1 Guidelines for Writing Internship Reports Objective Writing reports is one of the most formal ways of presenting the results of a project. Reports can be written about any professional activity including experimental or test results, design proposals, economic or technical feasibility studies and project summaries. They usually follow a major effort on a single topic and are written for review by people involved in decision making or affected by their work.
Internship students are asked to write an Internship Report for a number of reasons, including practice in the following: • Organizing and presenting a large amount of information related to a problem. • Interpreting relevant information. • Evolving relevant conclusions which result in recommendations. Essential Elements An Internship Report contains four essential parts. However, it may also contain other information and be laid out under different tiles. These essential parts are: • A clear definition of the problem addressed by the study. The details of the study including: assumptions, alternatives, and predicted outcomes; • Conclusions following from the details. • Recommendations derived from the conclusions and addressing the problem. Recommendations are required in your Internship Report. 9 – Guidelines for Writing Internship Reports Choosing a Topic Your Internship Report should be based on a specific aspect of the relevant organization where you intend doing your internship, e. g. HR, Finance, Marketing, Logistics, etc. Hence you should research a topic that is related to your work or place of internship.
In this regard ,a generalized study report will not be acceptable. Style The Internship Report is expected to be analytical rather than descriptive. It should contain accurate, factual information together with sound arguments and conclusions. The format of the report should normally follow the guidelines provided in R&D Research Book issued by R&D Office. General Guidelines • The length of your Internship Report should not exceed 10,000 to 12000 words or 40 to 50 pages with 1. 5 line space, including appendices. The length should reflect the complexity of the topic and the thoroughness of the research.
The Internship Report should be self-contained (explain any terminology particular to the topic the first time you use it), consistent, and to the point. It should be 2 understandable to someone who has background in the area of the report but is unfamiliar with the particular topic of the report. • • • • • • • Use standard formal level of English (no slang or colloquialisms). Use the first person only in the letter of transmittal and in the preface. Use a good quality white bond paper. Use only one side of the page for all text and figures. Start major sections of the report on new pages.
Bind the Internship Report in a suitable protective cover. Number the pages: ? All pages that come before the body of the report are numbered using lower case Roman numerals. The title page is considered to be page 1, but is not numbered.? The body of the Report begins with the introduction. The pages of the body are given in Arabic numerals. The first page of the introduction is considered to be page 1, but it is not numbered. Leave margins of 1″ on the top, bottom, and sides of each page. • Internship Report Format The following shows the pattern that should be used for the Internship report: *optional 3 Detailed Section Information
The following information explains the purpose and suggested content of each of the Internship Report sections. Include only those sections and content which are appropriate for your topic. Cover Purpose: Provides a binding for the report, identifies the topic and owner of the report. Content: ? title of the report ? name of the student ? Internship Course Number (i. e. CICS 500) ? Internship Employer ? date report submitted 9 – Guidelines for Writing Internship Reports Letter of Transmittal (loose attachment to report – slip inside front cover) Purpose: A brief covering letter, addressed to the first official reader Content: ? ame of manager and department for whom the report was prepared ? terms of reference of the report ? authorization, degree of confidentiality of report ? general comments on the nature of and the time involved in the investigation ? a comment on the quality of the recommendations ? must be written in formal business letter style and signed in long-hand ? first person may be used Title Page Purpose: Identifies the topic and ownership of the report. Content: ? title of the report (clearly identifies the subject of the report) ? name of the addressee or recipient, Army Public College of Management & Sciences ? tudent, student ID ? Date and place Preface or Foreword Purpose: Provides reader with background of writing the report. Content: ? purpose, background, scope of subject coverage ? contributions of others to the report Summary 4 The summary is considered by many to be the most important part of a report. It is a difficult part to write and should always be written last. It is often the only part that managers in the work place have time to read, so it is important to state your case succinctly (normally less than one page). Purpose: Provides a brief summary of the report, an information abstract.
No reference is made to any part of the report; a summary is complete in itself. Content: ? states the more important information in the report ? the purposes, method, reason for the report ? the findings, conclusions, decisions, recommendations ? all major generalizations or assumptions of the report The title page is considered to be page I, but is not numbered. The summary is sometimes called the “Management Summary” or “Executive Summary”. You may write the preface, or foreword, in the first person. 10 – Guidelines for Writing Technical Reports Table of Contents
Purpose: Identifies contents and organization of document. Content: ? section headings ? page numbers List of Figures (optional) Purpose: Identifies any figures, drawings, or photographs shown in the report. Content: ? number of figures ? title of figures ? page number List of Tables (optional) Purpose: Identifies any tables shown in the report Content: ? number of table ? title of table ? page number Introduction Purpose: Introduces the subject of the report to the reader. Remember that the reader may be from a different branch of the discipline, and will require some orientation to the subject of your report.
Content: Subject and purpose of the report: states briefly why the report is being written and what the report is intended to achieve. scope: describes how broad or how limited the treatment of the subject will be ? 5 ? plan of development: outlines which areas will be covered ? thesis of the report: the general conclusion and/or the general recommendation Discussion Purpose: Presents evidence (facts, arguments, details, data, test results, etc) necessary to the purpose of the report. Content : This section contains the main part of the report. All evidence must be developed in an rganized, logical and orderly manner. All information must be relevant. This section should contain pertinent figures, tables, footnotes and references to material in appendices. Any additional supporting information should be placed in an appendix but referenced in the discussion. Any additional supporting information should be placed in an appendix but referenced in the discussion. 9 – Guidelines for Writing Internship Reports Conclusions Purpose: States briefly the major inferences that can be drawn from the discussion. Content: ? must be based on information presented in the discussion ? ach conclusion should be presented as a separate paragraph, with paragraphs numbered in sequence for easy reference ? never suggest or recommend future action Recommendations Purpose: Suggests a course of action based on the findings and conclusions. Content: ? must follow logically from the conclusions ? must be supported both by the conclusions and by the data in the discussion References/Bibliography (optional) Purpose: Acknowledge use of materials from printed sources in the preparation of your report. Indicate exact source of all quotations and/or results of previous work. Content: ? uthor’s name, title of book, year published, publisher’s name, city, ISBN number, page number ? bibliographic entries are listed alphabetically by the name of the author or by the first major work of the title ? Example: Vetterli, C. “Technical Report Guidelines”, Internship Journal, Vol. 1 No. 1, August 1992. ?common knowledge does not require a reference, e. g. the speed of light, the atomic weight of some element. If a new value for a commonly accepted quantity is cited, the source should be referenced. Appendices (optional) Purpose: Includes data, which is not necessary to an immediate understanding of the discussion.
Content: 6 ? appendices can contain program listings, drawings, extra figures, technical specifications, or other detailed explanations of some aspects of your Report. The conclusion should never suggest or recommend future action. References can be collected on one page at the end of the report, or they can be placed as footnotes on the bottom of the page on which the reference occurs. The term “appendix” applies to only one set of data: for example, program listings would be in Appendix A and technical specifications would be in Appendix B. 9 – Guidelines for Writing Internship Reports Reference Material
Every writer requires: ? a grammar handbook ? a good dictionary: Oxford is recommend Recommended grammar handbooks: ? Milward & Flick, Handbook for Writers, Harcourt Brace, 2nd Edition, 1993. ?Prentice-Hall, Handbook for Writers, 1st Edition, 1996. ?Strunk and White, The Elements of Style, Collier Macmillan. 9 – Guidelines for Writing Internship Reports Overview of the Report-Writing Process Define topic. Discuss topic and ideas for Report with your supervisor . Write your Report according to guidelines provided in these guidelines. Provide your Report to your supervisor for review at least a week before your Internship ends.