leads to comparison, effects, connexions and conversations. Besides leads to stock, procedure, persons, groups, or organisational modus operandis.

Information ecology of Davenport and Prusak ( 1997 ) gave a batch of accent on people as being the centre of the organisation instead than the machines. Some recent writers like Malhotra ( 2002 ) have even found some shortcoming in their analysis. However popular writers like Covey besides lay a batch of accent on persons and their perceptual experience. Covey ( 1999: 28 ) states Each of us tends to believe we see things as they are, that we are nonsubjective. But this is non the instance. We see the universe, non as it is, but as we are-or, as we are conditioned to see it.

When we open our oral cavities to depict what we see, we in consequence describe ourselves, our perceptual experiences, our paradigms. As mentioned above Malhotra ( 2002: 3 ) provinces Alternatively of a narrow focal point on engineering ; information ecology puts how people create, distribute and understand and usage information at its centre by back uping the undermentioned beliefs:

1 ) Information is non easy stored on computers-is non informations ;

2 ) The more complex an information theoretical account, the less utile it will be ;

3 ) Information can take on many significances in an organisation ;

4 ) engineering is merely one constituent of the information environment and frequently non the right manner to make alteration.

However, Malhotra ( 2002:4 ) besides states that despite acknowledging the differentiation between informations and information, information ecology falls short of accounting for the nexus between information and public presentation, peculiarly in the instance of new organisational environment.

An Information system harmonizing to the lexicon of calculating ( 2004 ) is a computing machine -based system with the specifying features that it provides information to users in one or more organisations. Information systems are therefore distinguished from, for illustration, real-time control systems, message-switching systems, package technology environments, or personal calculating systems. The term could hold a really much wider significance than that suggested, sing the scope f significance of the words information and system. It could, or case, be broadened to include all computer-based systems, or farther broadened to include many non-computer – based systems.

Therefore, within the sphere of computer-based systems, the more specific term organisational information system is sometimes used. Information systems include informations processing applications, office mechanization applications, and many expert system applications. When their primary intent is to provide information to direction they are normally called direction information systems.

The undermentioned are among the more of import features of information systems, and do their design and building peculiarly hard.

  • Their environment is complex, non to the full definable, and non easy modeled.
  • They have a complex interface with their environment, consisting multiple inputs and end products.
  • The functional relationships between inputs and end products are structurally, if non algorithmically, complex.
  • They normally include big and complex databases ( or, in future, knowledge bases ) .
  • Their host organisations are normally extremely dependent on their continuing handiness over long periods, frequently with urgency go toing their initial proviso or subsequent alteration.

Knowledge directionharmonizing to a lexicon of calculating ( 2004 ) is efficient managing of information and resources within a commercial organisation.

Knowledge harmonizing to A lexicon of calculating ( 2004 ) is information that can be expressed as a set of facts and is known to an agent or plan. cognition can be distinguished from information or information by its incarnation in an agent ; for illustration, an agent might have information that increases its cognition.

Harmonizing to Mayhem ( 2004 ) Environmental perceptual experience is the manner in which an person perceives the environment ; the procedure of measuring and hive awaying information received about the environment. It is the perceptual experience of the environment which most concerns human geographers because decision-makers base their opinions on the environment as they perceive it, non as it is. The nature of such perceptual experience includes warm feelings for an environment, an ordination of information, and an apprehension, nevertheless subjective, of the environment.

The construct of the ‘perceived environment ‘ has been used to dispute the construct of economic adult male, which lies at the bosom of neoclassical economic sciences and to explicate purportedly irrational behavior, such as traveling to a flood- or temblor -prone location. It is suggested that environmental perceptual experience can be seen as a five -stage theoretical account: a ) An emotional response. B ) An orientative response with the building of mental maps c ) A sorting response as the person sorts out the incoming information. vitamin D ) An forming response as the person sees causes and effects in the information.

The innovator of the information age in the universe, Bill gates in his ‘Businee @ The Speed of Thought ‘ ( 1999 ) has said concern is traveling to alter more in the following 10 old ages than it has in the last 50 old ages. If the 1980s were about quality, 1990s about re-engineering, 2000s, will be about velocity- about how rapidly the nature of concern will alter, how rapidly concern will be transacted, and how information entree will change the life styles of consumers and their outlooks of concern.

How you gather, manage, and usage information will find whether you win or lose. Gates in his book ( 1999: twenty ) states what he considers necessary for digital information flow for cognition work. He lists five points which stated briefly are:

  • Communication should flux over electronic mail in an organisation which would enable speedy action on intelligence.
  • Online survey of gross revenues and individualized service for clients.
  • Shift cognition workers into high-ranking thought work about merchandises, services and profitableness.
  • Use digital systems to capture corporate history for usage by everyone.
  • Eliminate all paper work and convert to digital procedure, this would besides enable cognition workers to give more clip to of import undertakings. Gates ( 1999:14 ) provinces Information work is believing work. When believing and coaction are significantly assisted by computing machine engineering, you have a digital nervous system.

Michael Porter ( 2004 ) states that information systems engineering is all permeant in the value concatenation. Information systems are used in programming, commanding, optimising, measurement, and otherwise accomplishing activities. The writer who is known for his five regulations of competitory advantage says that information systems are holding a profound impact on competitory advantage because of its function in the value concatenation. Porter ( 2004:4 ) provinces that in any industry, whether it is domestic or international or produces a merchandise or a service, the regulations of competition are embodied in five competitory forces: the entry of new rivals, the menace of replacements, the bargaining power of purchasers, the bargaining power of providers, and the competition among the bing rivals.

Amaravadi ( 2004:129 ) states that information systems portions features with Sociology, technology every bit good as with scientific subjects. To the extent that it is a scientific discipline, we have a figure of Torahs and theories ; to the extent that it is technology and sociology, we have a figure of paradigms and rules.

Having gone through conceptual elucidations in the above two subdivisions, allow us analyze how knowledge creative activity can take topographic point in organisations or the linkage between information systems, larning and invention. Harmonizing to Gorelick et Al. ( 2004:18 ) cognition direction is a model for using, constructions, and processes at the person, group, squad, and organisational degrees so that the organisation can larn from what it knows ( and get new cognition if required ) to make value for its clients and communities.

The cognition direction model integrates people, procedures, and engineering to guarantee public presentation and acquisition for sustainable growing. Senge ( 1990 ) mentioned larning administration to mainstream concern for the first clip, depicting five subjects.

  • Personal mastery-an person ‘s ability to see world objectively.
  • Shared vision-the accomplishments to construct shared images of the hereafter.
  • Mental models- premises, generalisations, images that influence how an person or corporate understands the universe and takes action.
  • Team learning- larning how to acknowledge the forms and interaction in squads that detract from larning. Team larning utilizations duologue, colloquial techniques, to suspend single premises and let echt thought together.
  • systems thinking- Understanding phenomena in footings of their context and interrelatednesss of parts. Parsons ( 1951 ) organisational larning theoretical account describes a combination of public presentation and acquisition procedures that allow an organisation to last in a changing environment.

Parson ‘s action theory provinces four elements for societal action:

  • An person, a group or squad, or an organization-An histrion.
  • A state of affairs -the physical or societal objects the histrion relates to
  • Symbols-the agencies through which the histrion relates to different state of affairss and assigns intending to them.
  • Rules, norms, and values-the guiding factors for the histrion ‘s dealingss with the societal and nongregarious objects in his or her environment.

Parson ‘s besides identified four maps that create a dynamic system to categorise human action: version to the external environment, end attainment, integrating of all parts of the organisation and pattern care to reenforce the administrations cultural forms and prevailing behavior. Parson ‘s theory addresses how people integrate psychological, societal, and cultural elements of organisational kineticss from three positions: action associated merely with public presentation, actions associated merely with acquisition, and actions associated with both larning and public presentation at the same time. Parson ‘s position is that information internalized as cognition changes the conditions of the actions every bit good as the actions themselves. Schwandt and Marquardt ( 2000 ) version of Parson ‘s emphasize the acquisition subsystem.

The four maps of Schwandt larning system are as follows:

  • Environmental interface subsystem- Information comes into and leaves the person, squad, or organisation. The tools are used to capture utile input for the organisation.
  • the action-reflection subsystem: creates valued knowledge from new actions in order for the organisation to last. Knowledge supports larning actions that include experimentation, research, rating, critical thought, determination devising, job resolution, and clear uping treatments.
  • The dissemination-diffusion subsystem: transportations information and cognition within the organisation. Dissemination techniques are formal processs and policies. Diffusion techniques are informal communicating, rumor, and more formal communications such as memos and official electronic mails. This coordination map implements functions, leading procedures, constructions, and communicating techniques to heighten the motion of information and cognition. In practical squads electronic tools are required.
  • The significance and memory subsystem: creates, shops and maintains procedures for intending or sense-making. It establishes standards for opinion, choice, focal point, and control of the organisational acquisition system. It includes concluding procedures, comparings, making symbols that reflect beliefs, values, linguistic communication, artefacts, and basic premises, and containers for hive awaying and recovering cognition, including organisational memory systems.

Schwardt ‘s four acquisition systems are mutualist. Depending on the administration ‘s precedence either one of the systems will be more active or less active at a given point of clip. Gorelick et Al ‘s cognition direction model integrates people, procedure and engineering within the organisation. Knowledge is dynamic and complex and includes both expressed cognition, which is extremely specific, touchable, and codified ( for illustration: patents, procedures and modus operandis, names and references ) , and silent cognition, a less concrete construct of what should be done ( for illustration: know-how, experience, civilization ) . Successful cognition direction organisations are those that have a deep apprehension of the cognition that helps people do their work and leads to specific actions.

Gorelick et Al. ( 2004:42 ) province that challenge for an administration ‘s cognition direction map is to excite public presentation and enable right action by acquiring the right cognition, to the right people at the right clip. For public presentation betterment by and large it was thought to be public presentation and acquisition, but when acquisition is built-in to alter it becomes public presentation into acquisition, which will be sustained larning. Schwandt and marquardt ( 2000 ) province direct relationship between cognition and action is an jussive mood for an administration ‘s sustained ability to continuously larn and turn.

Information Strategy and Planning

Planning is at the nucleus of effectual information systems. Planing as studied by Bedward & A ; Stredwich ( 2004 ) province planning is normally divided into three degrees:

  • 1 ) Strategic – which deals with the large issues over a long period of clip, possibly two to five old ages.
  • 2 ) tactical – which deals with programs we need to do to implement determinations made over the large issues in a timescale extending from tomorrow to a few old ages therefore and
  • 3 ) Operational – which deals with the twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours planning and execution of inside informations.

The type of information needed for each type of planning will differ for case for strategic be aftering a wide set of informations associating to the environment within which the organisation works is required. For operational planning, precise and accurate cognition of the internal state of affairs is needed and for tactical planning, it is the combination of the two extremes.


To reason the above interdisciplinary and disputing topic, which is at the same clip germinating dynamically and altering dynamically, I would wish to cite the information age innovator, Bill Gates ( 1999:413 ) Human existences are non the biggest animate beings. We ‘re non the strongest or fastest. We ‘re non the sharpest in sight or odor. It ‘s astonishing how we survived against the many ferocious animals of nature. We survived and prospered because of our encephalons. We evolved to make full the cognitive niche. We learned how to utilize tools, to construct shelter, to contrive agribusiness to cultivate farm animal, to develop civilisation and civilization, to bring around and forestall disease. Our tools and engineerings have helped us to determine the environments around us. The same rules apply in today ‘s organizational universe. Individual ‘s demand to accommodate and larn to utilize the new engineerings innovatively, and besides contribute to organizational acquisition and development in order to let ongoing benefits to administrations.


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