To carry through the intent we should be a computing machine literate and information literate
• Must be knowing in how to utilize a computing machine
• Must be knowing in happening. analysing and utilizing information • The ability to garner information from multiple beginnings. choose the relevant stuff and form it into a signifier that will let you to do a determination or take a specific action • Information – computing machine. other merchandises. finance. travel. weather • Sources – magazine. publication. Internet
• By the usage of communicating equipment and package. computing machines can link with information beginnings around the universe • Up-to-date information. fast. efficient. cost-efficient
4 What is a computing machine?
• An electronic device
• Operating under the control of instructions stored in its ain memory unit
• Can accept informations ( input )
• Process informations arithmetically and logically
• Produce consequences ( end product )
• Store the consequences for future usage
Computer system – a aggregation of devices that function together to treat informations
2. What does a computing machine make?
• Data given to a computing machine during the input operation
• Data – natural facts – Numberss. words. images. sounds
• Manipulate informations to make information
• Information – information that has been processed into a meaningful and utile signifier • Information processing – production of information by treating informations on a computing machine • Data – arithmetic and logical
• Information created is put into some signifier ( e. g. printed study )
• Store automatically
• Magnetic – CD. tape. disc
The Components of a Computer
• Computer System consists of: input devices. end product devices. system units. storage devices and communicating devices.
1. Input devices
• An input device is the hardware constituent that allows a user to come in informations and bids into memory of a computing machine. • Examples: keyboard. mouse. mike. scanner. digital camera. and PC picture camera.
2. End product devices
• An end product device is any hardware constituent that conveys information to one or more people.
• Examples: proctor. pressman. talker.
3. System units
• It is a instance made from metal or plastic that houses the electronic constituents of the computing machine that are used to treat informations.
• This portion is normally connected to the motherboard.
• Two constituents of motherboard:
• CPU ( cardinal treating unit ) /processor
The electronic constituent that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computing machine
• Consists of electronic constituents that store
instructions waiting to be executed and informations needed by those instructions
4. Storage devices
• It is a device used to keep informations. instructions. and information for future usage.
• Storage media: Physical stuff on which information. instructions. and information are stored.
• Examples of storage media: floppy disc. difficult disc. CD-ROM. USB flash. DVDs and memory cards. • Storage device: Records and retrieves points to and from a storage medium.
• Storage devices frequently function as a beginning of input because they transfer points from storage to memory. • Floppy disc consists of a thin. handbill. flexible disc enclosed in stiff plastic shell. • USB flash thrust provides much greater storage capacity than a floppy disc or Zip® disc
but is little and lightweight plenty to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket. • Hard disc provides greater storage capacity than a floppy disc. Zip disc. or USB brassy thrust. Most are housed inside of the system unit. • A compact disc is a level. unit of ammunition. portable metal phonograph record with a plastic coating. One type of compact disc is a CD-ROM. which you can entree utilizing most CD and DVD thrusts. Another type of compact phonograph record is a DVD-ROM. some of which have adequate storage capacity to hive away two full-length films. To utilize DVD-ROM. you need a DVD thrust. • It can be divided into primary storage and secondary storage. ( Primary storage
: It will shops informations temporarily and informations will lost while the computing machine is turned off. Example: memory/RAM. ( Secondary storage
: It is a lasting storage country for instructions and informations. Example: floppy disc. difficult disc. CD-ROM.
5. Communication devices
• Hardware constituent that enables a computing machine to direct and have informations. instructions. and information. • Occurs over overseas telegrams. telephone lines. cellular wireless webs. orbiters. and other transmittal media.
1. 4 Why is a computing machine so powerful?
• In a computing machine. operations occur through the usage of electronic circuits contained on little french friess • When information flows along these circuits. it travels at near to the velocity of visible radiation
• Electronic constituent in modern computing machines are seldom fail • Most studies about computing machine mistakes are normally traced to other causes. frequently human errors • High dependability enables the computing machine to bring forth accurate consequences systematically
• Computers can treat complex informations exactly and accurately. and end product error-free information • Enables the computing machine to bring forth accurate consequences on a consistent footing
• Computer can hive away tremendous sums of informations
• Computer can maintain informations readily available for treating • With modern method. informations can be rapidly
• A computing machine that can pass on with other computing machines
• portion any of the four information processing rhythm operations – input. procedure. end product and storage
• Capability to link a computing machine to other computing machines
• Temporary connexion – when connected to an on-line information service supplier • Permanent connexion – when connected to a web of other computing machines • Connectivity change the manner people use computing machines
• Before – stand entirely devices / hardware limited in that computing machine
• Internet – a planetary web of computing machines
• World broad Web ( WWW ) . Web Browser plan
1. 5Categories of computing machine
1. Personal Computers
– Computers that can execute all of its input. processing. end product and storage activities by itself. – They have their ain operating systems. package. and devices so that they can be set up and run without any extra equipment.
? Desktop Computers
• It is designed so the system unit. input devices. end product devices. and any other devices fit wholly on or under a desk or tabular array.
• Workstation – is an expensive. powerful. desktop computing machine designed for intense artworks and calculating.
• Stand-alone computing machine – is a computing machine that is non connected to a web and has the capableness of executing the information processing rhythm operations ( input. procedure. end product. and storage ) by itself.
• Server – is a computing machine that manages the resources on a web. such as control entree to the package. pressmans and other devices. It is faster and has more storage infinite.
• Client – is a computing machine that connected to a waiter and can entree the contents of the storage country on the waiters.
2. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devicess
– A nomadic computing machine is a personal computing machine you can transport from topographic point to topographic point. – A nomadic device is a calculating device little plenty to keep in your manus.
? Notebook Computers
• Portable. little plenty to suit on your lap
• Besides called a laptop computing machine
• By and large more expensive than a desktop computing machine
• Tablet Personal computer
• Resembles a letter-sized slate
• Allows you to compose on the screen utilizing a digital pen • Especially utile for taking notes
? Mobile Devicess
• Some nomadic devices are Internet-enabled. intending they can link to the Internet wirelessly. • Users can chew the fat. direct e-mail and instant messages. and entree the Web. • Handheld Computers
• Sometimes referred to as an extremist personal computing machine ( uPC ) or a handtop computing machine. is a computing machine little plenty to suit in one manus.
• Used by nomadic employees such as metre readers and bringing people. • Stylus is a little metal or plastic device that looks like a ballpen pen but uses force per unit area alternatively of ink to compose. pull. or do choices. • PDA ( Personal Digital Assistant )
• It provides personal organiser maps such as a calendar. an appointment book. an address book. a reckoner. and a notepad. Most PDAs besides offer a assortment of other application package such as word processing. spreadsheet. personal finance. and games. • Stylus is used.
• Can hold keyboard.
• It is besides Internet-enabled so users can look into e-mail and entree the Web. • Smart Phone
• It is an Internet-enabled telephone that normally besides provides PDA capablenesss. • In add-on to basic telephone capablenesss. a smart phone allows you to direct and have e-mail messages and entree the Web. • A smart ticker is an Internet-enabled ticker that automatically adjusts to clip zone alterations and shops personal information.
– A waiter controls entree to the hardware. package. and other resources on a web and provides a centralised storage country for plans. informations and information. – Waiters can back up from two to several thousand connected computing machines at the same clip. ? Midrange waiter
• Powerful. big computing machine that supports up to a few thousand computing machines ? Mainframes
• Is a big. powerful computing machine that capable of functioning 100s of affiliated terminuss or computing machine at the same time. • If comparison to PC or minicomputers. it have greater treating velocity. greater capacity. a larger assortment of input/output devices. support for a figure of high velocity secondary storage devices and clip sharing. ? Supercomputers
• Is the fastest and most powerful computing machine besides the most expensive computing machine. • Generally manage fewer plans at a clip but they are used to manage complex. sophisticated maps like conditions prediction. atomic energy research and crude oil geographic expedition. ? Embedded Computers
• An embedded computing machine is a particular intent computing machine that maps as a constituent in a larger merchandise. • They can be found at place. in the auto. and at work. • We can utilize embedded computing machines in the undermentioned merchandises:
¦ Consumer Electronicss
¦ Home Automation
¦ Process Controllers
¦ Computer Devices and Office Machines
3 What are the elements of an Information System?
? The hardware must be dependable and capable of managing the expected work load.
? The package must be developed carefully and tested exhaustively.
? The information entered into the computing machine must be accurate.
? Most companies have an IT section. Staff in this IT section should be skilled and up-to-date on the latest engineering. IT staff besides should develop users so they understand how to utilize the computing machine decently.
? All the IT applications should hold readily available documented processs that address runing the computing machine and utilizing its applications.
? Process in which two or more computing machines or devices transfer informations. instructions and information in a web environment.
6. In order to supply accurate. seasonably and utile information:
• Elementss must be present
• All elements must work together
• Equipment must be reliable/ capable of managing the expected work load • Have been developed and tested
• Data entered must be accurate
1. 8 How Company uses computing machines with Information Technology
• Information systems gaining control. form. analyze. and circulate informations and information throughout modern organisations
• Information systems turn fiscal universe on velocity. volume. and truth of information flow
• The Internet and the World Wide Web have opened an wholly new channel for selling and provided much closer contact between the consumer and the provider
• Every procedure in a merchandise or service’s value concatenation can be enhanced by the proper usage of computer-based information systems
Human Resource Management
• Employees can manage much of their personal concern themselves. and the Internet makes a enormous sum of information available to the occupation searcher
Management Information Systems ( MIS )
• The chances for those be aftering a calling in MIS grows every bit fast as the acceptance of information engineerings in organisations everyplace