Introduction Of Audit And Auditing Accounting Essay

The term audit is the appraisal of the fiscal study of an administration by person independent from the administration which includes balance sheet, income statement, hard currency flow statement ( hypertext transfer protocol: // # ) . The ground why audit is done is because to do a position or sentiment on the fiscal study that reflects the fiscal place of the company ( hypertext transfer protocol: // # ) . The audit of fiscal statements by hearers is the confirmation of the fiscal statements of the company with an look by an audit sentiment where this sentiment needed to supply a sensible position that the fiscal statements presented reasonably in all stuff facets ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . Auditing can be divided into external and internal audits. Harmonizing to the ACCA, 2010, an external audit is a signifier of reassurance battle that is approved by an hearer to supply an independent sentiment on a set of fiscal statements ( ACCA, 2010, p.1 ) . On the other manus, internal hearers are engaged as portion of the administration ‘s system of controls ( internal controls ) and the internal auditing procedure is an rating or monitoring activity provided as a service to the entity and includes maps such as analyzing, measuring and supervising the sufficiency and efficiency of internal controls ( ACCA, 2010, P.10 ) .

Theories of scrutinizing and the accounts severally

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The theory of scrutinizing comprises of the ‘theory of rational outlooks ‘ , ‘the doctrine of scrutinizing ‘ , and Flint ‘s theory of doctrine and rules of scrutinizing ‘ ( Millichamp and Taylor, 2012, p.3-5 ) . The theory of rational outlooks entails that the appraisal of the hearer ‘s study obtained from the adept nature of the hearer as an independent, experient professional, and the following theory is the doctrine of scrutinizing was based on scientific logic where the procedure of auditing is a based on ground procedure of scrutiny, observation or examination and appraisal or rating of grounds, and the doctrine and rules of scrutinizing are based on the indispensable thought that scrutinizing has a societal benefit and non merely a scientific or proficient exercising for the intent of directive ( Millichamp and Taylor, 2012, p.3-4 ) . This essay will research the question that a friend has raised and will be assessed to hold any benefits, drawbacks or both.

The Regulations on Auditing, corporate administration and ethical criterions.

As an audit senior, independency is an of import factor to avoid influence on the hearer ‘s study. Independence and objectiveness affairs because of the outlooks of those straight affected such as the members of the company hence equity of fiscal statements of being audited to supply nonsubjective confidence, and the following ground is the public involvement because companies are public entities Curiously, independency is non one of the cardinal ethical rules but the ethical rules are incorporated together to do certain hearers become and remain independent ( Millichamp and Taylor, 201, p.78 ) .

The five rules are of International Federation of Accountants ( IFAC ) are ; unity, objectiveness, confidentiality, competence and professional behavior ( ibid ) . In the UK, an hearer must be an associate of a Recognized Supervisory Body ( RSB ) and be qualified under its ain regulations ( ACCA, 2010, p.24 ) . The eligibility to move as an hearer, the company Act 2006, an person or a house is eligible for assignment as a statutory hearer with the grounds that the hearer must be a member of a Recognized Supervisory Body and eligible for assignment under the organic structure ‘s regulations ( ibid ) . In the UK, corporate administration is the system by which companies are directed and controlled and it is of import to hold good corporate administration ( ACCA, 2010, P.45 ) . An audit commission can assist a company maintain objectiveness with respects to fiscal coverage and the audit of fiscal statements ( ibid ) .

Audit and Assurance harmonizing to Financial Reporting Council ( FRC ) and ethical criterions 1

The audit and confidence squad within the codifications and criterions division of the Financial Reporting Councils ( FRC ) includes codifications and criterions which develops and keep auditing and confidence criterions and counsel for battle that are done in the public involvement in the UK and Ireland are the criterions and counsel for hearers, reappraisals of probationary fiscal information performed by the hearer of the entity, for the work of describing comptrollers in familiarities with venture handbills, ethical criterions for hearers, judicial admission of confidence on client assets and statements that set out its position on peculiar affairs of relevant to scrutinize ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . Influencing proctors and seeks to act upon international criterions and counsel and policy developments that may impact audit and confidence services in the UK and Ireland and research undertakes and committees research on affairs of relevancy to audit and other confidence battles performed in the public involvement ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Hearers must follow with ethical criterions. The audit patterns board, under ethical criterion 1 ( revised ) is that ‘the audit house shall set up policies and processs, suitably documented and communicated, designed to guarantee that, in relation to each audit battle, the audit house, and all those who are in a place to act upon the behavior and result of the audit, act with unity, objectiveness and independency ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ( Revised ) -Integrity, -objectivity-and-independ.aspx ) .

Exploration of Threats to Auditors Independence and precautions.

There are several factors or classs of ethical menaces. Initially, self involvement menace. This may happen as a consequence either fiscal or non-financial involvements of a qualified comptroller. The following menace is self reappraisal. This could originate due to a predating opinion demands to be re-evaluated by the comptroller at first responsible for that opinion. Advocacy menaces may happen when an comptroller uphold a place or sentiment to the point that wining objectiveness may be compromised. Familiarity menaces could be due to shut relationships who becomes excessively considerate to the involvement of others and bullying menaces is where a specialised comptroller may be discouraged from moving independently by menaces ( Millichamp and Taylor, 2012, p.80 ) .

Precautions that may eliminate or decrease these menaces to an acceptable point will fall into two wide groups which are ; precautions created by the profession or jurisprudence and in the work environment ( ibid ) . The ACCA survey text on Audit and Assurance ( UK ) , mentioned about a better attack would be to see as whether the hearers ‘ ain independency and the common precautions runing in the specialised state of affairs are equal to compensate the menace and to believe about whether precautions over and above the general precautions are indispensable ( ACCA, 2010, p.50 ) .

An hearer should non allow their sentiment to be influenced by any committee being received, wages or fee given from a 3rd party as a consequence of advertisement a client to prosecute one class instead than another ( Millichamp and Taylor, 2012, p.82 ) . The International Auditing Standards ( ISA ) 220 which is the ‘Quality control for an audit of fiscal statements ‘ needs the audit houses to reevaluate their relationships with every client annually whether to go on an audit battle either with existent or evident menaces to objectiveness ( ibid ) . The friend was doing a question that whether the house can be genuinely independent in conformity to a considerable amount of money to make the audit work. This will be farther explored in the following paragraph.

Non-audit services and commissariats done to the same client as a menace to independency of hearers

Non-audit services provided by hearers to their clients has 3 classs harmonizing to the Institute of Chartered Accountants England and Wales ( ICAEW ) ; ab initio, Servicess required by jurisprudence or contract which includes regulative returns such as the FSA ( Financial Services Authority ) , legal demands to describe on affairs such as portion issue for non-cash consideration, contractual demands such as compact demands. The 2nd class is that services most efficient for the hearers to supply due to the apprehension of the company includes services that are non required by statute law, revenue enhancement conformities and ‘short signifier ‘ or other studies in acquisition of completion of the company is necessary in the short term. Last, the services that could be provided by a figure of houses because of winning a stamp procedure that includes direction consultancy, revenue enhancement advice and human resource consultancy ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

The part of non-audit services is one major job for the audit forte is the inquiry grade on the factual independency from the audit client. In add-on, fiscal dirts became the accoutrement to the fact to lose their objectiveness and being involved with their clients such as the autumn of two audit houses of Enron and WorldCom in the United States of America. Therefore, the hearer is non restricted to give advice but must non take portion in doing direction determinations ( Millichamp and Taylor, 2012, p.83 ) .

Examination and rating of the question being raised

As a new audit senior for one of the large four accounting houses with an old friend will get down to hold a menace on independency of scrutinizing. This may mention to acquaintance and ego involvement menace. Familiarity menace here means holding close relationships who becomes to considerate to the involvement of others ( Millichamp and Taylor, 2012, p.80 ) . The affair of self involvement includes fiscal involvement. Fiscal involvement means that where an audit house has involvement financially in a client ‘s personal businesss ( ACCA, 2010, P.51 ) .

Millichamp and Taylor stated several factors that will menace the hearers ‘ independency ; for illustration, excessively much trust on an audit client ( 2012, p.80 ) . This means that the public consciousness of independency may be jeopardised if fees from a client or group of affiliated clients controls the hearers ‘ pattern, and as a redress the RSB ‘s have a edict which states that the earnings/income from any one client must non be more than 15 % or called as the ’15 per cent regulation ‘ ( ibid ) .

IAS 220 of ‘Quality control for an audit of fiscal statement ‘ besides includes fees paid for professional work. Contingent or conditional fees are fees being computed on a preset footing associating to the result or consequence of a dealing or work done ( ACCA, 2010, p.54 ) . It would be unacceptable to accept a conditional fee for non-assurance work from an confidence client ( ibid ) . An audit house should be good cognizant where the entire fees obtained by the confidence client represent a big amount of the entire fees and state of affairss where the fees calculated by an confidence client provides a large proportion of the income of an single spouse ( ACCA, 2010, p. 54 ) .

Risk appraisal and apprehension of the entity harmonizing ISA for hearers

Hazard appraisal is done under the International Standards of Auditing assists the individual making the audit work to place the fiscal statement countries susceptible to material misstatement and provides a footing for planing and carry oning farther audit work ( ACCA, 2010. P.97 ) .

The overall audit hazard involves the hearer who normally follows a risk-based attack to scrutinizing and hence hearers will analyze the hazards associated with the client ‘s concern, minutess and systems of control that could take to misstatements in the fiscal histories ( ACCA, 2010, P.98 ) .

In add-on, audit hazard comprises of two dependants ; foremost, the entity and is the hazard of material misstatement from fiscal statements which are hazard of built-in and control and the other dependant is on the hearer its ego and it is the hazard that the hearer will non observe material misstatements in the fiscal statements which is known as sensing hazard ( ACCA, 2010, P.99 ) .

For an hearer to measure hazards of stuff misstatements, they are required to hold an apprehension of the entity and its environment harmonizing to the ISA 315 ‘Identifying and measuring the hazards of stuff statements through the apprehension of the entity and its environment ‘ ( ACCA, 2010, p.104 ) . Below is table 1 of obtaining an apprehension of the entity and its environment in a nutshell:




To place and measure the hazards of material misstatement in the fiscal statements

To enable the hearer to plan and execute audits

Supply a frame of relevancy for exerting audit opinion.

Industry, regulative and other external factors including fiscal coverage pertinence

Nature of entity

Entity ‘s choices and applications of accounting policies

Aims and schemes and related concern hazards related doing any material misstatement

Measurement and reappraisal of entity ‘s fiscal public presentation

Internal control.

Inquiries of direction and others

Analytic processs

Observation and review

Anterior period cognition

Client credence

Discussion made by audit squad of the susceptibleness of fiscal statement stuff misstatement

Information from other battles undertaken for the entity.

Table 1: beginning adopted from ACCA Study text, Paper F8, Audit and Assurance ( United Kingdom ) , 2010, p.104

Real universe illustrations of hearers scrutinizing clients affected their independency

A existent instance survey illustration was on a house, 31st July 2009, a UK FTSE 100 house, Rentokil and they announced that KPMG will be their new hearer but it so was controversial due the offer being made by KPMG was known as an ‘extended confidence ‘ bundle. This meant that KPMG would carry through all external audit maps that could besides include internal audit work, and this resulted in a cut of 30 % audit costs but there was a argument whether it is an acceptable sort of understanding in the context of ethical criterions. Further geographic expedition revealed there was a self-review menace where the external hearer may be excessively dependent on its internal work and a direction menace in executing the internal audit work the external hearer could presume the function of direction ( ACCA, 2010, p.57 ) .

The instance of FTSE 100-company, RSA insurance, replaces Deloitte as the hearer for that company and has appointed KPMG as the new hearer.

When the company released the initial consequences for 2012, the company stated that Deloitte had to take excess consultancy work in Scandinavia which felt could impair the perceptual experience of their independency. In add-on, Deloitte was the hearer since 2007 was paid a fee of ?9.6 million from RSA in 2011, which included non-audit services. A UK regulator, the Financial Reporting Council, told companies to tender their audit contract at least on one juncture a decennary whilst some investors favour a greater rough action ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Another illustration of a company British gas ( BG ) , published on the 25th of October 2012, the British gas group decided to replace their hearer who was PwC LLP, and thanked them for the high quality of audit services. The new audit contract with Ernst and Young will get down at the fiscal twelvemonth 2013 ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) . A statement said that Schroder has put out an audit stamp after a relationship for more than 50 old ages, moreover, the largest companies may react to stockholder and regulative organic structures refering that their relationship excessively near. On the other manus, a statement to the stock exchange, Safeland belongings developers said, ‘The ground for the surcease of audit assignment was that following the designation by the managers of an alleged defalcation, an unwieldy struggle of involvement has arisen, which has led to our surrender ‘ ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Enron, published on 16th January 2013, was another company where the United States Securities and Exchange Commission banned the CFO of Enron subordinate Enron Broadband Services ( EBS ) from moving as comptroller. Kevin Howard, the Chief Finance Officer and frailty president of EBS did non inform Arthur Anderson about the true nature of the dealing. It was the monetization of certain assets that instantly recognised net incomes from a long-run contract with Blockbuster Inc. Unfortunately he made false and deceptive statements in meetings with hearers, Howard was banned from functioning the company officer or manager and was made to pay a mulct of ?45,000 ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

Therefore, large house collaborates itself dominate critics point out that scrutinizing and that the large four houses have a disproportional influence over the both in the United Kingdom and globally with IFAC. This had led to higher audit costs and cozy relationships with large company boards and senior spouses in major audit companies. This may in due class lead to alterations in audit patterns such as ‘mandatory rotary motion ‘ and criminalizing of commissariats in company regulations and ordinances, which make battle of a ‘Big four ‘ house obligatory.


To reason the essay, scrutinizing is a affair of measuring, monitoring controls, measuring fiscal studies and supplying an sentiment on the fiscal statements. There are two types of audit viz. internal and external audits. Both types of hearers have the same procedure of measuring the fiscal statements and the difference is that internal hearers are largely within the administration and external hearers are largely 3rd parties outside the concern.

Internal hearers are a portion of the administrations internal control systems. For an hearer, independency is a important term to concentrate on in order for an sentiment made without any prejudice or menaces to the hearer ‘s independency. Menaces can be in assorted ways. This includes self-interest menace, self-review menace, acquaintance menace, direction menace, and bullying menace and so on.

Harmonizing to the Ethical Standard 1, during the decision of the scrutinizing procedure, during the procedure of making an sentiment before printing it, the battle spouse will make a general decision any menaces to independence and objectiveness on an person or cumulative footing follows consequently with the Audit Practice Board ( APB ) ethical criterions. In add-on, if the audit battle spouse can non do a decision as such, the spouse shall non describe and the audit house shall discontinue as an hearer.

On the other manus, the question of a friend about being truly independency to clients and given non-audit services to the same audit client depends on the quality of work and non being in close relationships that might lend to menace of acquaintance and opportunism.

Audit independency should non depend on the considerable amount of money to make the audit, but if the amount was more than the 15 % regulation of income that would be a menace to the hearers independency and objectiveness. Non-audit services can besides be a job on the accurate independency from the audit client.

Therefore, there are challenges to scrutinizing and presently new research on scrutinizing including cryptic countries such as the ‘game theory ‘ to better sensings of fraudsters.

Word count: 2,959 ( excepting mentions )

Mentions list

Textbook mentions:

ACCA, Paper F8, 2010, Audit and confidence ( United Kingdom ) survey text, 5TH Edition, BPP larning media, UK.

Millichamp, A. Taylor, J. 2012, Auditing, 10th edition, Cengage Learning EMEA.

Internet mentions

Provision of non-audit services to scrutinize clients

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Last accessed: 4th March 2013

Fiscal Reporting council:

hypertext transfer protocol: // #

Last accessed: 26th February 2013

Fiscal Reporting council:

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Last accessed: 26th February 2013

Assurance, Financial Assurance services, what is an Audited account?

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Last accessed: 27th February 2013

What is Auditing?

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Last accessed: 27th February 2013

Real universe examples internet mentions

RSA replaces Deloitte as hearer:

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Last accessed: 1 March 2013

E & A ; Y take BG group audit from PwC:

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Last accessed: 1st March 2013

Enron CPA banned by SEC:

hypertext transfer protocol: //

Last accessed: 1st March 2013


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