Interpretative reading can be defined as the analysis of literary texts and subsequent diction of those texts. It is besides sometimes called dramatic reading and relies on the reader’s voice to convey the emotion. play and imagination of a narrative without really moving it out. A good interpretive reader must possess a figure of vocal accomplishments such as the ability to command vocal tone. volume. gait and inflexion to accurately pass on significance and build play. In add-on to clear articulation and right pronunciation. which are paramount to the audience’s apprehension. the reader must hold an in deepness apprehension of the text in order to bring forth a meaningful reading of it. In other words the storyteller needs to be able to cognize the characters. conceive of their backgrounds and experience their emotions to be credible. Good interpretative reading is a hard accomplishment even for native talkers to maestro and takes readying and plentifulness of pattern ; nevertheless. for a pupil in the Thai instruction system faces a figure of distinguishable disadvantages in going a adept interpretive reader.
To get down with the linguistic communications of Thai and English are really different. We have different emphasis forms on words and there are sounds in English which don’t exist in Thai. both of which make clear pronunciation disputing for pupils and although many Thai schools now employ native speech production English instructors who are able to pattern right pronunciation and natural beat. tonss of Thai pupils lack assurance and have small chance to pattern English outside of their schoolroom. In add-on. English utilizations modulation to convey different significances and emotions whereas Thai uses a fixed tone for each word so it is frequently difficult for a Thai pupil to show emotions like irony or incredulity through inflexion even when they recognize the demand to make so. Another barrier for many Thai pupils. aside from the diction. is really understanding the text good plenty to construe it.
This depends upon. non merely the student’s cognition of English linguistic communication and ability to follow the secret plan but besides on old personal. educational and cultural experience that influence the manner the narrative is interpreted. A pupil missing exposure to western civilization and a deeper apprehension of the societal norms. stereotypes and cultural issues environing a text might fight with a believable portraiture of characters and personation. These factors coupled with a general deficiency of focal point on cardinal reading accomplishments leave Tai pupils at a distinguishable disadvantage when it comes to dramatic reading abilities. So. how do we measure the province of Thai interpretative reading? Do we take into history the many disadvantages that Thai pupils face in larning to read expressively and if so what standard is it just to judge them on? After some research into the rubric schools overseas use to measure students’ interpretative reading accomplishments we decided to establish our appraisal on the undermentioned standards: –
Pace. The velocity at which a reader speaks. increasing velocity creates play and strength.
Pause. The tarriance of the voice on. before or after a word for dramatic consequence.
Volume. Adds accent or comprehensiveness of tone. It can be used with other signifiers of accent to overstate accent.
Tune. The wave-like alteration in voice pitch depends on the reader acknowledging the comparative importance of words in the text.
Inflection. The bending of the voice from the chief pitch up or down.
Impersonation. The reader’s reading of the character.
Pitch. The grade of Highness or low status to a tone adds more elusive accent.
Assurance. How comfy is the talker with reading aloud the text.
The readers gait. volume and usage of intermission are techniques that can be used to stress temper or add play but in the instance of a non native talker an overly loud or quiet reading could be due to nervousness and a intermission or alteration in gait could be due to non understanding a word or non cognizing how to articulate it. These things. in bend. can impact the other factors we will be measuring. With this in head we will be concentrating on the divergences from normal forms in each of these classs and seeking to happen any correlativities.
Conducting the research and probe
To better understand how good a Thai may utilize the techniques associated with interpretive reading we needed to hear some illustrations. We selected a figure of Thai pupils to read a fit portion of a chapter from a book and recorded them to analyze their interpretive reading accomplishments. The stuff chosen was chapter one from ‘The Monkey King’ a phase one immature reader by Rosie Dickins. The chapter was broken into 5 separate parts for the pupils to read. The degree one reader was chosen to suit all pupils and concentrate on their reading accomplishments instead than their comprehension of the text. The students’ ages and degrees of English ranged from. six to eighteen old ages old. and Beginner to Advanced. By holding such a broad scope of readers we will be able to see if there are any reoccurring jobs across all degrees and ages or if there are any surprising consequences. Before the pupils were recorded they were each given different parts of the chapter to familiarize themselves with what they were traveling to read. This is to once more concentrate on their reading of the text and to allow them oppugn any pronunciation of any unfamiliar words. In add-on to that when the text was handed to the pupils. it was explained to them that they have to read it as if they were stating a narrative to person. and they do non desire this individual to fall asleep.
Besides. an illustration of interpretive reading of a text. other than their ain. was so given to the pupils to do certain that they to the full understood what they had to make. To make good interpretative reading. the text has to be to the full understood. it is the key for good reading. so all the parts that they did non understand was read to them and explained once more before they did the undertaking. Some of the younger pupils did non truly understand how to read the text like they were stating a narrative. so some parts of the text was read to them demoing the alteration in voice pitch and modulation. as one would make for interpretative reading.
They so caught on to what was needed. The most hard portion was that many of the younger 1s were nervous and shy. which is normal for some kids who have to read text which is non in theirnative linguistic communication. They were largely nervous because of being placed in forepart of a laptop computing machine. and about their pronunciation. It was made clear to them that pronunciation was non the point of the research and that it was non a large trade if they did do some errors. but that the most of import thing was the manner they interpret the text. and that it has to be understood. It was noticed that they did understand it since they all wrote some Thai notes on the text which seemed to be interlingual renditions. Then. eventually it was for them to bury their nervousnesss and read the text. The pupils were so recorded reading their parts which were subsequently analysed. sing the younger pupils reading degree. they did rather good.
Analyzing the consequences
Once we had the recordings of the brave pupils that took portion in our research. the analysis could be carried out. We went through the recordings with a all right toothcomb. and complied the consequences into a chart. In this chart. as can be seen in fig. 1. 2. the pupils were rated on their public presentation. They were judged on legion standards which include tune. velocity. volume. intermissions. inflexion. personation. pitch and assurance. These eight standards were marked as hapless. carnival. good. really good or first-class. We took into history their age group and reading accomplishments level when judging them. Once the chart was completed. the graphs were made to clearly demo which of the students’ accomplishments were strong and which accomplishments were weak ( fig. 2. 1 – 2. 8 ) . On the whole they performed better than expected. although there were obvious inflexions. alterations of pitch in uneven topographic points that Thais frequently make errors with when interpretative reading. We had spoken about this before the experiment had even begun. so it was to be expected.
The consequences of the experiment showed that most of the pupils had a really good appreciation of the gait that the text should be read at ( see fig. 2. 2 ) . In add-on. most of them read the text at a nice volume ; and all of the pupils were hearable ( see fig. 2. 3 ) . It was obvious which pupils have had a batch of pattern reading because of their tune. and the manner it flowed throughout their reading ( see fig. 2. 1 ) . These pupils are besides the 1s that were given good Markss in inflexion ; pitch and assurance ( see fig. 2. 5. 2. 7. and 2. 8 ) . One of the countries in which most of the pupils did non make really good was the intermissions. as it seemed as if they were in the incorrect topographic points and at that place did non look to be adequate of them ( see fig. 2. 4 ) . Finally. the worst country by far was the personation or reading of the characters in the narrative. Most of the pupils did non even change the pitch or tune of their voice when reading the direct address and those that did alter the pitch of their voice did non set on any sort of exciting voice ( see fig. 2. 6 ) . From the consequences. we have seen that by and large the criterion of interpretive reading is at a just degree. normally several of the student’s degree of English.
However. there were certain issues and certain elements of their reading which are necessary to seek and extinguish to assist better their interpretive reading. The highest degree of reading was from a pupil who could be considered the pupil with the highest degree of general English. This was chiefly due to his immediate in-depth apprehension of the text. He was able to use intermissions in appropriate topographic points such as full Michigan. commas. but besides utilizing them for dramatic consequence as in adjectival lists or after adverbs. He besides had a strong usage of tune in how he read. The best accomplishment he used which set his reading above the remainder was his usage of personation on the characters voices. Some other pupils were able to bring forth a likewise high criterion of reading and one time once more these pupils can be identified as the 1s with the best overall English linguistic communication accomplishments. Some of these good illustrations were from the M3 degree. Despite them being at a high degree of general English some of the elements they employed in their reading was something that could be said was found in all readings at this degree but non as frequent. One of these is the students’ usage of force on unstressed syllables.
This was more common at the terminal of words which contained specific sounds. This was seen in words such as monkey and heavenLY. adding excess force to the /i?/ sound. and gardener. giving force to the /?/ . There is besides another issue that was common at the terminal of words. This was the dropping of sounds or in some instance whole syllables. This was most apparent in plural nouns and ed sounds at the terminal of verbs. For illustration. peach tree. leaf. soldierS. pronounced as /?z/ . /z/ . and /s/ which were by and large dropped from the words all together particularly the /?z/ sound. Further to this the /?d/ . /d/ . and /t/ sounds in words such as. boastED. stormED. and snappED. were peculiarly a job. As we looked down the degrees of general English skills we saw jobs more identified with that degree instead than an overall image of Thai talkers and these jobs finally determined how good of a reader we believed them to be. One such job was tune. English being a really musical linguistic communication requires the reader to cognize the importance of stressed and unstressed words within the sentence. The consequence was chiefly a level sentence giving equal emphasis to prepositions and articles. to nouns and verbs.
This disrupted the usual flow of the English linguistic communication. The intermission was another job but was a more obvious one. There are certain places within a reading where a intermission must be used. such as full Michigans and commas and without these pauses the reading can sounds unnatural. This wasn’t throughout the text but merely in some topographic points is adequate to give a breathless consequence. The above mentioned issues were the most common throughout all the readers but there were some single errors present every bit good. For illustration. the lifting inflexion or falling inflection mid-sentence. giving a different significance to the sentence as a whole. We believe that vocabulary cognition is of great importance in the manner we set up the experiment.
Although the stuff used for the reading is said to be a flat one reader this does non intend that all the pupils are able to to the full understand all the words in the text and their subsequent consequence on the manner the text should be read. From the six stairss of analysis it is stated that a reader should be able to read the text line by line to the full understanding the text. to understand the subject. and significantly take the text off and pattern. With the limited clip available with the pupils it was non possible to let them to take the text place. analyze it. and possibly interpret the words to understand their significance. Therefore. the pupils with the greatest scope of vocabulary were the pupils with the better illustrations of interpretive reading. In respects to the common usage of what we considered to be their unlawful employment of interpretive reading accomplishments. we tried to place a possible ground for each instance.
First. the usage of force at the terminal of words incorporating /i?/ and /?/ we believe to be a job that is associated with the Thai linguistic communication. By and large. these sounds at the terminal of words are stressed in the Thai linguistic communication while unstressed in English. and so they are blending up the two linguistic communications. In contrast to this is the students’ deficiency of plural and ed sounds at the terminal of words. Due to the fact that they are non pronounced at the terminal of words in the Thai linguistic communication. the students’ would reassign this over to the English linguistic communication and drop them from the English words. The students’ deficiency of tune could be besides to make with being Thai linguistic communication native talkers. The musical beat of the English linguistic communication requires the usage of tune by emphasizing words in certain ways within a sentence. The Thai linguistic communication. nevertheless. does non hold tune in a sentence as a whole and so the reading was level as oppose to lifting and falling. strong and weak. The deficiency of intermissions in some cases has more to make with the single reader and with pattern could easy be eliminated.
In decision. Thai instructors need to supply more speaking clip for the pupils so that they can larn the beat of the English linguistic communication. This can be achieved by giving the pupils more entree to a native speaker’s spoken word. Some suggestions for this would be to hold the pupils do more role-play exercisings in the schoolroom portraying different characters from a book. Besides seeking to copy character’s voices from a film or from telecasting programmes would be a great manner to get the hang their personation technique. A game could be made out of this where the pupils have to think who another pupil is seeking to copy. Another manner to assist Thai pupils might be to acquire them to listen to other good known interpretative readers while they are reading along to the narrative themselves to acquire an apprehension of how it is done good.