International Software Company Cyber Concepts Essay

International Software Company was founded in 1980. Today, with a client base of over 150 major corporate histories and mid-sized companies all around the universe, International Software Company has undeniably become a globally recognized force thanks to its drawn-out expertness in the Information Systems Normalization field. Our two nucleus values, viz. our uninterrupted strive for the highest quality at all times and the fight of ISC package functionalities, have drawn involvement from organisations which aim at uniting industry vision with ITIL best pattern procedures.

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Throughout the old ages, ISC has besides developed a strong partnership web with major IT forces, both Software Editors and Service Management Suppliers.

Cyber Concepts ( pvt ) Ltd is a taking company in Sri Lanka for Web Design, Customized Software Development, Web Application Development and

E-Commerce Portals. The Company was started in the twelvemonth 2001 by experient Professionals in the Engineering and ICT industry with a Swiss Funding Agency.

Soon its a to the full owned Sri Lankan Company with ISO 9001: 2008 enfranchisement which offers Quality World Class ICT Solutions to clients in Sri lanka and World Wide and they will supply ample grounds of the quality merchandises and services we offer.

Our highly friendly and gracious staff with up-to-date cognition in latest engineerings will offer cost effectual and flexible solutions on clip to add value to your concern and consequence nest eggs across your concern operations.

Section 1

Organizational construction.

The organisational construction creates a model through which activities can be managed to carry through organisational ends and aims. Or in other words, a formal system of undertakings and describing relationships that co-ordinates and motivates organisational members, so that they work together to accomplish organisational ends.

Harmonizing to Peter Ferdinand Drucker, “ good organisation construction does non by itself produce good public presentation. But a hapless organisation construction makes good public presentation is impossible, no affair how good the single directors may be ”

As for the above statement it is clear that there is no perfect organisational construction. This may change harmonizing to the size, nature of concern and other act uponing factors.

International Software Company is a multi national package company runing in many parts of the universe. Therefore they have adopted a liquidizer of both functional construction and geographical construction manners.

Mean while cyber constructs ( pvt ) ltd has its operations merely limited to Sri Lanka follows a functional organisational construction.

Elementss of organisational construction.

Even though the organisational constructions of two different companies belong to the same type of organisational construction there is less possibility that everything being similar in footings of organisational construction, the elements of the construction should be consider.

Work specialisation ; –

Interrupting a entire work down into little, simple, separate operations in which each worker could specialise is known as division of work. Leting one employee to repetitively execute such a simple undertaking for long is known as specialisation.

Departmentalization ; –

Departmentalization is the procedure of grouping occupations together so that common undertakings can easy be coordinated.

Chain of bid ; –

Chain of bid is the unbroken line of authorization that extends from the top of the organisation to the lowest degree and clarifies who reports to whome.

Span of control: –

Span of direction is the figure of subsidiaries describing straight to a given director.

Deputation of authorization ; –

The act of delegating formal authorization and duty for completion of specific activities to subsidiaries.

Formalization ; –

The grade to which occupations within the organisation are standardized.

Coordination ; –

Coordination is the procedure of incorporating the different aims and activities of different sections and people so that the common aim of the organisation can be achieved.

These above mentioned elements vary from organisation to organisation. this make a important alteration in their organisational construction.

Structure component.

International package company

Cyber constructs ( pvt ) ltd

Work specialisation

The undertakings are comparatively large therefore the specialisation is comparatively high

Relative low specialisation. But there is a moderate degree of specialisation.


Departmentalization is done harmonizing to geographical base.

Merely uses 3 sections.

( Customer service, substructure and package support and development ) departmentalized harmonizing to the functional base.

Chain of bid

Authority can be seen at each degree and moreover there is a certain grade of power within the regional caputs and the manager board.

There is no much of authorization delegated but there is high duty to the workers.

The president merely has the power to influence others.

Span of control

As this company deals with large package undertakings. There is a broad span of control.

Relatively narrow span of control depending on the undertaking.


There is a high grade of formalisation

There is a high grade of formalisation


Lesser coordination between the top degree and lower degree. This is because the organisation size is large.

Good coordination with in the organisation.

Organizational civilization.

Org civilization is “ the set of shared, taken-for-granted inexplicit premises that a group holds and that determines how it perceives, thinks about, and reacts to its assorted elements ” – organisational behavior.

Organizational civilization is all about how things are done within a company. civilization reflects the values shared among org members. These values tend to prevail over clip and are more immune to alter.

3 prospective have been proposed to explicate the types of civilization that enhance an organisations economic public presentation.

The strength position predicts a important relationship between strength of corporate civilization and long term fiscal public presentation. The thought is that strong civilization creates end alliance, employee motive and needed construction and controls to better org public presentation.

The fit position is based on the premiss that an organizations civilization must aline with its concern or strategic context. Consequently there is no 1 best civilization. A civilization is predicted to ease economic public presentation on if it “ tantrums ” its context.

The adaptative position assumes that good civilization aid org anticipate and adopt to environmental alterations. This proactive adaptability is expected to heighten long term fiscal performance.A utile faculty for detecting and construing org civilization was developed by a Harvard research. Four general manifestations or grounds of organisational civilization in his faculty are shared things ( objects ) shared expressions ( talk ) shared departures ( behavior ) and shared feelings ( emotions ).

Handy suggests that we can categorise organisations into a wide scope of four civilizations. The foundation of ‘culture ‘ will change upon the factors including company history, ownership, administration construction, engineering, critical concern incidents and environment, etc.

The four civilizations he discourses are Power ‘, ‘Role ‘, ‘Task ‘ and ‘People ‘. Handy ‘s types of organisational civilization.

Power civilization ; –

Power civilization is a state of affairs where the power of the organisation is centralized in we custodies. They are the people who are responsible for all the determination devising and directing the work of other members. Harmonizing to Handy power civilization is a web where the power is concentrated extremely on the center.

Role civilization ; –

The authorization of place power is legitimate. Personal power is non. This reflects Weber ‘s pure theory of bureaucratism. The place plays an of import function.

Harmonizing to Handy function civilization is considered as a Grecian temple. Where the vertex of the temple is responsible in determination devising.

Task civilization: –

This is where information and expertness are the accomplishments that are of value. Hendy describes task civilization utilizing a fretwork. Where the single expertness taken into consideration.

Person civilization ; –

This is characteristic of the consensus theoretical account of direction, where the persons within the construction control together the way which the administration follows. If there is a formalistic construction, it tends to serve the demands of the persons within the construction.

Handy describes the individual civilization utilizing a bunch.

An orgs initial civilization is an branch of the laminitiss doctrine. If the laminitis is an accomplishment oriented single driven by success. Overtime, the original civilization is either embedded as is or modified to suit the current environment state of affairs,

The formal statement of org doctrine, mission, vision, values and stuffs used for recruiting, choosing

The design of physical infinite, work environment and edifice.

Mottos, linguistic communication, and expressions

Deliberate function mold, developing plans, learning and training by directors and supervisors.

Explicit wagess, position symbols and publicities standards

Narratives, fables and myths about cardinal people and events.

How civilizations are embedded in organisation.

Organizational construction and civilization.

Consequently there is a relationship between organisational construction and civilization. When we talk about international package company. It is a large-scale company runing in many different locations. Due to its big nature we can see a undertaking civilization state of affairs. International Software Company extremely trades with large-scale undertakings where the persons have their ain duty. This because there is a broad span of control and tall construction nature of the organisation. These grounds have paved the manner for task civilization state of affairs with in the organisation. The power and authorization is delegated with the organisation in order to hold smooth operation.

On the same manus, if we talk about cyber constructs pvt ( ltd ). It is a medium graduated table company whose operations are merely limited to sri lanka. When we consider about the span of control, there is a narrow span of control. And the organisation construction is flatter. These characteristics have enabled a power civilization state of affairs. Where the president of the company has the exclusive power over the operations of the organisation. He him self takes all the determinations. This is due to the range of the organisation.

Development of Management idea.

A formal organic structure of direction cognition consist of direction theories, rules, theoretical accounts, constructs and patterns. A direction theory is a systematic statement, based O observations, of how direction procedure might outdo occur, given stated implicit in rules. There is no individual universally accepted and practiced direction theory – alternatively there are many different direction attacks.

Classical Approach.

Behavioral Approach.

Management scientific discipline Approach.

System Approach.

Contingency Approach.

Contemporary direction theories.

Nipponese attack

Excellent attack

Classical Approach.

This classical attack to direction stresses the director ‘s function in a formal hierarchy of authorization and focuses on the undertaking, machines, and systems needed to carry through the undertaking expeditiously. Following major managerial parts can be discussed under this attack.

Scientific direction theory.

Administrative direction theory.

Bureaucratic direction theory.

Scientific direction theory. – F.W. Taylor ( 1856-1915 )

This attack focuses on betterment of operational efficiencies ( productiveness ) through the systematic and scientific survey of the work method, tool and public presentation criterions. During his experiences as a chief and so as an independent adviser Taylor who is called as the “ male parent of scientific direction ”.

Develop a “ scientific discipline ” for each component of the occupation to replace old regulation of pollex.

Scientifically choice employees and develop them to make the occupation as described in the “ scientific discipline ” developed to replace rule-of-thumb.

Supervise employees to do certain they follow the prescribed methods for executing their occupations. Continue to be after the work, but use workers to really acquire the work done.

Tie the work public presentation of employees with their economic wages.

Scientific direction school provided direction techniques and tools such as work-study, inducement pay strategies, charting techniques such as Gant Chart, and the ideological and technological base for the modern assembly line production system. In add-on, the country now known as industrial technology, which contain proficient and technology facets of pull offing the mill flows, is a direct consequence of the development of there initial constructs development by scientific direction school.

Administrative direction theory.- Henry Fayol ( 1841-1920 )

This theory emphasizes the catholicity of direction as a map that can be applied to all organisation. the clear difference between scientific direction school and administrative school is that the former concentrated on the betterment of efficiency of micro work elements chiefly in industrial organisation while the latter ‘s focal point was on the betterment of efficiency of full organisation.

One major part is that he devised what has become known as the functional definition of direction which states that direction is “ to forcast ( to program ), to form, to command to co-ordinate and to command. ”

Bureaucracy by Max Weber ( 1864-1920 )

Webber developed a theory of bureaucratic direction that stressed the demand for a purely defined hierarchy governed by clearly defined ordinances and line of authorization. Webber argued that, with the development of capitalist economy, an inevitable signifier of organisation emerges where there exists a direction by office or place, instead than individual, based on rational authorization.

A set of impersonal and logical regulations and modus operandi.

Clear division of labor.

Choice based on proficient makings.

Rigorous attachment to a clear concatenation of bid.

He felt that these subjects would let for orderly and systematic direction of big groups of people that was non possible when personal penchant, which were likely to be logical, and trueness to persons were the footing for operation.

The behavioural attack.

The behavioural school emerged partially because the classical attack did non accomplish sufficient production efficiency and workplace harmoniousness. Several scientists tried to beef up classical organisation theory with penetration of sociology and psychological science. The incorporation of sociology and psychological science into direction thought brought frontward the thought that organisation is non mere work, work standard, hierarchies, offices, regulations and ordinances but a aggregation of people whose outlooks, dreams, political orientations and behavior from the major domain of work specialisation.

The direction scientific discipline school.

After the 2nd universe war, operational research techniques used in universe war were progressively applied in concern context and gave the way to the development of industrial technology as a cardinal country of direction this contributed to direction in supplying assorted mathematical theoretical accounts and programmes to work out concern job.

Contingency attack.

Contingency attack assumes that there can non be one best manner of direction but instead different techniques, tools, constructions and manners of direction will outdo suit to different state of affairss. Consequently, the cardinal challenge of directors is to place which manner, technique, tool or construction is the best 1 for different jobs state of affairss that they face.

Contemporary direction theories.

Interest in direction theory and patterns has heightened in recent old ages as new issues and challenges have emerged. No new paradigm has been formulated to replace the traditional positions. But directors continue to endeavor towards a better apprehension of how they can break vie and take their organisation toward improved effectivity.

Nipponese direction attack and theory Z

Best manner to understand the cardinal characteristics of Nipponese direction patterns in comparing with American direction patterns is to analyze William Ouchi ‘s theory Z. He argues that houses different along following of import dimensions.

Excellent Approach – Peter and Waterman.

Geting thing done on clip.

Staying near to client.

Promoting liberty and entrepreneurship.

Maximizing productiveness through people.

Using hands-on attack to managing.

Making what the company knows best.

Keeping a simple, thin organisational construction.

Promoting both centralisation and decentalisation at the same time.

Sri Lankan direction Approaches.

It is by and large identified that manner and pattern of direction is civilization specific. A curious manner of pull offing can emerge in different cultural, political and economic context. Consequently, Sri Lankan direction patterns can be different from other major direction patterns in the universe. Similarly, there should be a specific manner of small research done on Sri Lankan direction patterns ( e.g. ; – survey by prof.Nanayakkara ).

Section 2


Through out the history, it has been recognized that the success of an organisation or any group within the organisation depends mostly on the quality of its leading. Successful leaders envision the hereafter, anticipate alteration, exploit chances, motivate their followings to higher degree of productiveness, right hapless public presentation, and take the organisation towards aims.

Though it is a fact that leading enormously influences the human behavior it ‘s interior working and specific dimensions can non be exactly spelt out. However, about all the constituted theories of the leading continue to supply an understanding about procedure of taking as a foundation for the pattern of effectual leading in today ‘s organisations.

Harmonizing to Mescrn, Albert and Khedoum Leadership is “ the ability to act upon single and groups to work toward achieving organisational aim ”

James Arthur Finch Stoner, R. Edward Freeman, Daniel R. Gilbert ( 1995 ) stated leading is “ the procedure of directing and act uponing the task-related activities of groupmenbers ”

A individual ‘s leading manner is the form of behavior they exhibit in transporting out a leading function. Behavioral scientists have taken basic attacks to understand leading in organisation context. The trait attack, the behavioral and the eventuality attack of leading has paved the manner for understanding leading manners.

Harmonizing to trait attack successful depends on personal features of the individual keeping leading place. Due to its restrictions behavioural attack was developed. Harmonizing to behavioural attack leaders maps and manners plays an of import function in finding efficient leaders. The trouble Doctor of Optometry insulating universally effectual leading traits or behaviours has caused researches to seek to find the situational variables that will do one leading manner to be more effectual than another. The eventuality attack to leading efforts to place which situational factors are of import and predict which leading manner will be more effectual in a given state of affairs.

Beside the above discussed theories, a figure of have emerged in recent old ages ; magnetic, societal acquisition and transformative leading attacks

Leadership manners.

All these above discussed attacks of leading paved the manner for development of leading manners. Manners such as

Undertaking oriented manner ; –

This type of leaders extremely dressed ores on the undertaking instead than employee good being. They govern through regulations and keeping criterions. The organisation can guarantee its deadlines are met and their resources are expeditiously used.

Employee-oriented manner: –

On the other manus there are some leaders who have more concern toward the employee good being. They believe that if the employees are supported it will heighten squad edifice and contributes towards productiveness.

Transactional Leadership ; –

This is a leading manner, which concentrates on short-run undertakings. The dealing normally paying squad members in return to their attempts. And more over these type of leaders judge employees through their public presentation.

Autocratic Leadership ; –

This is an utmost signifier of transactional leading. Where the leaders have power to exercise influence over its people.

Bureaucratic Leadership ; –

Bureaucratic leaders works harmonizing to the book. They follow regulations strictly, and guarantee that their subsidiaries follow them exactly.

Democratic/Participative Leadership: –

Democratic leaders include their squad members in decision-making procedure. They support creativeness, and squad members are frequently extremely occupied in undertakings and determinations.

Individualistic Leadership ; –

These leaders give entire freedom to their subsidiaries to work. They guide the squad with resources and advice, if needed, but otherwise do n’t acquire involved.

Transformational Leadership.

They encouraging because they expect the best from everyone on their squad every bit good as themselves. This enables to high productiveness and battle from everyone in their squad.

Every organisation has their alone liquidizer of leading manners. As such when we consider about international package company. We can presume their top direction uses a blend of transactional and individualistic leading manner. As it is a large company holding other leading manner is non possible. Because the figure of employees is large and its operation is spread through out the universe. Their top degree is merely concentrating on a squad boulder clay they engage in a undertaking and the employees are given freedom to make their work. More over the employees are paid harmonizing to their public presentation and the attempts they put into work.

And when we talk about cyber constructs ( pvt ) limited company there is limited figure of workers, which is comparatively low. The president monitors all the employees. Therefore there is more like to be a blend of undertaking oriented civilization and Bureaucratic Leadership. The president will be extremely concentrating on the undertakings and deadlines to a great trade. And the organisation is driven by regulations and norms.

Environmental alterations.

Environment is subjected to alterations every now and so. It is the responsibility of the directors of the organisation to set harmonizing in order to prolong in the competitory market. Assuming that the market of both of these companies has faced a important technological discovery.

The international package company is compact with high engineering. Even though the directors should guarantee that they upgrade their engineering to suite the market tendency. Therefore these director see how these new engineering can increase its efficiency and the impact over the cost factor. They show less concern for the cost of the engineering. And they incure cost of developing the work force.

On the other manus Cyber constructs Pvt ( ltd ) which is a medium graduated table company, cost of engineering is extremely concern by the directors. Even though it is low-cost the president has to make up one’s mind whether to buy it or non. First the president will acquire trained to utilize the engineering and afterwards it will be passed to subsidiaries. This is due to high cost of preparation and development.

Section 3.

Motivational theories.

We might specify motive in footings of some outward behavior. Peoples who are motivated exert a greater attempt to execute than those who are non motivated how of all time such a definition is comparative and tells us small. A more descriptive but less substantial definition would state that motive is the willingness to make something, and is considered by this action ‘s ability to fulfill some demand for the person. A demand, means a physiological or psychological lack that makes certain results appear attractive

Theories that talk about motive.

The content theories explains – what motivates people? Greater accent is placed on the features of the people.

Maslow ‘s demand hierarchy theory.

Alderfer ‘s ERG theory.

Herzberg ‘s Two-factor theory.

McClelland ‘s Three Need theory.

Procedure theories address how does the single motive occurs.

Expectancy theory of master vroom.

Equity theory of Stacy Adams.

Reinforcement theory of B.F.Skinner.

Goal puting theory- Edwin A.Locke

Hierarchy of demand theory.

It ‘s likely safe to state that the best known theory of motive is Abraham Maslow ‘s hierarchy of demands. He hypothesized that within every human being there exists a hierarchy of five demands. These are

As each of these demands becomes well satisfied, the following demand becomes dominant. In footings of hierarchy diagram, the person moves up the hierarchy. From point of view of motive, Maslow ‘s theory would state that although no demand is of all time to the full gratified, a well satisfied need no longer motivates.

Maslow separated the five demands into higher and lower order of demands. Physiological and safety demands were described as lower order ; societal, esteem and self realization were categorized as higher order demands. The distinction between two order was made on the premiss that higher order demands are satisfied internally, whereas lower order demands are preponderantly satisfied externally.

Maslow ‘s demand theory has received broad acknowledgment, peculiarly among practising directors. This can be attributed to the logic and easiness with which the theory is intuitively understood.

McClelland ‘s Three Need theory.

Need for Achievement.

Trying to accomplish higher marks and accept any challenge or hazard. Trying to be successful in a competitory environment.

Need for Affiliation.

Always seeking to hold relationships with other people.

Need for power.

Always seeking to gain power and influence others

The Expectancy Theory – master vroom

This theory emphasizes that the attempt and motive is fundamentally determined on outlook of wages or come-at-able success.

Equity theory of Stacy Adams.

This theory emphasizes that employees examine that equity of their return for the committedness they have done through comparing the return, which has been received to other who are in the same class for the same committedness.

Reinforcement theory of B.F. Skinner.

This theory explains how the effect of the old experience affect as a acquisition procedure to the actions in future.

Goal Setting theory – Edwin A.Locke.

This theory explains that the employees will be motivated when direction gives just and come-at-able marks to them.

Motivational theory at cyber constructs pvt ( ltd )

Cyber constructs pvt ( ltd ) has much concern towards motive of their employees. It is because it is a package developing company where the employees ‘ creativeness and attempt is important. They believe that if the employees are good paid and benefited to the work they perform the employees will be motivated. And more over they consider employee ‘s public presentation as the mensurating tool.

Therefor cyber constructs pvt ( ltd ) can utilize Herzberg two factor theory as the motivational tool, to actuate the employees with in the organisation. Herzberg argued that resistance of satisfaction is non dissatisfaction but no satisfaction. The two factors what Herzberg negotiations about is Hygiene factors and Incentives. To actuate a group of executives through utilizing two-factor theory, the practicians are able to follow following stairss.

Behavior a demand study and place the degree of satisfaction and dissatisfaction.

If the peculiar employees are dissatisfied about the hygiene factors. First supply them those hygiene factors to take dissatisfaction.

After that motivate them by supplying incentives

The directors of cyber constructs pvt ( ltd ) can utilize this to actuate their employees. Herzberg provinces, foremost the hygiene factors should be given to employees to extinguish the dissatisfaction. The factors such has salary, working status, occupation securityaˆ¦ make the employees more content on work and do them non demotivated. After that in order to actuate them the employees should be given with actuating factors in order to actuate them. This is of import for the directors. Because extremely motivated employees can lend extremely to increase the efficiency of the company. And it ‘s the directors occupation to hold a motivated labor force.

Decision and Recommendation.

With the above facts it is clear that the direction plays an of import function in an organisation. Some constituents of direction such as organisational construction, civilization, direction theories and attacks, leading manners and motive are used to demo the important of direction with in the organisation.

The foundation of an organisation is said to be its direction. Therefor those elements of direction will give a good brief for the reader. The directors of both the companies International package company and Cyber constructs Pvt ( ltd ) should cognize how to use and adhere to good direction patterns. This will increase the efficiency and effectivity of the organisation. the directors should understand that there is no good direction manner that they should adhere into. They should follow their inherent aptitude and work harmonizing to the state of affairs.

It is better if the directors of the Cyber constructs pvt ( ltd ) follow center of the route leading manner. It is holding equal concern towards both undertaking and employee orientated leading manner. And there by bit by bit travel towards democratic direction manner. This will increase its efficiency by heightening motive and properties among employees.


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