Integrated Science

Term Definition
Chemical reaction one or more compounds formed; rearrangement of atoms.
Reactants substances about to react
Products newly formed substances
law of conservation relative to chemical reactions matter is neither created or destroyed in any chemical or physical change
Concentration of reactants involving liquid or gases; increase in rate or reaction
Temperature heat or electromagnetic radiation will make it go quicker; cold can slow it down or stop it
Catalyst, addition of substance increased the rate of chemical reaction by lowering its activation energy; can be a reactant, but then generates as a product
Sunlight, addition of changes the temp
How do enzymes speed up chemical reactions in cells act as catalyst; binds the reactants of a reaction & releases the products of the reaction; available for the same reaction again and again
Photosynthesis conversion of light energy from sun into chemical energy
Respiration energy transformation where potential chemical energy is the bonds of "food" molecules is release and partially captured in the bonds of ATP molecules; stored energy is released
Organisms made of cells; obtain and use energy; grow and develop; reproduce; respond to environment; adapt to environment
Prokaryotic cell before nucleus, single cell, pili, flagella, capsule, single circular chromosome, no organelles, cell wall
Bacteria, Archeae Prkaryotic cells
Eukaryotic cells true nucleus, organelles, single or multi cell, multiple linear chromosome, cell membrame e.g plants and animals
Plants cells rigid, non living cell wall, chloroplast (photosynthesis), one large vacuole, plastids,
Animal cells no cell walls, no plastid, cells more undefined
Mitosis 1 parent; 2 daughter cells; somatic (body) cells; identical diploids, same genetics of parent; form homologons chromosomes
Meiosis 4 non identical daughter cells; haploid; cross-over = genetic diversity; gametes (sex) cells, 2 division stages, 1 copy of every chromosome per cell
Crossing over homologous chromosomes line up in the equatorial plane and one chromosome exchanges corresponding parts with it homologue; dividing cells no longer identical to the parent
Mendels principle of segregation each hereditary char is controlled by two factors (alleles) which segregate and pass into separate cells
Mendels principle of independent assortment parts of factors (alleles) segregate independently of each other when cells are formed
Genetic mutations changes in genetic material of cells that pass from one generation to another
Affects on DNA, ionizing radiation from radioactive materials when it strikes electrons within the body with enough energy electrons are freed from atoms; free electrons strike & damage DNA directly.
Why bone marrow cells in the gastro tract are more vulnerable to radiation damage cells in the body that divide frequently have less time to repair DNA damage before that DNA is replicated and mutations are passed on.
how cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems work together glands release gastric juices; digestive enzymes & muscles combine to reduce our food to liquid; chyme exits stomach into small intestines; where digestion begins… acquiring energy for the body’s activities and protecting the body from disease.
how our body maintains homeostatis through all functions e.g. breathing, eating, excreting
neurons, spinal cord and brain work together to respond to stimuli neurons receive impulses and carry them from the sense organs to the spinal cord or brain
cells, heart, arteries, and veins of the circulatory system transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide red blood cells transport oxygen away from heart; through blood; arteries of the heart pump the oxygen blood away from the heart…
cells, tissues, organs associate with digestive system break down food glands release gastric juices; digestive enzymes & muscles combine to reduce our food to liquid; chyme exits stomach into small intestines; where digestion begins…

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