Insight Into The Animo Acid Sequence Biology Essay


“ The bacteria E. coli produces more than 3,000 different proteins and human being produces 50,000- 100,000 ” ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 ) . In both instances, each type of protein has a alone three- dimensional construction and this construction provides map.

Each type of protein besides has a alone amino acid sequence. Many scientists suggest that the amino acerb sequence plays a cardinal function in finding the 3D construction of the protein, and finally its map ( Bhagavan, 2002 ) . This statement can be understood by comparing assorted different amino acid sequences in different proteins. First, proteins with different maps ever have different amino acid sequence. Second, 1000s of human familial diseases were caused due to the production of faulty proteins and most of these proteins were faulty because of a individual alteration in their amino acid sequence ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 ) . Hence, the altered sequence of aminic acids in bend alters the 3D construction and finally its map.

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Amino Acid Sequence Determines The Final Three- Dimensional Structure Of a Protein.

Primary construction is merely the additive sequence of aminic acids in a protein and by convention, the sequences are ever written from the NA­terminus to the CA­terminus of the polypeptide concatenation ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 ) . All higher degrees of protein construction are determined by the primary construction.

Secondary construction refers to the local conformation of some portion of polypeptide due to hydrogen bonding. It normally focuses on common regular folding forms of the polypeptide anchor. The most stable constructions are I± spiral and I? sheets. ( Hames et al, 2005 ) . I± spiral is coiling in form consisting of a anchor of peptide bonds with the specific R groups of the single amino acids.

I? conformation is the drawn-out conformation of polypeptide ironss. The anchor is extended into zigA­zag polypeptide ironss which can be arranged side by side to organize a construction called I? sheets, and H bonds are formed between them. ( Source Becker, et Al. 2007 )

The three dimensional construction ( third construction ) refers to the spacial agreement of amino acids that are far apart in the additive sequence every bit good as those residues that are next. It is the sequence of amino acid that determines the concluding three dimensional constructions ( figure 1 ) . The polypeptide concatenation creases spontaneously so that the hydrophobic side ironss are buried in the interior side and polar, charged side ironss are on the surface. Once folded, the three dimensional biologically active conformation of the protein is maintained by hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic forces, H bonding, disulfide bonds etc. ( Hames, et Al, 2005 )

As said earlier the concluding 3D construction of a protein is determined by its amino acerb sequence but precisely how it determines is non yet understood in item ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 ) . However, the of import cogent evidence for this statement came from the authoritative experiment carried out by Christian Anfinsen in 1950s. He showed that denaturation of some proteins are reversible. Some proteins denatured by heat, extremes of pH, etcaˆ¦ can return to their I±I?native construction and their biological activities if returned to normal conditions and this procedure is called as renaturation.

In 2000, Nelson and Cox say the full polypeptide concatenation of a purified ribonucleinase can be freed from its folded conformation by handling with concentrated urea solution incorporating a reduction agent. The cut downing agent breaks the four disulfide bonds ensuing in eight Cys residues and the urea disrupts the hydrophobic interactions, therefore losing its catalytic activity. But when the carbamide and cut downing agent are removed, the freed ribonucleinase spontaneously refolds into its right third construction with Restoration of its catalytic activity. The refolding is so accurate that the four disulfide bonds are re-formed in the same place in the renatured ribonucleinase.

This authoritative illustration provided the first grounds that the information required to turn up the concatenation into its native 3D construction are contained in the sequence of aminic acids in a polypeptide concatenation. If non, when the denaturants are removed and brought back to normal conditions it would non refold and even if it does refolding would non be so accurate as discussed above. Harmonizing to Bhagavan, 2002, beside the sequence of amino acid, other proteins are besides involved in finding the concluding 3D construction of a protein.

Structural diverseness of proteins & A ; their associated maps

Harmonizing to Nelson and Cox ( 2000 ) , based on the higher degrees of protein constructions i.e. secondary, third and quaternate constructions, proteins can be loosely divided into two major groups.

Hempen proteins: Here, the polypeptide ironss are arranged in long strands or sheets. These proteins contain individual type of secondary construction. It chiefly provides support, form and external protections. Certain hempen proteins are helpful in the development of our modern apprehension of protein constructions and maps.

Ball-shaped proteins: Here, the polypeptide ironss are folded into a spherical or ball-shaped form. It consists of several types of secondary constructions. Enzymes, conveyance proteins, motor proteins, and signaling proteins, etc. are some of the globular proteins which are discussed in ulterior portion.

A. Hempen proteins ( Structural proteins ) -Adapted for structural map.

Structural proteins like I±A­keratin and collagen has belongingss which give strength and flexibleness to the constructions in which they occur. These proteins are indissoluble in H2O and it is due to the high concentration of hydrophobic amino acid residues both the inside of the protein and on its surface.

I±A­Keratin- are found in hairs, wool, nails, horns, cytoskeleton, etcaˆ¦ .

The ceratin spiral is a right handed spiral and the spirals are arranged as coiled spiral. The two strands of ceratin, oriented in analogue are wrapped about each other to organize a supertwisted coiled spiral. The supertwisting amplifies the strength of the overall construction, merely as strands are twisted to do a strong rope. This strong rope like constructions will supply the strength and construction to the tissues and cell organs ( Berg, et Al, 2007 ) .

Collagen- occurs in connective tissues like sinews, gristle, matrix of bone, cornea of the oculus, etc.

The collagen spiral is a alone secondary construction. It is left-handed and has three amino acid residues per bend. Collagen is besides a coiled spiral, but one with distinguishable third and quaternate construction. It means three separate polypeptides, called I± ironss ( non I± spiral ) , supertwisted about each other. This distortion is right-handed spiral of the I±A­chains which provides strength and support to cells ( Berg, et Al, 2007 ) .

B. Globular proteins.

In a ball-shaped protein, different pieces of individual or multiple polypeptide ironss folded back on each other to bring forth a compact signifier of protein. The folding provides the structural diverseness necessary for proteins to transport out a broad assortment of biological maps

Conveyance proteins

It includes proteins like myoglobin, hemoglobin and so on. Myoglobin is a comparatively little oxygen-binding proteins found in musculus cells. It shops oxygen every bit good as facilitates oxygen diffusion quickly in undertaking musculus tissues.

Figure4. Structure of Myoglobin and haem group ( Beginning: Ophardt, 2003 ) .

Figure5. Haemoglobin lading & A ; droping O ( Beginning: Campbell, et Al, 2005 ) .

Myoglobin is in 3D signifier incorporating a individual polypeptide concatenation of 153 aminic acids and the anchor of the myoglobin molecule is made up of eight consecutive sections of -helix interrupted by decompression sicknesss, some of which are I?-turns. Most of the hydrophobic R-groups are in the interior side of the myoglobin whereas ; other polar R-groups are located on the surface of the molecule. In add-on, the haem or Fe protoporphyrin group is noncovalently bonded to myoglobin which is indispensable for the biological activity, i.e. to transport O ( Nelson et al, 2000 )

Haemoglobin has a quaternate construction as it is made up of four polypeptide ironss ; two I±-chains and two I?- ironss, each with a haem group which facilitates O conveyance in blood ( Hames et al, 2005 ) .


It includes muramidase, ribonucleinase, and many more. Lysozymes are abundant in egg white and human cryings that catalyze the hydrolytic cleavage of polyoses in the protective cell walls of some households of bacteriums. It is named muramidase because it has the belongings to lyse or degrade bacterial cell walls and serve as a disinfectant agent.

It is composed of 129 amino acid residues out of which merely 40 % of the polypeptide are in I±-helical sections and some are I?-sheet constructions. The I±-helices have the active site on the side of the molecule for substrate binding and contact action. It besides has four disulfide bonds which make the construction stable ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 ) .

Ribonuclease is secreted by pancreas in the little bowel where it catalyzes the hydrolysis of certain bonds in the RNAs nowadays in the ingested nutrient. It contains 124 amino acid residues out of which merely a small part of the polypeptide concatenation are in I±-helical conformation and major part are the I?-sheet sections. Four disulfide bonds are besides present in the cringles supplying stableness to the construction. ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 )

Motor proteins.

The contractile forces of musculuss and the motions of cell organs and supermolecules are generated by the interaction of two proteins, myosin and actin.

Myosin has six-subunits ; two heavy ironss and four visible radiation ironss. The heavy ironss account for major portion of the construction. At their carboxyl terminal, they are arranged as drawn-out I± spirals, wrapped around each other and are left- handed coiled spiral ( Lodish, et Al ) . At its aminic terminal, each heavy concatenation has a ball-shaped sphere incorporating a site for ATP hydrolysis. The visible radiation ironss are associated with the ball-shaped spheres.

In musculus cells, molecule of myosin sum to organize thick filiform construction which serves as the nucleus of the contractile unit. Hundreds of myosin molecules are arranged with their hempen tail to organize a bipolar construction within a fibril and their ball-shaped spheres projecting from either terminals. ( Lodish, et Al, 2004 )

G- Actin. F- Actin.

Figure 7: Globular and Filamentous Actin. ( Beginning: Campbell, et at, 2005 ) .

Actin is abundant in about all eucaryotic cells. In musculuss, molecules of monomeric actin ( G-actin ) associate to organize a long polymer ( F-actin ) . The thin fibril consists of F-actin and the protein troponin and tropomyosin. The filiform parts assemble as consecutive monomeric actin molecules adding to one terminal and each monomer bind ATP, and so hydrolyze to ADP ( Nelson, et Al, 2000 ) . However, the energy generated helps merely in the assembly of the fibrils and does non lend to the overall musculus contraction. Each actin monomer in the thin fibril can adhere tightly and specifically to one myosin caput group where the contractile forces are generated ( Lodish, et Al, 2004 ) .

Signing proteins

It includes peptide endocrines such as insulin, glucagon, histamine, etc. These proteins help in the cell to cell communications in order to organize the growing and metamorphosis of cells.

“ For case, insulin receptor is a complex of two I± and two I? fractional monetary units held together by disulfide bonds. The polypeptide insulin binds to the extracellular face of the I±A­subunits. The receptor so undergoes a conformational alteration taking to the self phosphorylation of the cytosolic sphere of the I? fractional monetary units. Specifically hydroxyl groups in the side ironss of certain tyrosine residues are phosphorylated, ATP being the phosphate giver. Now, these phosphorylated receptors help the cells to react the endocrines suitably ” ( Hames, et Al, 2005 ) .


By and large, there are four recognized degrees of protein construction and they are primary ( sequence of aminic acids ) , secondary ( spacial agreement of aminic acids ) , third ( 3-dimensional construction ) and quaternate ( multiple polypeptide ironss ) constructions. The concluding 3D construction ( native ) is the most stable signifier of protein construction which is determined by the additive sequence of aminic acids, but Nelson & A ; Cox in 2000 says, how it determines is still non known in item.

There are legion proteins known and these proteins can be clubbed into two chief groups, hempen and ball-shaped proteins. Hempen proteins, which serve chiefly structural maps, have simple repeating elements of secondary construction. The two major types of secondary construction are the I±-helix and I?-conformation which are characterized by H bonding between peptide bonds in the polypeptide anchor.

Ball-shaped proteins have more complicated third constructions, frequently incorporating much secondary construction in the same polypeptide concatenation. Ball-shaped proteins can farther be divided as conveyance proteins, enzymes, motor proteins, and many more. However, different proteins exhibit different constructions which are adopted for assorted maps.


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