Integrated Pest Management For Healthy World Biology Essay

The universe has two powerful demand on the one manus we should run into the nutrient demand for turning population and on the other manus we need to supply quality nutrient. In order to carry through the demand for the nutrient production, commercial high intensive harvest production is practiced which require big sum of chemical pesticides. This has negative impact on the quality of merchandise and finally to the consumer. So, agriculture scientist demands to happen the ways to cut down the application of the chemical pesticides inputs. Pesticides normally use affect non mark beings and lead to loss of bio-diversity which can be natural marauders to plagues, pollinator and nutrient manufacturers ( bees and honey ) . It besides leads to the insect powders opposition by the plague and eruptions of secondary plague which are usually controlled by natural enemies. Using chemicals to kill the plagues or command the disease have alternate action on the natural marauder and reduction or even eliminate from the certain location which leads to severe accident in the harvest production. Along with this there are already ample of illustrations on pollution of the H2O beginning and the dirt which force the authoritiess of different parts of the universe to believe about the likely results and started to move against it.

Continuous exposure to these chemical pesticides causes Chronic and terrible wellness upset in nervous system, reproduction system, kidney, possibility of assorted Cancer, birth defects ( PANAP, 2010 ) . Small kids, pregnant adult females and breastfeeding female parents are extremely vulnerable to the toxic taint of pesticides.According to the survey conducted by UNDP in eight Asiatic Countries revealed that 66 per centum of pesticides active ingredients are used in veggies, cotton, Paddy, rice and other harvests are extremely risky harmonizing to PAN International categorization Criteria. Poor land direction patterns and the loss of agribusiness lands to the economic activities lead to increase the usage of chemical pesticides ( Singh, 2009 ) .It is predicted that 90 per centum of applied pesticides don & amp ; acirc ; ˆ™t run into the mark and enter the Marine environment via surface overflow, drainage, eroding, miss-application and atmospheric transit in Caribbean Region ( UNEP, 1994 ) .Also, monolithic coral mortality and egg shell cutting has occurred in the same part. Besides, fish mortality in coastal countries of Jamaica coincide with the period of pesticide application on java plantation ( Chin Sue, 2002 )

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& A ; acirc ; ˆ?Many pesticides that have been banned or whose usage are badly restricted in the developed states are still marketed and used in developing states. These chemicals pose serious hazards to the wellness of 1000000s of husbandman and the environment. & A ; acirc ; ˆA? Said by Dr. Jacques Diouf, Former Director General, Food and Agriculture Organism ( FAO ) of the United Nations.

The emerging patterns of incorporate usage of biological, organic methods, cultural pattern of harvest protection that is prevailing in different parts of the universe can be effectual in bring forthing quality nutrient. Even though it is non possible to censor all the pesticide but we can travel on incorporate attack to cut down the harmful consequence i.e. Integrated Pest Management.

An Indian male child enduring from intellectual paralysis and can non walk or speak. His small town suffer high incidence of neurological upset linked to pesticide exposure

Integrated pest direction ( IPM ) is an ecosystem based scheme that focus on long term bar of plagues or there damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat use and alteration of cultural patterns. Pesticides are used merely after supervising indicates they are needed and pest control stuffs are selected and applied in a mode that minimizes hazard to worlds, not mark beings and the environment. ( 2009, UCIPM ) . It is the highest sustainable method for long term protection. This include consideration of economic thresholds, trying engineering, mold, natural controls, geographic distribution, effects of pest migration and motion, host opposition and pesticides. The preservation of natural enemies is likely the most of import as they are susceptible to pesticides and can take to inadvertent obliteration from the location.

Biological control proves much more sustainable one and be given top precedence. It includes natural enemies such as parasites, marauders, pathogens or rivals are the of import factor for IPM. Successful biological control means that no farther cost is required to command plague.

The four types of natural enemies are Marauders, Parasitoids, Pathogens and weed factors:

Marauders: They feed on assorted types of plague and insects with pick of feeding vary from the selective to the wide scope of insect. They are the constituent of all agricultural ecosystem and have differ life rhythm which is the of import things to be noted when utilizing them as utile marauders. Some of the popular are Lady Beetles: They show predacious wont on both larva and grownup phase, provender on aphids, Scales, Mealy bugs, white Flies, spider Touchs and even on the eggs of assorted insects. Robber Flies: They are even capable of preceding on quarry that are larger than themselves. Feed on Butterflies, Wasps, Bees, Dragonflies, Grasshoppers, Bettles, etc. Soldier Beetles: Their larva are of rapacious feeding nature feeding on Slugs, Millipeds, angleworms, Maggots, Locust eggs, etc.Ground Bettle: They are nocturnal marauders feeding on itinerant moth larvae and pupae.Hover Fliess: They are dark bees or WASP, eat fruit tree spider touchs and little caterpillars. Dragonflies: They attack on mosquitoes. Besides other marauders are toads, frogs, lizards, hadge pigs, slow worms.

PARASITOIDS: Their immature phase develop on or inside the host finally killing the host when they mature. The eggs of parasitoids are laid inside the host and after ripening they emerge out of the host and go on the life rhythm. Wasps or flies are largely the parasitoids.They are specialized in the pick of the host and merely female hunt for the host. They are more susceptible to insect powders than the host. Some of parasitoids are:

Ichneumonid WASP: Prey chiefly on caterpillars and butterflies and moths. Braconid WASP: They are bantam wasp onslaught on caterpillars and others.Chalcid WASP: They parasitize greenfly, white fly, chou caterpillars, and scale insects. Tachinid Flies: Assorted insects like caterpillars, grownup and larval beetles, true bugs and other are their quarry

Pathogens of insect and weed plagues:

Assortment of entomopathogens ( disease of insect- plagues ) are used for commanding plagues in glass house, row harvests, groves, ornamentals. scope, sod and lawn, stored merchandises, and forestry and for the suspension of plague and vector insects of veterinary and medical importance ( Burges 1981 ; Tanada and Kaya, 1993 ; Lacey and Kay, 2000 ) . They may be used to augment of course happening pathogens ( augmentation ) , conserved or activated in nature ( preservation ) , debut into pest population as classical biological control agents to go constituted and exert long term ordinance of plague or used inundately for rapid short term control ( inundative release ) ( Lacey, Frutos, Kaya and Vail ; 2001 ) .Inundative Biological control refers to the release of overpowering figure of biological control in the outlook of accomplishing a rapid decrease of pest population.

Figure: Robber fly preceding on spiderBacteria: Bacillus thuringiensis ( Bt ) is found of course in the dirt and workss and is most widely used as inundatively. Crystal protein that are produced by different assortments of this bacteria are toxic to the insects that feed in it. Bacteria ( paenibiacillus popilliae ) is another one which is used in little graduated table for control of white chows. B. sphaericus which has has some advantages over Bt in the facet of being more relentless in contaminated home grounds and may recycle under certain conditions, but have narrow host scope ( Lacey and Undeen, 1986 ; Hougard,1990 ; Charles et Al, 1996 ; Nicolas, et Al. , 1994 )

Virus: Large figure of virus act as microbic control agents ( Payne, 1982 ) . The widely popular are Baculoviridae ( nucleopolyhedroviruses ( NPV ) and granuloviruses ( GV ) ) ( Granados and Federici, 1986 ; Hunter-Fujita et al.,1998 ) . Some of the drawbacks utilizing entomopathogenic virus are their slow action, sensitiveness to UV visible radiation and the demand for life system. They are normally used for commanding assorted insects like Bollworms, several measuring worms, moths ( Indian repast moth, Gypsy moth, codling moth, etc ) , army worms, cotton leafworm, etc.

Fungus kingdoms: Although 700 entomopathogenic Fungis have been found merely 10 have been presently being developed for insect control ( Hajek and St. Leger, 1994 ) Species of Hyphomycetes demonstrate good against several scope of plague including white flies, aphids, thrips, white ants, grasshoppers, locusts, beetles and others ( McCoy et al 1988 ; Goettel et Al, 1995,2000 )

Nematode: Large figure of species of more than 30 households is associated with insects and other invertebrates ( Poinar, 1979 ; Kaya and Stock,1997. For illustration, Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita is used to stamp down bullets, similarly D. siricidicola has been successful as a classical biological control agent for woodwasp ( Bedding, 1993 ) .

Protozoa: They are omnipresent and play of import function in the ordinance of the insect population ( Maddox,1987 ; Books,1988 ) . They are slow moving host specific with complex biological science. Grass hopper pathogen Nosema locustae is the typical illustration.

There lies ample of chance for biological control techniques to suit them as of import constituent of IPM. In most instance no individual being can command the pest in sustainable manner so incorporate attack is needed for maximal consequence. Besides, supplying extension web for husbandman with latest determination of new biological control can be effectual in land degree. Tax on the chemicals pesticides can be helpful in the cut downing their usage. For illustration, in Denmark, strong ordinance and revenue enhancement in pesticides cut down their use to some extent. In order to keep sustainable agribusiness, there is an immediate demand for alternate intercession for pest direction techniques, which should be environmentally friendly and cut down the sum of chemical pesticide contact with human. There need to show that preservation of the biodiversity aid chance to Restoration of the biological control agents. The authorities and assorted organisations should concentrate on researching about their interaction with plague and agro ecosystem, their effectivity and their advantages. Still tonss of plants to be done to convert husbandman that puting money on biological control methods which is expensive and slow procedure in the short term can take us to sustainable agribusiness in the long tally.


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