Information gathering and accounting

Part 1 – Undertaking aims and overall research attack

ACCA is one of the most esteemed grades of this epoch of competition. As a qualified ACCA, one gets a batch of chances to heighten the educational chases and one of them is obtaining a ‘BSc ( Hons. ) in Applied Accountancy ‘ . Choosing from a list of 20 subjects was non an easy undertaking as most of them seemed to be of great involvement to me. But I was looking for a subject that could farther add to my filed and assist me larn about a cardinal strategic facet that I could analyze in greater item. So I, eventually, chose the undermentioned subject for my Research Report:

“How the debut of a new engineering can help an organisation in accomplishing its concern objectives”

One of the motivations of taking this subject is that the technological progresss achieved in the past few decennaries have brought about a revolution in the concern universe, impacting about all facets of working life. Peoples can make others throughout the universe in a affair of seconds, with cost being progressively irrelevant. With engineering ‘s incursion into nucleus concern maps, the advantages are being recognized at a rapid gait, enabling entree to well-organized, choice information that can be used to do better determinations and efficaciously run the day-to-day operations of the organisation.

Most people, nevertheless, think of engineering in footings of certain artefacts: computing machines and package, aircrafts, water-treatment workss, microwave ovens ; to call a few. But engineering is much more than these touchable merchandises. In broader facets, engineering includes substructure necessary for the design, fabrication, operation, and fix of technological artefacts – from corporate central offices and technology schools to fabricating workss and care installations. The cognition and procedures used to make and run technological artefacts the technology know-how, fabrication expertness, and assorted other proficient accomplishments are cardinal to finishing the definition of engineering.

Among other grounds to take this subject was the association of engineering with invention as invention is the indispensable factor in any economic system to hold efficient production. It enables the debut of new versions of promotions which have been nonexistent and can convey approximately tremendous alterations in the work patterns and concern operations.

Company Choice

Choosing the administration for transporting out the capable research required a great trade of planning as I wanted to utilize the most suited industry, and thereby the company, which has cardinal trust on engineering. For this intent, I used the cyberspace and concern magazines. In order to specify the existent impact of new engineering, along with lucubrating the fact as to how it aids an organisation in accomplishing its concern aims, I selected PAK ELEKTRON LIMITED ( PEL ) .

PAK ELEKTRON LIMITED is the pioneer maker of electrical goods in Pakistan. It was established in 1956 in proficient coaction with M/s AEG of Germany. In October 1978, the company was undertaken by the SAIGOL GROUP OF COMPANIES. Since its formation, PEL has been lending towards the promotion and development of the technology sector in Pakistan by presenting scope of quality in-home contraptions and electrical goods. The Company besides continued to heighten its installations to run into the turning demand of improved merchandises. In the engineering sector, they besides showed a fantastic advancement by bring forthing new, advanced and more advanced merchandises under both the contraption division and power division.

Developments In engineering have a impulse of their ain. However, the inquiry arises as to “what was the impact of new engineering on the public presentation of the PAK ELECTRON LIMITED ( PEL ) ? ”

The rapid promotions in the field of engineering i.e. environment observing contraptions, power salvaging engineering, has greatly impacted economic systems, fabrication and service industries in footings of public presentation, cost decrease and degree of skill employed. It is frequently cited that the cost of carry oning one dealing or fabricating one unit online or through the usage of new technological ways may be merely one-hundredth of the cost of making the same dealing via old conventional ways.

New engineering provides PAK ELEKTRON COMPANY with much greater chances to cross-sell their merchandises to their clients. This is because technologically advanced ways of fabricating enable PEL to roll up and analyse information about their clients in a more systematic manner and helps it to prosecute in what is known as “mass customization” of its merchandises. PEL has been able to present huge lines of merchandises in contraptions divisions and power divisions, the two major sections of their production.

Purposes and Aims

The chief purpose of this survey is to place the impact of NEW TECHNOLOGIES on PAK ELEKTRON COMPANY and fix a concern analysis study. The broader intent of this research undertaking is to research the relationship among new engineerings and concern sectors.

Furthermore, the aim of my study is to show a elaborate analysis on PEL, based on its history every bit good as on the informations presently available, its technological development and the impact on its strategic aims. My study will foreground the assorted internal and external technological factors that have an impact on the company ‘s public presentation and consequences.

The research study will enlist in item the undermentioned countries:

  • Understanding and analysing the construct of new engineering ;
  • Exposing the range of an association sandwiched between engineering factor and concern sector ; and
  • Measuring the degree of impact of new engineering on PAK ELEKTRON COMPANY.

Part 2 – Information assemblage and accounting / concern techniques

This subdivision of the research study discusses the beginnings of information and the processs and methods adopted in roll uping, collating, bring forthing and construing the information. By and large, there are two beginnings of information.

Primary Source of Data

Secondary Beginning of Data

Datas that establishes a nexus to first manus information that comes straight from its beginning.

Second manus information that passes through other mediums before it reaches user.

Primary Information

Secondary Information

Primary information is the information gathered from the topic company itself such as its fiscal statements, one-year studies, direction reappraisal reports/ messages, quarterly presentations, imperativeness releases, etc. This signifier of information is normally most accurate, comprehensive, firsthand and complete given the regulative and jurisprudence demands that bound the company to supply and print most reliable content about its company.

A secondary beginning of information is the information generated by 3rd parties. These 3rd parties have no direct nexus with the topic companies. Information gathered from these beginnings is slippery to trust on as it involves subjectiveness and are largely outdated. However, research studies by celebrated analyst research companies ; entity evaluation studies ( i.e. by PACRA, Moody ‘s and JCR-VIS ) , articles from celebrated concern newspapers and magazines and authorities and public studies are by and large considered to be dependable and indifferent.

O Primary beginnings of informations aggregation

The beginning of primary informations aggregation was straight from caput office of PEL. This comprised interviewing forces at assorted degrees of the hierarchy such as the General Managers Appliance & A ; Power Division, the Area Manger or Customer Services Officer and the usage of Questionnaires.

Harmonizing to the nature of this research, it is clear that such a beginning would be the best one to obtain relevant informations. My treatment with these forces revealed the internal schemes of PEL in regard of new engineerings, used in their country concern. Furthermore, I besides got a opportunity to hold a short meeting with the General Manager, Power Division of PEL Mr. Aftab Ahmad that was highly helpful for me in transporting out this research undertaking.


Reason for usage


Meeting with the General Manager, Power Division

Meetings have ever been pillar rock in roll uping information. The meeting with the General Manager, Power Division, Mr Aftab Ahmad proved really fruitful as it enabled me to garner critical information for my undertaking such as company policies, operations, usage of new engineering, attachment to criterions of utilizing them

Furthermore the GM explained the chief grounds of the debut of new engineering in their place contraptions and power divisions specifically in ‘switch cogwheels ‘ and ‘deep deep-freezes ‘ . Furthermore, he besides explained the debut of improved assembly methods of generators and as to how it has helped the concern. We besides discussed some of the inquiries that I had sing the undertaking.
Subsequently Mr. Ahmad instructed one of his helpers to attach to me to the mill and the workplace which helped me to acquire a better position of the patterns of PEL.

Geting an assignment with the cardinal forces of PEL was a cumbrous undertaking ; nevertheless, I managed to set up a meeting with the GM.

This peculiar meeting lasted a short while though, but it was a large beginning of information and I was able to discourse many points associating to the altering technological environment and its impact on organisation ‘s overall public presentation.


A questionnaire was designed incorporating a set of inquiries associating to PEL.

The questionnaire was used to garner market response to the merchandises of PEL.

This was a boring work. I had to roll about in the market traveling from store to shop where there are salesrooms of PEL ‘s merchandises. The motivation behind this activity was to garner informations about consumers ‘ penchants and PEL ‘s response towards these penchants.

O Secondary beginnings of informations aggregation

While roll uping secondary beginnings of information, it was ensured that the beginnings used are dependable. The beginnings that were used to garner information are discussed below:


Reason for usage


Fiscal Reports

A annually published fiscal study contains elaborate statements of organisation ‘s fiscal place, comprehensive income, hard currency flows and the annexed notes to the histories.

Fiscal studies besides include managers ‘ study which, along with giving an overview of company ‘s public presentation over the old ages, provides a broader mentality of the consequence on gross due to the technological alterations.

Fiscal studies of all the listed companies are readily available on Lahore Stock Exchange. I used these statements for ciphering one-year public presentation and for analyzing the economic and environmental factors impacting the concern sector.


The Internet includes commercial, educational, governmental, and other webs, all of which use the same set of communications protocols.

Internet is the biggest hub of information. It lets you research all types of information. I went through different articles and analysis relating to PEL every bit good as its rivals ‘ in order to garner information associating to the impact of debut of engineering.

This method was clip devouring but proved to be the cardinal beginning.

Apart from PEL ‘s official website I besides searched a figure of other web sites to acquire information about the construct of technological promotion.

Newspapers and Business Magazines

I besides scanned newspapers and concern magazines like ‘The Recorder ‘ to obtain articles related to the contraption industry and specifically to PEL and prepared a sum-up of the collected information. I besides watched CNBC Pakistan and Business Plus for any related intelligence.

This procedure was time-consuming but relevant. The information is readily available and easy to maintain and utilize.

Such sort of information beginning gives an huge aid while fixing studies.

Part 3 – Consequences, Analysis, Conclusions and Recommendations

This subdivision of the research study analyses the informations collected in item. As mentioned above, the impact of new engineering on PEL and its utility in accomplishing organisation ‘s aims is analyzed utilizing several techniques.

This analysis includes, along with other things, foretelling the tendency of NEW INVENTED TECHNOLOGY in planetary economic system and analyzing the potencies benefits of engineerings. The research continues by analysing assorted different non-financial factors and issues associating to the usage of strategic theories and theoretical accounts. Further, the recent one-year public presentation and place of PEL has besides been analysed.

The merchandises manufactured by PEL have ever been of high criterion and the name PAK ELEKTRON LIMITED is synonymous with QUALITY all over Pakistan. Since its origin, the company has been working for the promotion and development of technology know-how in Pakistan which is apparent from its mission statement, reproduced hereunder:

“To provide quality merchandises and services to the complete satisfaction of our clients and maximise returns for all interest holders through optimum usage of resources. To concentrate on personal development of our Human Resource to run into future challenges. To advance good administration, corporate values and a safe working environment with a strong sense of societal responsibility.”

PEL is one of the major makers of electrical goods in Pakistan, concentrating on both industrial and consumer sections. The Company has a strong bridgehead in the power equipment market and is good established in the place contraptions market. PEL has been continuously adding new merchandises to its scope. As a consequence, PEL has registered a important addition in its gross revenues volume, during the last 10 old ages.

Merchandise Portfolio

The company comprises of two divisions:


The spread in demand and supply of energy in the state has been on the rise for rather a piece ensuing into terrible burden direction. This requires immense input from Government and Private sector on the coevals side in different signifiers i.e. thermic, hydel, coal and air current. Funding facet of fuel supply and the round debt issue has resulted in less than optimal capacity use of coevals installations.

Keeping in position the challenges in this country, few old ages ago the company embarked upon a major plan of heightening its capablenesss to plan and fabricate province of the art electrical distribution equipment in the state.

The Power Division chiefly manufactures ;

1. Transformers

Puting up of the new fabrication installation has given a technological border to the Company over its rivals non merely within the state but besides in the full Middle East and North African part. There are two types of Transformers:

Distribution Transformers

Power Transformers

It includes ;

a ) Pad Mounted Transformers: These transformers are installed on evidences

B ) Pole Mounted Transformers: These are installed on poles and distribute electricity to country about.

Power transformers are immense size transformers that are installed in grid Stationss.

PEL is bring forthing ‘distribution transformers ‘ that scope from 10 KVA to 6000KVA.

These transformers are produced runing from 10 MVA to 40 MVA.

PEL is a major provider to WAPDA and KESC and commands the market with an approximative portion of 36 % in transformers, 35 % in energy metres and 34 % in switchgears. These portions are based on the allotment of orders by WAPDA, KESC and supplies made to private consumer.

Major Customers

Major Suppliers


History for over 90 % of the entire transformer gross revenues

ORB UK, for Silicon Steel Sheet

Thyssenkrupp Electrical Steel GmbH of Germany – supplies Silicon Steel Sheet

International Industries LimitedA Pakistan – supplies egg-shaped tubing

Universal Industries Pakistan – Copper Rod, wire etc.

Pak Hye Oils – supplies transformer oil.

2. Switch Gears

Switchgear concern has remained changeless due to moderate demand from both private sectors every bit good as from WAPDA. Since execution of such plans is funded by the World Bank and ADB, PEL is anticipating more orders from public sector.

PEL manufactures MV & A ; LV switchgears for indoor and outdoor installings which comply with important international criterions and ordinances. PEL ‘s market portion of switchgear ( including MV metal clad switchgear cells, MV Pad Mounted Transformers, Kiosk Type Substations, LV Power Factor betterment workss, Motor control centres and coach tie canal ) remained stable due to better direction of client relation.

Major Customers

Major Suppliers

WAPDA and private sector about every bit divided

Areeva ( Dubai ) for supply of Relaies

Hyundai Heavy Industries, South Korea for supply of VCB

Pelka Elektrik Malzemeleri of Turkey

Samitomo Corporation ( Taiwan ) for supply of hot rolled sheets

3. Energy Meters

The hard currency machine of Electric Utility Companies is in the procedure of alteration from Electro Mechanical to Digital Meters. The extra characteristics of Digital Metering includes clip, maximal demand indicant, distant entree, two manner communicating and a figure of other characteristics that make this equipment a smart merchandise. It besides enjoys the assurance of the consumer with regard to its dependability and truth.

PEL had anticipated this new tendency and had seasonably acquired this proved engineering. Hence they were are able to run into the demand for individual and three stage applications through in-house production. The concern in this merchandise is demoing healthy marks in footings of gross and profitableness every bit good as enhanced use of production capacities. PEL manufactures four types of energy metres ;

Single Phase Electromechanical Meters

Single Phase Static Meters

Three Phase Electromechanical

Three Phase Static Meters

The quality of PEL metres has been certified by KEMA Laboratories of Holland. PEL metres are superior to others due to their ability to lower gross losingss through accurate and precise operation and decrease of care disbursals.

The electro-mechanical energy metres are manufactured under licence from ABB of USA. Furthermore, Single Phase energy metres provide maintenance-free operations over a long period and accurate measuring of electrical energy. They improve burden public presentation and preciseness truth.

Major Customers

Major Suppliers


History for about 100 % of the totalA A A energy metre gross revenues

Zhejiang Holley Imp. & A ; Exp. Co. Ltd of China and ABB INC Electricity Metering of USA supply energy metre parts for individual stage metres

Mitsubishi Corporation of Singapore provides polycarbonate rosins

Weldey Electric ( HK ) Ltd.- supply of EM Kit

4. EPC Contracting

With restructuring of the power sector in Pakistan, clients ‘ demand for high value packaged solutions for transmittal systems and endeavor electrification demands has grown drastically. PEL EPC consists of human resource with high academic makings and experience and cognition of local and planetary markets. The EPC division delivers custom designed and constitutional solutions in following countries:

  • 132KV and 220KV grid Stationss for power public-service corporation companies.
  • 132KV and 11KV substations for industrial and commercial clients.
  • Integration of private confined power coevals workss into public-service corporation web for sale of their excess power to public-service corporation companies.
  • Electrification of lodging undertakings and industrial Parkss


It was established in 1980-81 when PEL introduced its first consumer merchandise i.e. Window room Air conditioners in Pakistan. Refrigerators and Deep Freezers followed this during 1986-87.

Appliances Division trades in the undermentioned merchandise lines:


Air conditioners

Deep Deep-freezes

Other Domestic Appliances

1. Refrigerators

PEL Refrigerators were introduced in 1987 with characteristics such as VCM ( Vinyl Coated Metal ) coating ; fashionable coating and car drain systems. PEL iceboxs carry compressor made by Danfoss of Germany. With regard to iceboxs, company ‘s slogan is:

“Not merely infrigidation, we believe in healthy preservation”

The icebox concern contributes 40 % to the PEL ‘s gross revenues and this tendency is expected to go on in the old ages to come.

PEL ‘s market portion is 28 % . Its chief rivals include Dawlance, Waves, Haier and some other International trade names.

Major Suppliers

  • Danfoss Compressors D.O.O of Slovenia- for supply of Compressors
  • BASF Corporation Ltd. Korea for Polystyrene
  • Marubani ITOCHU Thailand and POSCO S.Korea for CR steel sheets
  • Chang Zhu contraption Support Ltd. for Evaporators
  • LG Chemicals South Korea for VCM Sheets
  • Golden Dragon Precise Copper Tube Inc. China for Copper Tube.

2. Air Conditioners

PEL is among the major providers in the domestic air conditioning market. PEL started fabricating window air conditioners for the first clip in Pakistan in proficient coaction with “General” of Japan. The air conditioners were specifically designed to run into the utmost climatic conditions of Pakistan. PEL ‘s air conditioners have first-class chilling capableness at high temperature, changing degrees of humidness, high air dust and uneven electromotive force power supply conditions.

The air conditioner market in Pakistan comprises of window air conditioners and split air conditioners.

PEL holds market portion of 10 % while remainder is shared by assorted Local and International participants.

Major Suppliers – for supply of A.C Kit

  • Galanz
  • Midea
  • Aux

3. Deep Deep-freezes

The company ‘s ability to bring forth seamster made B2B undertakings has helped it in procuring orders from the corporate sector. This section has become a lasting characteristic to its deep deep-freeze concern with repetition orders. Proven quality of company ‘s merchandises and its prompt after gross revenues services has besides helped it to keep and develop stronger relation with its valuable corporate clients.

4. Other Domestic Appliances

This class includes Microwave ovens, Water dispensers and Washing machines which compliment the place contraptions scope of the company. PEL emphasizes on each merchandise class through merchandise runs, in-time handiness and concentrate on store portion. Microwave is the most highlighted of its class and is offered with new and attractive designs. PEL has increased Microwave merchandise scope by offering different sizes and theoretical accounts run intoing changing demands of its clients. In add-on, PEL has launched economical theoretical accounts in H2O dispenser class to run into the turning client demands.

Developments in the Area of Information Technology

By integrating the kernel of the mission statement in PEL ‘s stigmatization line, and utilizing new engineerings, it intends to make the coveted image and accomplish the undermentioned aims:

  • High visibleness degree
  • Heightened consciousness amongst the mark market
  • Favorably mobilising the mark market towards the organisation and its merchandises
  • Minimal cost for maximal projection
  • Enhanced degree of relationship with clients and employees
  • Upgrading learning abilities, accomplishments and cognition of staff
  • Enhancing engagement of Private Sector in preparation activities at Management degree
  • Fixing preparation programs, plans and undertakings maintaining in position the local and as foreign work force preparation demands

For the intent of accomplishing these set criterions and to use the benefits of new engineerings, PEL established Information Technology section, which is invariably endeavoring to present simpler programs of purchasing the coveted merchandise.

Furthermore, it has played its portion in regard of:

  • Reducing merchandise monetary values
  • Introducing consumer finance enterprises
  • Lower involvement rates
  • Improved consumer buying power

ITD ‘s cardinal duties include:

  • Troubleshooting, installing, omission, upgrading computing machines, hardware and package
  • Rights protection and issue
  • Develop and maintain internal web
  • Develop and maintain sphere of each individual
  • Create and heighten internal packages running presently


Home Appliance Market

The industry enjoyed a roar period from 1992 to 1995 until the reverse in 1996 when gross revenues revenue enhancement was raised to 18 % from 15 % , besides the levy of excise responsibility. The industry recovered 1999 onwards following the authorities duties rationalisation on imported constituents and the increasing domestic demand. Three active participants, viz. Dawlance, PEL and Waves, are presently run intoing major domestic demand of iceboxs, deep deep-freezes and air conditioners.

However the volume degree at which the local makers are runing has resulted in cost efficiencies due to economic systems in merchandise and natural stuff purchases thereby doing local merchandises competitory to Chinese trade names.

The place contraptions market in Pakistan has expanded in the past several old ages and is expected to go on. The entire size of place contraptions market is Rs. 70 Billion.

Rs. In Bln


Market Share in % footings

White Goods


Electronic Goods


Gas Appliances


This enlargement is owed to the invariably altering and, of class, bettering engineerings that answers consumers ‘ of all time altering demands. Furthermore, low monetary values, handiness of consumer funding at lower involvement rates and altering life manners with a tendency towards continuing comestibles for a longer period have besides been cardinal factors in this enlargement.

Power Equipment Market

The demand for power equipment is on the rise in the state due to system revamping and village electrification undertakings being implemented by the public-service corporations and the increasing investing in electricity transmittal and distribution by the private sector.

The Power Division market chiefly comprises of Transformers, Switchgear and Energy Meters. PEL has been able to keep its market portion in all three classs and is spread outing its market portion through strong R & A ; D cognition in power equipment and high merchandise quality.


Market Size ( units )


Unit of measurements

% age




36 %




34 %

Energy Meters



35 %




35 %

Merchandise Wise Gross saless History







Transformer ( TR )







Energy Meters ( EM )







Switchgear ( SG )







Power Transformer ( PT )



Power Undertakings ( PP )



Refrigerators ( RF )







Air conditioners ( AC )





















New Technologies and Achieving Business Aims

I would wish to cite Michael Schrage ‘s insightful observation that he made in an interview to Knowledge Inc. :

“I think “knowledge management” is a bullshit issue. Let me state you why. I can give you perfect information, I can give you perfect cognition and it wo n’t alter your behaviour one shred. Peoples choose non to alter their behaviour because the civilization and the jussive moods of the organisationmakes it excessively hard to move upon the cognition. Knowledge is non the power. Power is power. The ability to move on cognition is power. Most people in most administrations do non hold the ability to move on the cognition they possess. End of narrative. ”

While discoursing in item the topic of achievement direction, the chief facet was ‘The Role of Technology ‘ . Adopting new engineering that absolutely responds to the altering demands of the consumers is so an achievement direction. It is the biggest practical tool for an administration to accomplish its aims expeditiously.

As detailed above, PEL has been utilizing this tool for the last six old ages and has obviously shown the consequence in signifier of increased gross revenues and enhanced market portion. PEL has ever responded to the altering epoch in a positive manner and launched new/improved merchandises at the right clip. This has non merely made its gross revenues ‘ graph grow higher but has besides enabled the company to prosecute its mission statement.

The questionnaires, I used, revealed that PEL ‘s methods of presenting new engineering has fundamentally earned it greater market portion and client trueness.

SWOT Analysis


  • PEL is the pioneer maker of electrical goods in Pakistan
  • PEL was the 16th Company in Pakistan with ISO 9002 Certification
  • PEL is a entire Quality Management ( TQM ) Company
  • Huge distribution web all over Pakistan
  • Deployed latest engineering in the Power Division
  • Strong trade name image
  • Strong quality, gross revenues and services
  • Skilled labour force and proficient and direction staff
  • Regular agreement for keeping employee effectual preparation plans
  • Excellent concern dealingss with possible clients
  • Effective stuff direction
  • PEL provides first-class after gross revenues services with a separate section -Consumer Marketing Department ( CMD ) .


  • Lack of proper selling orientation
  • PEL has relatively higher variable costs due to higher ingestion of changing resources ensuing in lower part borders
  • Due to miss of finance it can non use all its resources at full capacity, increasing the merchandise cost per unit that decreases the net income border of each consumer point


  • The fabrication of Grid Stations and accoutrements supplementary to Grid Stations may assist PEL bring forth higher grosss
  • Scope of contraptions can be increased in close hereafter
  • Expansion of country because of trade name equity
  • Further selling and operational use of established huge gross revenues web


  • Inflation and its effects on the cost of production
  • Cheaper Chinese Merchandises
  • Bigger publicizing budgets of rivals
  • Constantly altering authorities policies sing trade, monetary values and misdirection with regard to proviso of resources, subsidies and energy supplies

Future Outlook

PEL is geared towards turn toing and run intoing the outlooks of its client through quality merchandises in both domestic contraptions and electrical equipments. PEL ‘s future public presentation will be based on increasing cost nest eggs, increased gross revenues and high operating efficiencies and all that, of class, will be made possible merely by being technologically up-to-date. Assorted stairss have already been introduced with the aim of bring forthing sustainable net incomes by concentrating on different operational countries and concern variegations.

Pixel is good positioned to recognize its possible by taking advantage from the expected growing in the economic system as its capablenesss are aligned with the precedences of its clients in both the Power and the Appliances divisions.


To analyse this research undertaking I have used concern techniques instead than accounting techniques. At the bosom of any successful rating is a set of relevant, compendious and appropriate rating inquiries. The ability to acknowledge and so inquire ‘good ‘ inquiries is an indispensable accomplishment of any judge. The following generic inquiries helped me as a unsmooth usher for project rating:

  • What do I desire the undertaking to carry through?
  • How will I know if I have accomplished my ends?
  • What activities in the undertaking do I have to set about to carry through my ends?
  • What factors might assist or impede my ability to carry through my ends?

I completed this analysis in the undermentioned stairss.

  • Gathered informations from primary resources i.e. meetings with executives of PEL
  • Obtained information from the cyberspace
  • Collected coveted pieces of informations from concern diaries
  • Studied the one-year studies of PEL to acquire know-how about its public presentation
  • Visited different engineering relatedA websites to cognize about the latest electronic engineerings tendencies
  • Visited salesrooms of electrical contraptions for questionnaire research

A· Presented the informations collected under the specified caputs with full consideration to possible benefits of engineerings to PEL


One of the restrictions, which I faced, was the clip restriction. To finish this research undertaking, I used the primary beginning of informations. I met with directors of different mercantile establishments and client service representatives who were concerted but at the same clip as they were the subdivision officers, they had really limited clip to offer.


I conclude that PEL has ever been lending towards the promotion and development of the technology sector in Pakistan by presenting scope of quality electrical equipments and place contraptions. Inspite of stiff competition from emerging local and transnational trade names, PEL Group ‘s contraptions and electrical equipments have remained in the limelight through changeless inventions. PEL is synonymous with quality. Strategic partnership with multinationals of reputation have enabled the PEL Group to integrate new engineerings into bing merchandise ranges, therefore giving the Pakistan ‘s market domestic entree to innovative, low-cost and quality merchandises.

PEL is one of the most widely recognized trade names in the domestic icebox market. It is among the largest local maker and one of the taking trade names. With uninterrupted attempts in R & A ; D, PEL is concentrating on quality of merchandise and cost minimisation. The Company is sing proficient coaction for value add-on through planned capital outgos.

Increased gross revenues of manufactured iceboxs coupled with gross revenues of split air conditioners are the major factors lending towards growing in the contraptions concern. Other merchandises are besides being introduced as portion of Company ‘s scheme to broaden its merchandise scope.

The company ‘s switchgear and energy metres concern is come oning good with PEL being a major participant in the local market. PEL ‘s market portion in the private sector has well grown over the old twelvemonth with portion in public-service corporations remaining at about the same degree.

As portion of merchandise variegation scheme and to turn to the altering market demands, PEL split air conditioners, with already proven energy rescuer features, were sharply marketed during 2003. PEL is expected to go a major participant in split air conditioner market in future.

PEL plans to go on concentrate on broadening the merchandise scope, presenting new theoretical accounts, sizes, colourss and characteristics. To commensurate with the turning market, it has launched telecasting sets to add to its bing merchandise scope in place contraptions.

PEL aims to present new merchandises in order to capture higher market portion through increased volumes. In line with this aim, PEL is besides expected to present Small Domestic Appliances ( SDAs ) and kitchen contraptions etc. The Company has late set up a Consumer Marketing Division, which in association with assorted Bankss is aiming employees of private and public sector to purchase PEL merchandises at attractive monetary values. Therefore, it is guaranting full benefit of its technological development in accomplishing its aims.

O Recommendations

  • PEL should add more characteristics to their merchandises. Peoples are attracted towards a merchandise with alone characteristics that would do the clients feel that they have got their money ‘s worth
  • To derive more competitory advantage over their rivals, PEL has to farther work on its selling schemes
  • Service regulations should be purely implemented with particular focal point on after sale serving through retail merchants and mercantile establishment representatives
  • Margins on gross revenues demands to be maximized, nevertheless raising the monetary values can impact its volume. Therefore, cost film editing should be their premier focal point


Skills and Learning statement inside informations the cognition and experience acquired in the readying and presentation of this research and analysis study to my wise man. I chose Mr. Hammad Khalid, my senior at workplace, ( Chartered Accountant from Institute of Chartered Accountants of Pakistan ) , MCB Bank Limited, as my wise man. He has huge experience in the field of banking, every bit good as other industries in the state. I am highly obliged and thankful to him in taking the clip out from his busy agenda and supplying me with priceless cooperation.

This statement comprises replies to the undermentioned inquiries:

  • What did I learn from the meetings with my Undertaking Mentor?
  • How good do I think that I have answered my research inquiry ( s ) ?
  • How have I demonstrated my interpersonal and communicating accomplishments during the undertaking work?
  • How has set abouting the RAP helped me in my accounting surveies and/or current employment function?

Fixing for the Meetings

A Meeting is defined as a Formal or informal deliberative assembly of persons called to debate on a certain docket, exchange thoughts and range determinations. A focussed end oriented attack is needed for maximal consequences and that includes specific pre-planning. Bearing this in head I prepared an docket for my meetings to guarantee minimum clip lost and the aims of the meeting being achieved.

Meetings with Mentor

In order to acquire maximal benefit from the meetings with my wise man, I focused on:

  • Keeping concentration and focused hearing
  • No story-telling
  • Relevant inquiring
  • Uncovering instead than hiding

Asking clear and direct inquiries helped my wise man easy grasp the intent of the inquiries. Likewise, inquiries asked by my wise man besides proved to be really utile for me. They helped me to do my verbal look much better and helped me place some countries which I did non concentrate on antecedently.

First meeting

Choice of a subject for RAP was the first issue to be addressed in the meeting. I had besides carried out some land work as initial research and prepared some arrows relevant to my subject and study authorship, which were exhaustively discussed during this meeting. The meeting was enlightening, utile and my wise man remained patient as I explained the whole thought of the undertaking and subject choice. I remained composure in the first meeting and tried to stay to the point.

Second Meeting

I had accumulated and assembled all the information and facts sing the company ( PEL ) for the 2nd meeting. We examined and discussed the information in this peculiar meeting. My wise man elaborated some extra prevalent market conditions so that I could understand how the usage of engineering can supply an organisation a competitory border. He besides highlighted the importance of integrating external factors while foregrounding some failings in the information gathered and wished me fortune during the class of my analysis. I remained patient in the 2nd meeting and listened to his remarks carefully.

Third Meeting

In this concluding meeting, I used MS Power Point to show my findings. I gave a brief presentation of my work which was carefully viewed and my wise man highlighted the defects as it concluded, which I jotted down for betterment. We besides held a Questioning Session. Questioning resolutenesss questions and ambiguities thereby arising new thoughts. While it may take to constructive unfavorable judgment but the whole procedure by and large concludes in a better apprehension. He evaluated my research and analyzed my cognition with speculative inquiries such as:

  • Fulfillment of my aims and grounds for taking PEL and the subject
  • Manners and beginnings of information
  • Skills used in the digest of my study

I answered the above to the best of my cognition and recent findings to which he was extremely satisfied. I found the last meeting challengingly interesting as it was the concluding presentation of all my work. His grasp motivated me vastly.

The Presentation

My presentation accomplishments were to the full demonstrated during the 3rd meeting with my wise man in which I outlined the work undertaken. The presentation was prepared on MS Power point foregrounding the followers:

  • Undertaking aims
  • Beginning of information
  • Company divisions
  • Statistical informations of PEL
  • General Benefits/Use of IT

Some transcripts of the slides have been attached below.

The presentation lasted for about half an hr. My wise man was highly supportive throughout the meeting. The oppugning session allowed me to listen carefully the slang used by my wise man, the relevancy of his replies and utile tips that he on and off mentioned.

Answering Research inquiries

The subject of my Research and Analysis Report required me to reply following inquiries:

  • What does technological development mean?
  • What are PEL ‘s aims?
  • How does PEL react to technological development?
  • How does PEL usage engineering in accomplishing its aims?

The procedure of informations aggregation revolved around above-listed inquiries. I tried my best to stay relevant to the topic all the clip. Answering research inquiries is the most slippery portion of analysis as it can sometimes be extremely subjective particularly with regard to pulling decisions and doing recommendation. However, they are besides critical in study authorship and greatly smooth the ability of the judge to show his accomplishments by concentrating on the docket of relevance and truth. I managed this by including the followers as a method of answering:

  • Product portfolio of PEL
  • The engineering used
  • Use of Information Technology
  • Merchandise wise gross revenues history over the old ages
  • Competitive border due to advanced engineering
  • Future mentality of PEL
  • SWOT analysis
  • Decision and recommendations

In my sentiment, my research study is good able to show the true image PEL in regard of its technological development and the accomplishment of its aims through utilizing engineering.

Self Assessment – Communication & A ; Interpersonal Skills

Communication is a two manner procedure and is said to be effectual when the message has been sent to the receiving system and understood by him. The elements that aid in this procedure are suited medium, clear message and competences of the parties involved.

An appropriate and simple theoretical account of communicating is as follows:

Effective communicating engages the pick of the best communications channel, the proficient know-how to utilize the channel, the presentation of information to the mark audience, and the accomplishments to understand responses received from others. Self development, interpersonal accomplishments, common apprehension, common cooperation and trust is besides of import to put a complete channel of most effectual and winning communicating accomplishments.

There are chiefly three types of communicating accomplishments:

  • Expressive accomplishments ;
  • Listening accomplishments ; and
  • Skills for pull offing the overall procedure of communicating

Expressive Skills are required to convey message to others through words, facial looks and organic structure linguistic communication.

Application: I was able to research my expressive accomplishments while giving presentation to my wise man. I made appropriate usage of proper organic structure linguistic communication and maintained oculus contact with my wise man.

Listening Skills are accomplishments that are used to obtain messages or information from others. These aid to clearly understand what a individual feels and thinks about you or understand the other individual closely. Preoccupation and careless behaviour in this respect hinders the whole procedure and one may lose out critical information being imparted.

Application: Keeping this in head, my end was to guarantee that I remained an active hearer throughout the meetings with my wise man. I used the practical and effectual attack of:

  • Clearly concentrating on what my wise man was presenting
  • Keeping oculus contact with the wise man and doing certain I was non distracted
  • Actively reacting to my wise man with a frequent nod of the caput
  • Making certain that I was non merely listening with my ears but maintaining my other senses active excessively
  • Asking my wise man to reiterate certain things which I could n’t understand
  • Jot downing down valuable information which would turn out utile in my undertaking

Skills for pull offing the overall procedure of communicating aid to acknowledge the needed information and develop a strong clasp on the bing regulations of communicating and interaction. Importance of communicating accomplishments can ne’er be ignored or neglected. These accomplishments are the key to put to deathing good direction accomplishments. With good direction accomplishments, you can hold a squad of members who together create an atmosphere of unfastened communicating, concise messages, investigation for elucidations, acknowledge gestural signals, and common apprehension.

Application: The interaction with my wise man proved fruitful at all phases as I was able to acquire priceless aid and support from him. I was encouraged at every measure and good communicating played a critical function in my acquisition and apprehension. The IT skills that I demonstrated peculiarly during the presentation were extremely acknowledged. My wise man besides assisted me by clearly and aloud presenting his point of positions and avoided any excess or unneeded item and information which was non required for my subject. He centered all his treatments by remaining true to the subject I chose. We covered all the major facets of the undertaking and deliberated on possible ways of its betterment.

Communication Barriers

One of the likely barriers in communicating is noise and distraction. To get the better of such a job, we had our meetings in my wise man ‘s room where there was no component of recreation. This helped me vastly as I grasped all the content during the meetings due to effectual hearing and focused entirely on the points being discussed.

Efficacy of RAP – Accountancy Studies and Current Role

  • My Research Report includes Market Research that is a combination of art and scientific methods, which, when applied, permits to accurately foretell how clients, members and the populace in general will respond to merchandises, services and thoughts. This experience is of great value in my calling as it has given me an penetration of another industry.
  • I have based my study upon Qualitative Research, which unlike Quantitative research allows a greater grade of geographic expedition that qualitative does, particularly in the initial phases of a survey.
  • Activities like supervising, informations reappraisal and confirmation and professional interviewing have developed analytical accomplishments in me. In class of fixing this research study, I did:
    • Statistical plan development ;
    • Analysis and reading of collected informations ;
    • Documentation of research consequences ; and
    • Formal presentation of research findings

For a calling oriented individual as a qualified comptroller, it is really much necessary to hold other concern tactical accomplishments besides accounting. Through this Research Report I have learnt a batch that could non hold been possible in any other manner. I got a opportunity to heighten my concern cognition and presentational accomplishments. In short, I have covered another milepost in my professional life through trying this research survey.

Major Presentation Slides – Meeting III


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