Intentional Use Of Biological Agents Biology Essay

Bioterrorism involves the knowing usage of biological agents to do unwellness or deceases on worlds, workss, or animate beings. Plants, animate beings, and worlds represent the possible bio-terrorist marks. Bacteria, Fungi, toxins, and viruses are the normally used biological terrorism agents. Thavaselvam and Vijayaraghavan ( 2010 ) province that when biological agents are released in a targeted country, they either cause high mortality, morbidity or weaken the population. Biological arms are different from other arms utilised in warfare because biological agents do non bring forth instantaneous effects. Thavaselvam and Vijayaraghavan explain that the effects of a biological onslaught are discernible in a population after some yearss or few hebdomads ( Thavaselvam and Vijayaraghavan, 2010 ) . Biological agents are dispersible in assorted signifiers depending on their nature hence they rapidly spread and infect worlds. Every biological agent possesses alone features that guarantee their endurance in the host environment. When be aftering a bioterrorist onslaught one needs to be cognizant of the alone features of the assorted biological agents.

Thavaselvam and Vijayaraghavan describe Viruses as biological agents that have DNA and RNA. This characteristic allows viruses to self-replicate, multiply and spread faster in their host cells. Viruss can merely retroflex inside populating host cells. Viruss cause diseases in workss animate beings and worlds. On the other manus, bacteriums merely described as one-celled procaryotic beings. Scientists consider bacteriums as free- life beings. Bacterias are infective to works, animate beings, and worlds. Thavaselvam and Vijayaraghavan explain that scientist can civilization bacteria on solid and liquid media in the research labs ( Thavaselvam and Vijayaraghavan, 2010 ) . Bacterial beings have a plasma membrane, which protects its cells from the hostile environment in the host cell. Last, fungi represent unicellular or multicellular infective beings. They are eucaryotic in nature although they lack chlorophyll. Fungus kingdoms are barely used in bio panic onslaught although they do possess infective features.

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Thevaselvam and Vijayaraghavan ( 2010 ) point out that Bacteria and viruses are organisms that are widely used in bio panic. Understanding factors such as the incubation periods, morbidity and mortality rates, environmental stableness and appropriate deployment processs of these infective beings allows one to make up one’s mind on the appropriate bioterrorist menace to use. This apprehension besides allows microbiologist to set up a program that allows scientist to incorporate the job in instance of an onslaught ( Thevalsevam and Vijataraghavan, 2010 ) .

When facing a bio panic onslaught it is critical for scientist to place the sort of onslaught a part is confronting. The bio panic onslaught could be one from deadly agents like splenic fever. The deadly agents cause haemorrhagic febrility. It is of import for scientist to place the deadly agent and to come up with the effectual method of intervention. Deadly agents have high deadly capacity. The incubation period for many deadly agents is about 1 to 6 yearss. Viral agents that cause haemorrhagic febrility are unstable in the environment because they are susceptible to sunlight and high temperatures. This susceptibleness makes it hard to deploy deadly viruses in an aerosol signifier. However, deadly viruses can be transmitted when one semen into contact with the teardrops of a septic individual or any fluid from an septic individual Lethal viruses and bacteriums cause alone mark and symptoms and hence wellness experts can easy insulate victims to seek to forestall a spread of the disease ( Thevalsevam and Vijataraghavan, 2010 ) .

A bio panic onslaught utilizing an crippling agents normally target to do an epidemic of chronic unwellnesss. Disabling agents do non do fatal onslaughts ; nevertheless, the unwellness can be contagious taking to an epidemic. Disabling agents have a low to chair deadly capacity. Their incubation periods can be 2-15 yearss or even months. Studies show that disabling agents have a stable environmental stableness. Merely little sums of disabling agents say 100 micro-organisms are required start an infection. Most of the deadly agents can be treated utilizing antibiotics and antiviral ( Thevalsevam and Vijataraghavan, 2010 ) .

Lashkar-e-taibas us consider splenic fevers caused by Bacillus anthracis pores. Anthrax has a high lethal capacity its incubation period is about 1 to 6 yearss. The Bacillus anthracis has virulency factors that enable it survive in a hostile environment. The splenic fever bacteria has a toxin and an antiphagocytic capsular polypeptide. The antiphagocytic capsular polypeptide has a D-glutamic acid. The splenic fever toxin has three proteins: a protective antigen, an edema factor and a deadly factor. The protective antigen attaches to specific receptors on host cell surface. Cellular peptidases cleave the Protective antigen to bring forth a fragment that acts as specific receptors for edema factor and deadly factor. A receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for transporting the toxin into the host cell. The splenic fever bacteria has an extraordinary innate opposition. It is environmentally stable its spores can sporulate and last in the dirt for up to 40 old ages. Anthrax has a assortment of bio vectors which include insects, air current and nutrient contaminations.

The smallpox virus causes little syphilis is an carnal virus. Morphologically the virus atom is brick-shaped to ovoid. The virus is a self-replicating being due to the fact it has a dual isolated Deoxyribonucleic acid and a complex construction. The virus has a two-lipo protein membrane, which surrounds its dumbbell shaped nucleoid. A dual membrane that protects the virus from host cells surrounds the virus atom. The smallpox virus is a extremely contagious it is extremely deadly with a instance human death rate of 30 % if individuals are non vaccinated. Its incubation period is 7 to 17 yearss. The virus is transmitted from individual to individual ; hence, in instance of a jailbreak quarantine is the best attack to incorporating the spread of the disease. The smallpox virus is environmentally unstable because the virus is susceptible to high temperatures and sunshine. Therefore, it is hard for the virus to last outside the host cell ( Thevalsevam and Vijataraghavan, 2010 ) .

The splenic fever micro-organism is a bacteria species whereas the little syphilis micro-organism is a viral species. The splenic fever being exists in nature. The splenic fever bacteria reproduces through monogenesis. This being forms stalwart spores that enable it survive in the environment for over 40 old ages. The splenic fever bacteria releases toxins once it invades a host cell. These toxins make the bacterium a powerful slayer. Its structural adaptability of bring forthing stalwart spores and releasing of toxins make the bacteria a awful bio panic agent. The bacteria has the nucleic acid DNA, which expresses the cistrons that dictate the workings of the bacteria. The bacterium toxin is composed of three proteins ; the protective antigen, edema factor and deadly factor that enable the bacteriums survive in a host cell ( Thevalsevam and Vijataraghavan, 2010 ) .

On the other manus, the smallpox virus is dependent on the host cell for its endurance. The smallpox virus is unstable in the environment. Exposure of the smallpox virus to high temperatures and sunlight consequences to its devastation. Technological promotion has made it possible to fabricate variola virus in the research labs through genetically technology procedure. The splenic fever bacteria is grown in research labs through the procedure of culturing. The smallpox virus has a dual isolated Deoxyribonucleic acid strand that allows it to self-replicate inside the host cell. This can go on indoors or outside the host cell. The splenic fever bacteria and smallpox virus reproduce. The splenic fever bacteria and the smallpox virus are procaryotic in nature. These two beings & A ; acirc ; ˆ™ have cistrons that dictate their workings in the host cell. The smallpox virus and splenic fever bacteria are both extremely deadly ( Thevalsevam and Vijataraghavan, 2010 ) .

Viruss such as smallpox virus differ from other procaryotic cells because they appear smaller and simpler in their structural brand. Viruss contain the familial make-up, nevertheless, they depend on the host cell to be able to retroflex. Viruss have no cell, on the other manus, they have DNA and RNA, which allows them to retroflex and germinate. Viruss do non devour foods ; they do non bring forth or egest wastes. Viruss are immobile they depend on host cells to occupy other cells, and to reproduce. Viruss are harmful to populating beings whereas Fungis and bacteriums can develop a common relationship with other beings. Bacteria and fungi infections are curable utilizing antibiotics, nevertheless, antiviral drugs can merely function to cut down or halt reproduction of viruses. Fungi and bacteriums reproduce asexually whereas viruses invade host cells and take over the cells by doing the host cell make transcripts of the viral DNA or RNA. The Deoxyribonucleic acid and RNA constituents of populating beings freely float in the cytol, nevertheless, the Deoxyribonucleic acid or RNA constituents of viruses are enclosed in plasmids.


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