ISLAM – BIOETHICS QUOTES ETC. GENERAL – Great opening paragraphs etc Islamic ethics in is all about a Muslim’s relationship with Allah. * Muslims believe that Allah is the all powerful creator of the universe to whom all humans are called to submit. Allah has revealed himself through the prophets the Shari’a (Law) that governs the whole of a Muslim’s life. This includes moral and ethical teachings on what is permissible (halal) and what is forbidden (haraam). * Ethical teachings in Islam include teachings about bioethical issues.
These teachings are found in all the major sources of Islamic teachings, the Qur’an, Hadith and Shari’a (Ijma ; Qiyas). The Qur’an provides a number of specific references to bioethical issues…. The Hadith also provides a number of specific teachings together with the reiteration of important principles expressed in the Qur’an. Finally, Islamic law, known as Shari’a contains many examples of teaching relating to bioethical issues. The basic principles found in the Qur’an show that life is a gift from Allah and is to be cared for and respected. The religion of Islam provides clear ethical teachings on issues relating to bioethics. These teachings are found in all the major sources of Islamic teachings, the Qur’an, Hadith and Shari’a. While Islamic teachings do not specifically address many of the modern bioethical concerns, they do, however, provide clear guiding principles which can be applied to these issues. The Qur’an provides some specific teachings, but principally it sets forth values and principles which can be applied to a range of issues……. The Qur’an also teaches that Muslims will have to answer for their actions at the time of judgement.
The traditions of the Hadith reiterate the teaching of the Qur’an and include some important teachings as does Shari’a. SOURCES * Qur’an / Qiyas – “If you should quarrel over anything, refer it to Allah and the messenger. ” Qur’an 4:59 * Muhammad – “In Allah’s messenger you have a model for anyone whose hope is in God and the last day. ” Qur’an, 33:21 * Ijma – Muhammad said, “My community will not agree on an error” * Right Action: “only he (will prosper) that brings to God a sound heart” Qur’an, 26:89 GENERAL ETHICS * “The religion of Islam believes in the principle of saving human lives. According to A. Sachedina in his Transplantation Proceedings’ (1990) article, Islamic Views on Organ Transplantation, “the majority of the Muslim scholars belonging to various schools of Islamic law have invoked the principle of priority of saving human life and have permitted the organ transplant as a necessity to procure that noble end. ” * “To protect human life in all stages and under all circumstances, doing my utmost to rescue it from death, malady, pain and anxiety…… To be, an instrument of God’s mercy, extending my medical care to near and far, virtuous and sinner and friend and enemy. (Oath of Muslim doctor) * “It is he, who has created for you all things that are on earth “ Sura 2 * Muhammad said “O Muslims, seek cure, since God has not created any illness without creating a cure. ” Therefore Islam embraces and encourages medical research. ORGAN DONATION * “Organ donation must be given freely without reward. Trading in organs is prohibited. ” (M Zaki Bacawi) * “Whoever helps a brother in difficulty, God will help him through his difficulties in the day of judgement. * “Under Islamic principle of the purposes and higher causes of the Shari’a, we believe it is a who-so-ever saves the life of one, it shall be as if he saved the life of all mankind”. Sur 5:32 * ‘If the living are able to donate, then the dead are even more so …….. This is indeed a charity and directly fulfils God’s words’ * ‘And who-so-ever saves a human life it is as though he has saved all mankind’. (Islamic Code of Medical ethics) EUTHANASIA / SUICIDE * “My subject hastened his end, I deny him paradise. ” Hadith. “…and when their term cometh, they cannot put it off an hour nor can yet they advance it. ” Qur’an 16:61 * “A Doctor shall not take away life even when motivated by mercy. ” (Islamic code of Medical ethics, ICME) * “Destroy not yourselves. Surely Allah is ever merciful to you. ” (Qur’an). * “If it is scientifically certain that life cannot be restored then it is futile to diligently keep the patient in a vegetative state. ” (ICME) * “It is the process of life the doctors aim to maintain and not the process of dying. (ICME) * “Mercy killing like suicide, finds no support in Islam. ” (ICME) * Muhammad said, “Seek treatment, subjects of God, for to every illness, God has made a cure. ” * “No person can ever die except by Allah’s leave and at an appointed time. ” (Qur’an 3:145) * “O ye who believe kill not yourself, for truly Allah has been most merciful. ” (Qur’an 4:29) * “Those who patiently persevere will truly receive a reward without measure. ” (Qur’an 39:10) * “To Allah belongs the kingdom of the heaven and earth.
He creates what He pleases” Surah 42:49 * “To protect human life in all stages and under all circumstances, doing one’s utmost to rescue from it death, malady, pain and anxiety. To be, all the way, an instrument of God’s mercy, extending …medical care to near and far, virtuous and sinner and friend and enemy. ” Oath of the Muslim Doctor, 1981 Islamic Code of Medical Ethics * “You shall not kill any person – for GOD has made life sacred” Qur’an -Sura 17:33 * “In old times there was a man with an ailment that taxed his endurance. He cut his wrist with a knife and bled to death.
God was displeased and Allah said, ‘My slave hurried to bring death upon himself so I have forbidden him to enter Paradise. ’ (Hadith – Sahih Bukhari 4. 56. 669) Muhammad said, if people are suffering badly they should ask Allah for help: * “Ye who believe, seek help with patient perseverance and Prayer; surely Allah is with those who patiently persevere. ” Surah 2:153 * “Those who patiently preserve will truly receive a reward without measure” (Quran 39:10). * “Whoever kills himself with an iron instrument will be carrying it forever in hell. Whoever takes poison and kills himself will forever keep sipping that poison in hell.
Whoever jumps off a mountain and kills himself will forever keep falling down in the depths of hell. ” * “Those who patiently preserve will truly receive a reward without measure” (Quran 39:10). STEM CELL RESEARCH * “Societal obligation to perform research on these extra embryos instead of discarding them. ” (Washington Based Islamic Institute) * “Embryos are early human life and should never be used in research. ” (Egyptian Medical Syndicate) * “Embryos being used in stem cell research are outside the human body and therefore have not potential to become human beings. (Islamic Law Council of North America) * “In Islam, research on stem cells made possible by biotechnical intervention in the early stages of life is regarded as an act of faith in the ultimate will of God. ” (Dr Abdulaziz Sachedina) CLONING * Iran’s cloning program has won backing from the Shiite Muslim religious leaders, who have issued decrees authorizing animal cloning but banning human reproductive cloning… In contrast, Sunni Muslim religious leaders — including senior clerics in Saudi Arabia — have banned cloning altogether, even in animals. ————————————————————————– Study Notes CD 2007 Describe and explain Islamic ethical teachings on Bioethics. * Islamic ethics are derived from the Qur’an, the Hadith (book of the Sunnah, Muhammad’s actions and sayings), Qiyas (analogy), Ijma (consensus of Islamic scholars), and ‘right Action’ (like natural law). * Bioethics is concerned with the ethical questions in the relationship between biology and medicine. * Bioethics is linked to the ethical teachings from the Qur’an and reflects the teachings and beliefs of Islam.
Along with the acceptance of the Sunnah (words and actions of Muhammad. ) bioethical teachings lead to a full acceptance of Shari’a (Islamic) law. Islamic bioethics are an extension of Shari’a law and Islamic jurisprudence. Islamic bioethics emphasises the importance of saving life, preventing illness and supporting humanity. Today the concept of brain death is accepted as signifying death by Islamic scholars, as is ensoulment (120 days) recognised as the beginning of human life. * Islamic bioethics derives from a call to virtue (ihsan).
In Islam life is sacred and every moment of life has great value, even if it is of poor quality. The saving of life is a duty and the unwarranted taking of life is a grave sin. “To be all the way, an instrument of God’s mercy, extending medical care to near and far. ” * The Oath of the Muslim Doctor released in 1981 outlines the Islamic code of medical ethics. The Islamic organisation for medical sciences holds conferences and published the Bulletin of Islamic Medicine which provides bioethical guidelines. * Bioethical decision making is carried out within a framework of values derived from revelation and tradition.
Islamic bioethics is intimately linked with the interpretation of Islamic law. The physician understands the duty to strive to heal, acknowledging that God is the ultimate healer. Muslims adopt the Oath of the Muslim Doctor. “Whoever killeth a human being, it shall be as though he had killed all of human kind. ” * The oath of the Muslim Doctor includes an undertaking “to protect human life in all stages and under all circumstances. ” Islamic bioethics is an extension of Shari’a law, based on two foundations: The Qur’an and the Sunnah.
Development of Shari’a has also required Ijma (consensus) and Qiyas (analogy). Where appropriate consideration is also given to Maslaha (public interest) and Urf (local customary precedent). Islamic jurists have regular conferences at which emerging issues are explored and consensus is sought. The diversity of views in Islamic bioethics derives from the various school of jurisprudence. Islamic bioethical teachings are therefore based upon the submission to the will of Allah and the five pillars of faith which are expressed throughout the Qur’an, the Sunnah and the hadith.
EUTHANASIA AND SUICIDE: * Suicide is considered as the murder of oneself and is unacceptable under Islamic belief. “O ye who believe!… Nor kill yourself; for truly Allah hath been most merciful. ” -Qur’an 4:29 “And when their term cometh they cannot put it off an hour nor advance it. ” -Qur’an 16:61 * Islamic law says that it is only permissible to turn off life support if the individual is brain dead. Islam is totally opposed to euthanasia and suicide. “Nor can a soul die except by Allah’s leave, that is a decree with a fixed term. “Ye who believe, seek help with patient perseverance and prayer. ” Qur’an 2:153 * To warn against suicide the prophet M. said “Whoever takes poison and kills himself will forever keep sipping that poison in hell. ” * The concept of a life not worth living does not exist in Islam “My subject hastened his end, I deny him paradise. ” * When considering the financial factor of life support Islam believe that principles take priority over prices. Euthanasia is dismissed as religiously unlawful.
The patient should receive support and compassion from family and friends including spiritual resources. Pain relief is allowed however to solve the dilemma that arises when pain relief overlaps with a lethal dose Islamic belief states that these actions cannot escape the ever watchful eye of God who “Knows the treachery of the eyes and all that the hearts conceal. ” The Islamic code of Medical ethics states that if it is scientifically certain that life cannot be restored, and then it is futile to keep the patient in a vegetative state. The seeking of medical treatment is mandatory in Islam “seek treatment, subjects of God, for to every illness God has made a cure. ” The sanctity of human life is ordained right throughout the Qur’an. The Qur’an is very clear about suicide “Do not kill yourself as Good has been most merciful. ” Qur’an 4:29. In regard to Euthanasia the term of a person’s life has been fixed by an unaltered divine decree and therefore it should not be unnecessarily prolonged or shortened. Death must come at the appointed time and with God’s permission. ” Suffering is a divinely ordained trial which reveals Gods purpose for humanity. * Making decisions to withdraw active treatment is the responsibility of the Doctor in discussion with the immediate family. Ultimately it is the Doctor who makes the decision. Muslims believe that patients, such as those in a post-coma unresponsive state should be provided with artificial hydration and nutrition. “The sanctity of life covers all its stages. ”