Globalization is an resistless tendency in the advancement of society. From the debut of the construct of globalisation and widespread usage among mainstream imperativeness, the lives of most people in the universe are affected by the impact of globalisation. Globalization can be regarded as “ a procedure which is basically multifaceted and closely related to free trade, technological invention and information communicating, demographic alteration linked to the development of planetary societies, socio-cultural, economic, and ideological convergence ” ( Thomas, 2005, p. 138 ). In recent old ages, the impact of globalisation is more evidently reflected in the exchange of goods, engineering, and civilization. Although globalisation recedes the restraints of geographics on economic, political and cultural agreement ( Water, 2001, p.5 ), integrating and confliction still company in the procedure of globalisation due to the diverseness of values and political orientations hold by people from different states. By and large talking, globalisation brings positive and negative impact on peoples ‘ day-to-day lives, which is non merely altering the life manners, but besides disputing traditional civilization values of a state.
Global civilization necessarily uniforms and standardizes peoples ‘ twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours lives. As Waters suggests that there will be a individual society and civilization busying the whole planet in a globalized universe ( Waters, 2001, p.5 ). It is believed that the planetary selling of artefacts is non merely to maximise net incomes, but besides to circulate and reenforce civilization influence of an economic power ( Oliver, 2005, p.10 ). There are many phenomena can be observed as the influence of planetary civilization. English is used as a dominant linguistic communication in planetary communicating, trade goods of celebrated trade names such as Coca Cola, Nike, and Adidas are sold in stores around the universe, fast nutrients like KFC and McDonalds become popular among immature people, and Internet transportations the whole universe into a “ small town ”. Harmonizing to Thomas ( 2005, p. 143 ) socio-cultural dimension to globalisation involves alterations in attitudes to cultural and spiritual beliefs. Therefore, it is likely that the uniformity and standardisation of planetary civilization leads to a possible danger of disputing individualities of a state.
China receives challenges and chances through globalisation, which has a great impact on China ‘s economic system and civilization. After transporting out the reform and opening up policy in 1978, China bit by bit involved in the inundation of planetary market. During over 30 old ages ‘ development in the planetary market, China achieves important achievements in the facets of economic system, international fight, and the betterment of people ‘s lives. Harmonizing to the address at the meeting taging the thirtieth day of remembrance of reform and opening up in the twelvemonth 2008 by Chairman Hu Jintao, the entire import and export of China raised from $ 20.6 billion to $ 2.17 trillion during the period from 1978 to 2007, which ranked the 3rd in the universe and became the No.1 state in footings of foreign militias, and the paid-up abroad investing amounted to about $ 1 trillion. Therefore, it is obvious that globalisation and international cooperation velocity up China ‘s economic development while lending a batch to the universe economic system.
As to the civilization facet, Chinese traditional civilization is ineluctably affected by planetary civilization. In the procedure of globalisation, western universe takes dominant place in advanced engineering and economic system, hence, the planetary civilization is chiefly composed by the western civilization, which is characterized by free markets, consumerism and individuality ( Arnett, 2002, p.777 ). In contrast, states such as China and Japan have tradition of collectivized values ( Natio & A ; Gielen, in imperativeness ; White, 1993 cited in Arnett, 2002, p.776 ). When traditional Chinese values run into planetary civilization under the circumstance of globalisation, there will be some extent of struggles and integratings, which will bring forth the crisis on the issue of individuality. Identity crisis can be regarded as a new phenomenon brought by globalisation. In the undermentioned essay, it will critically analyse the issue of individuality among some Chinese immature people under the influence of globalisation and planetary civilization.
Chinese civilization besides has reaction on planetary civilization. In recent old ages, China is doing an attempt to present its traditional civilizations and values to the universe and puting some extent of influence on the planetary civilization. By the terminal of 2009, there have been 282 Confucius institutes and 272 Confucius Classrooms established in 88 states, and the Confucius Institutes/Classrooms follow suited instruction manners to learn Chinese linguistic communication every bit good as advancing Chinese civilizations ( hypertext transfer protocol: //english.hanban.org/node_10971.htm ). Chinese civilizations and values are bit by bit recognized by western society, which is a effect of cross-cultural communicating in globalisation. Byram ( 1989 ) suggests that “ Culture is cognition which is shared and negotiated between people, belonging to all of them and non being idiosyncratic to any individual 1. ” It is necessary to develop an apprehension and grasp of other civilizations meanwhile critically believing about one ‘s ain civilization and other civilizations ( Byram, 1996, p.25 ).
The undermentioned essay will chiefly concentrate on two facets, the impact of globalisation on Chinese civilization and the reaction of Chinese civilization to the universe. In the first subdivision, it will critically analyse the issue of individuality among Chinese immature people, how it is formed, affected and reinforced through the planetary civilization brought by globalisation, and the attempts by authorities and schools to strength pupils ‘ impression of individuality. In the 2nd subdivision, it will discourse the intercultural communicating and civilization exchange between states in the universe under the circumstance of globalisation, and exemplify the importance of intercultural competency in globalisation.
Section One: The Challenge of Chinese Culture on the Aspect of Identity Issue under the Affection of Globalization
As discussed above, the individuality issue of Chinese immature people can be regarded as a effect of globalisation and planetary civilization imposes influence on Chinese traditional civilizations and values. In order to show this, this subdivision will foremost concentrate on the construct of individuality and Chinese individuality in order to show a model of the individuality issue. Second, it will critically analyse the individuality crisis of Chinese immature people through the procedure of globalisation. Third, in this subdivision, it will propose that the witting of globalisation and cross-cultural communicating should be introduced into instruction though assorted challenges and jobs may company through the procedure.
1. The constructs of individuality and the formation of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality
1.1 The constructs of individuality
There are many signifiers of individualities in academic field, but this assignment will chiefly concentrate on three sorts of individualities, which are national individuality, cultural individuality, and societal individuality severally. As to national individuality, different research workers suggest assorted theoretical accounts. Smith ( 1991 ) proposes a Western civic theoretical account, which focused on district and the thought of “ patria ” ( Smith, 1991, p.10 ), and a non-Western cultural theoretical account, which emphases on descent and blood tie. However, Kellas claims that cultural, societal an official patriotism are more of import than geographical boundaries ( Kellas, 1991, cited in Parmenter, 1997, p.24 ). It is obvious that the definition of national individuality is based on some common thoughts such as shared district, shared civilization and community for group, and acknowledgment, credence and sense of belonging for the person ( Parmenter, 1997, p.26 ).
Compared with Ting-Toomey and Chung ‘s definition of cultural individuality ( 2005, p.93 ), which emphasizes the emotional significance of belonging to a larger civilization, Brock and Tulasiewicz ‘s definition is more precise and recapitulative. Brock and Tulasiewicz indicate that “ cultural individuality is a universe position, constructed and developed by the person in interaction with others ” ( Parmenter, 1997, p.27 ). The elements such as linguistic communication and spiritual aid to determine cultural individuality but these are non the determinate factors. The relationship between national individuality and cultural individuality implied by Parmenter ( 1997, p.27 ) is that national individuality is constructed on the footing of cultural individuality and involves peculiar political thoughts, attitudes, values and pattern in the cultural individuality.
The signifier and development of national and cultural individuality can be analyzed by the secondary socialisation theory. School instruction and course of study such as linguistic communication and history offer a opportunity to foster national and bulk cultural individualities ( Tate, 1994, cited in Parmenter, 1997, p.35 ). Harmonizing to Berger and Luckmann ‘s secondary socialisation theory ( 1966 ), the assimilation of primary cognition pulp through pedagogic techniques. The instruction procedure works as a pedagogic technique, which is strengthen the construct of person ‘s fist impression, in other words, is to reenforce the constructs of national and cultural individuality.
Social individuality is stemmed from single ‘s group ranks and societal comparing, as to set up self-pride of persons which based on the position of the group ( Tajfel, 1981, p. 277 ). The construct of societal individuality shows the behaviour of persons when they act as a member of a group, and the feelings of being a member of a group. Harmonizing to Tajfel ( 1978, 1981, cited in Ward, 2001, p. 103 ), the societal individuality chiefly includes three characteristics, which are self concept, consciousness of rank in a group, and appraising and emotional significance. These three characteristics work as major component of specifying societal individuality. It is besides demonstrated by Tajfel that intergroup prejudice is resistless effect of societal designation ( Ward, 2001, p.104 ). Persons seek position and self-pride in their ain group and justice it as superior than the other groups, which non merely leads to prejudice on out-group people and in-group people, but besides generates confliction and competition between groups.
1.2 The formation of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality
The formation of Chinese national individuality can be tract back to 1930s. Through eight-year China ‘s war opposition against Japan, Chinese people formed a united, loyal and anti-imperialist national individuality. Friedman ( 1995, p.6 ) claims that Mao ‘s communist-led provincial Red Army is regarded as a symbol of library, which unites Chinese people in a defensive order, even Confucius could non accomplish such a strong influence in this period of clip. After the constitution of the People ‘s Republic of China ( PRC ) in twelvemonth of 1949, the Communist Party of China ( CPC ) takes Marxism-leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory as the counsel of its actions ( hypertext transfer protocol: //www.china.org.cn/english/Political/26151.htm ). Furthermore, most universities in China offer mandatory classs of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory which brings formidable influence on the edifice of Chinese immature people ‘s national individuality.
As to the cultural individuality of Chinese immature people, it is believed that the heritage of Confucian civilization takes the dominant place in Chinese society. Confucianism is one of Chinese traditional civilization values, which is formed on the footing of colleting experience of the state ‘s geographic expedition and response to the challenge of its national and societal environment ( Zheng, Yongnian, 1999, p.73 ). Grown up and educated in such a society, immature people form their cultural individuality and obtain cultural group rank unconsciously. The civilization consciousness is internalized by persons and eventually signifiers cultural individuality ( Brock and Tulasiewicz, 1985:4, cited in Parmenter ).
The obtaining and challenge of societal individuality among Chinese immature people can be analyzed under the circumstance of globalisation. Social individuality is a much broader construct which can include cultural or cultural rank individuality ( Ting-Toomey and Chung, 2005, p.101 ). The procedure of globalisation is non merely an exchange of ware, but besides an interaction between western and eastern civilizations. Some Chinese immature people appreciate and accept western civilization and values. In this sense, the in-group and out-group in societal individuality theory can be categorized as follows in this essay: Under the influence of western civilization to Chinese traditional civilization, those people who hold traditional cultural values of Chinese corporate civilization can be regarded as an in-group, and the out-group can be regarded as those Chinese immature people who are westernized through the procedure of globalisation.
2. Identity Crisis of Chinese Young People through the Process of Globalization and Efforts to reshape individuality
2.1 Analysiss of Identity Crisis among Chinese Young Peoples
The individuality crisis towards Chinese immature people under the circumstance of globalisation can be chiefly analyzed in two facets, viz. cultural individuality crisis and societal individuality crisis. The cultural individuality crisis is a crisis of Chinese traditional universe position and cultural values, which produced in the procedure of western civilizations and values occupying into Chinese traditional civilization values, while societal individuality crisis is stemmed from how persons categorize themselves and others in footings of their belonging to groups ( Tajfel, 1981 ), therefore, in the circumstance of China, the follow essay will analyse how Chinese immature people categorize themselves in footings of groups. But first, the essay will discourse the alone feature of Chinese immature people under the influence of globalisation and planetary civilization.
Those Chinese immature people who are sing their adolescence twelvemonth are a alone group in the formation of individuality. Adolescence is a certain period of twelvemonth between childhood and maturity, which involves psychological revolution, uncertainness, wonder towards the new tendency, and the willingness to larn ( Erikson, 1968, p.128 ). Those Chinese immature people who were born after the Reform and Opening Up policy carried out in China have experienced a wholly different turning environment from the coevals of their parents. Under the influence of globalisation, Chinese immature people find themselves in a moving ridge of technological, economic, and planetary cultural tendency. It is the feature of adolescence determines that Chinese immature people have a willingness to larn and accept the western values promoted by globalisation every bit good as traditional values hold by Chinese corporate civilization. It seems likely that the familiarity of western values in the procedure of globalisation leads to a vagueness of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality.
It could be argued that the period of adolescence is besides a period of runing the map of secondary socialisation as to organize a universe position, which is a proceeding procedure of internalising the primary construct of political orientation. The secondary socialisation trades with the already formed ego and an already internalized word ( Berger and Luckmann, 1966, p.160 ). In the context of China, traditional civilizations and values hold by the society can be regarded as circumstance for Chinese immature people to organize primary socialisation, while instruction offered by school and society contributes to the attempt to organize immature people ‘s secondary socialisation. Under the influence of globalisation and invading of western values to Chinese society, the edifice of construct through 2nd socialisation of Chinese immature people is having more outer influence and challenges, because of the values promoted by planetary civilization and western values may belie to their primary construct. Erikson ( 1968, p.162 ) claims that the self-importance ‘s map to “ incorporate the relation of freshly added individuality component with those already in being ”, but if the freshly added individuality elements is conflicted with the former one, there will be an individuality crisis come into being.
Globalization accelerates the communicating around the universe, although China is celebrated for its conservative civilization, it is can non be denied that Chinese traditional civilization is affected by the western values. Chinese civilization is built in the society of collectivized values, in which the “ power of the group ” is emphasized ( Hofstede, 1991, p.50 ). Chinese people think extremely of the household tie and the values such as filial piousness, which implies the proper dealingss of parents and kids in Chinese traditional civilization. Parents have absolute power in the household and should be respected and reverenced by kids, kids are taught that they are in responsibility edge to take attention of their senior parents. However, presents it is reported that the empty-nest places ( where old twosomes live entirely ) make up 49.7 % of families in urban countries ( Seniors foremost, 2010 ), and 74 % of immature Chinese people feel unqualified to be given the old couple to assorted grounds ( 74 % of immature feel incompetent to be given the old, 2010 ).
Chinese immature people are in a danger of losing traditional values. It is widely believed that western values such as individuality and philistinism introduce into Chinese civilization and trigger a series of alterations in Chinese society in the procedure of globalisation. Chinese immature people are confronting the challenges of keeping traditional values and internalising traditional cultural consciousness while accessing to the planetary civilization. Brock and Tulasiewicz ( Parmenter, 1997, p.27 ) suggest that the cultural individuality is “ a certain universe position, constructed and developed by the person in interaction with others. ” It is obvious that Chinese immature people ‘s universe position is challenged and different from the universe position hold by traditional larger Chinese civilization couple to the accessing of planetary civilization. Therefore, the globalisation and western values challenge Chinese immature people ‘s cultural individuality.
Through the procedure of globalisation, western festivals such as Christmas and Valentine ‘s Day go good known among Chinese immature people. In contrast, some Chinese traditional festivals such as the Dragon Boat Festival, Pure Brightness Day, and Double Ninth Festival are forgotten and even ignored. There is a inclination for some of Chinese immature people to take on western values and prosecute self-esteem by acting otherwise. Harmonizing to Tajfel ( 1981, p.277 ), “ societal individuality understood as derivation in a comparative and ‘relational ‘ mode from an person ‘s group ranks ”. It can be assumed that some Chinese immature people regard some western values are better than Chinese traditional values through comparing. Therefore, there is a crisis in the facet of societal individuality among some Chinese immature people to specify their topographic point in a societal system.
2.2 Attempts to Reshape Chinese Young People ‘s Identity
It has been shown that the issue of individuality crisis is raised from the influence of globalisation on Chinese civilization. The essay above has analyzed cultural individuality crisis and societal individuality crisis among Chinese immature people under the influence of western civilization. This subdivision will critically analyse the attempts to reshape Chinese immature people ‘s individuality chiefly from the facet of instruction, and concentrate on the course of study of Chinese literature and history.
It is widely believed that school is in the place of advancing the development of the individuality ( Parmenter, 1997, p.34 ), hence, it is can be assumed that school besides plays an of import function in reshaping of individuality. Chinese instruction is carried out under the guideline of Education Law of the People ‘s Republic of China. The Law ( 1995 ) points out the purposes of China ‘s instruction, which is to better the quality of the whole state and concept socialist stuff and religious civilisation in conformity with the Constitution ( Article 1 ), meanwhile, the Law besides indicates that instruction should be carried out under the guideline of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and the theories, furthermore, instruction should besides inherit and spread out all right historical and cultural traditions as to accomplish civilisation advancement of human existences. ( Article 3, Article 7 ). Therefore, it is can be seen that instruction in China has been politicized as to reenforce individuality among pupils.
Tate shows that linguistic communication and history are two major course of studies that surrogate national and cultural individuality ( Parmenter, 1997, p.35 ). The Chinese literature course of study is a class teaches pupils Chinese linguistic communications every bit good as Chinese traditional civilizations and values, particularly the Chinese Authoritative literature, in which contains Confucian ‘s classical plants, such as The Four Books ( The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean, The Analectss of Confucius, and The Mencius ) and the five classics. Confucianism is the nucleus value rooted in Chinese traditional civilization and formed cultural individuality among Chinese people. As to the linguistic communication instruction in Chinese literature course of study, despite the linguistic communication helps Chinese immature people to determine a universe position, it is seemed likely that linguistic communication is a much weaker factor compared with Chinese traditional values hold by the Chinese literature in reshaping cultural individuality. Besides, linguistic communication is non a direct factor in constructing cultural individuality ( Parmenter, 1997, p.27 ). However, it is can non denied that Chinese Literature course of study plays an of import function in Reconstruction of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality.
As to the facet of history course of study in China ‘s instruction, the ground of giving a anterior consideration of history has argued by Goodson ( 1998, p.153 ), history is considered as “ revive and refocus of national individuality and political orientation ”. In the attempts of reshaping individuality among Chinese immature people, history course of study operates the same map as Goodson discussed. Although the focal point of Chinese history course of study alterations somewhat, from historical philistinism to Chinese dynastic and cultural heritage, from socialist people to national people, from socialism to patriotism ( Jones, 2005, p.95 ) The map of history remains to the function of “ transmittal of state-authorized memories ” as to back up cultural, regional, or political individualities in both Nationalist and Communist China ( Jones, 2005, p.94 ).
2.3 New Problems rise from the reshaping of Chinese Young People ‘s Identity under the circumstance of globalisation
One issue that should concern us is the national course of study under the influence of globalisation. In the procedure of Reconstruction of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality through national course of study, there may be a inclination of disregarding the influence brought by globalisation to China ‘s society. The globalisation brings important alterations in the facets of societal and cultural life to Chinese immature people in and outside school, nevertheless, the interior decorators of course of study seem to disregard the phenomena and continuously pull up exam-oriented course of study which focuses on constructing pupil ‘s national and cultural individuality within the state ( Mccarthy, C., Giardina, M. D., Harewood, S. J., & A ; Park, J., 2003, p.454 ). It is likely that the over-emphasizing of national and cultural individuality in national course of study will convey negative consequence on the consciousness of the diverseness cultural values in the universe.
Promoting an apprehension and grasp of other civilizations is the construct promoted in the international instruction ( Cambridge, J., & A ; Thompson, J., 2004, p.162 ). While, Blaney ( cited in Walker, 2000, p.200 ) suggests that ‘Education systems rooted chiefly in national concerns and constrained by national political orientations can non educate immature people to populate meaningfully in a universe society which is planetary ‘. In the circumstance of globalisation, it could be suggested that popular civilization should be added into instruction. The popular civilization should be understood as ‘crucial terrain of political and societal controversy, dialogue, and opposition that makes up the ever-shifting boundaries and confederations of young person individuality formation ‘ ( Mccarthy, C., Giardina, M. D., Harewood, S. J., & A ; Park, J., 2003, p.463 ).
This subdivision chiefly deals with the challenge of Chinese civilization on the facet of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality under the influence of Globalization. A model is built through constructs of individuality, the formation and crisis of Chinese immature people ‘s individuality. Then, individuality crisis of Chinese immature people is analyzed and the ways of reshaping individuality is presented. At last, it is critically analyzed the job in the procedure of reshaping Chinese immature people ‘s individuality.