Leadership Experiences of Undergraduate Muslim Student Leaders: An Exploratory Case Study Wardah Guimba Lecturer. College of Education. Mindanao State University. Philippines E-mail: [ electronic mail protected ]. [ email protected ]Che Noraini Hashim Asst. Professor. Institute of Education. International Islamic University Malaysia ( IIUM ) Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia E-mail: [ electronic mail protected ]. [ email protected ]Suhailah Hussien Asst. Professor. Institute of Education. International Islamic University Malaysia ( IIUM ) Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia E-mail: [ electronic mail protected ]. [ email protected ]Mohyani Razikin Asst. Professor. Institute of Education. International Islamic University Malaysia ( IIUM ) Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia E-mail: [ electronic mail protected ]. [ email protected ]Ivie Esteban Senior Lecturer. UCSI University. Kuala Lumpur. Malaysia E-mail: [ electronic mail protected ]. [ email protected ]Abstract Islamic establishments of higher acquisition are maintaining abreast in developing their pupils for future leading. However. few empirical probes have been conducted therefore giving drift to this research.
The chief intent of this survey is to research the leading experiences and patterns of undergraduate pupil leaders on their engagement as student authorities ( SG ) leaders at two Islamic establishments of higher acquisition in Marawi City. Philippines. Specifically. the aim of this survey is to research the pupil leaders’ apprehension of the construct of leading. Using the exploratory instance survey. the informations were collected from little group treatments ( SGD ) consisting of six pupil leaders. Based on the consequences of the SGDs. the pupil participants viewed that their student authorities ( SG ) experiences assisted them in deriving assurance. interpersonal accomplishments. communicating accomplishments. and civic consciousness. Furthermore. the pupil leaders articulated that leading could be divided into four concepts of subjects. viz. . specifying leading. actuating factors. building individuality. and heightening accomplishments.
Leadership has been defined in many positions. In the Islamic position. leading is defined as a “trust ( amaanah ) – a psychological contract between a leader and his followings where the former will seek his best to steer the latter. and protect and handle them justly” ( Beekun and Badawi. 1999: seven ) . Similarly. Al-Attas and Wan Daud ( 2007 ) besides defined leading as a trust ( amaanah ) from where “responsibility” ( taklif ) and “accountability” ( mas’uliyyah ) semen from. In add-on. Altalib ( 1991 ) and Chowdbury ( 2001 ) as cited by Aabed ( 2006. 2006:42 ) viewed leading as a “process of inspiring and training voluntary followings in an attempt to carry through a clear every bit good as shared vision. ” Leadership. so. imply a strong attachment to rules that are geared towards functioning the people. Leadership from the Islamic position is a moral activity and a procedure of communicating between the peers directed towards the accomplishment of a end. The leaders are chiefly distinguished from the followings by their cognition. their committedness to the Islamic rules and ownership of superior moral values ( Sa’ari & A ; Borhan. 2007 ) .
The Islamic standards of leading provide Muslim leaders worldwide with a codification of leading extracted chiefly from the Qur’an and the life of the Prophet Mohammad ( ) and his comrades. The Qur’an. Sunnah. and the law give a comprehensive codification of Torahs: societal. moral. political. administrative. economic. civil. spiritual. and ethical to steer the Muslim leaders to run Islamic organisations suitably and efficaciously ( Aabed. 2006 ) . This present survey examines the leading experiences of the undergraduate Muslim pupil leaders in Marawi City. Philippines. The Muslims in the Philippines are categorized into 13 folks. one of which is the Meranao folk to which the pupil participants in this survey are ethnically affiliated. The Philippines has more than 7. 000 islands with Mindanao as its 2nd largest island ( Abinales & A ; Amoroso. 2005 ) . Marawi City is one of the three metropoliss in Central Mindanao and is located on the northern shore of Lake Lanao. It is besides called ‘The Islamic City of Marawi’ and the ‘summer capital’ of the part. As the capital metropolis. it serves as the commercial. educational. cultural. spiritual and political centre of the state of Lanao del Sur.
Therefore. among other things of comparatively equal significance. Islamic establishments of higher acquisition in Marawi City offer the best site to make an exploratory survey on the dynamism of pupil leading and Islamic leading. Two points can be identified for this dynamism. First. Marawi City is an educational hub in the state of Lanao del Sur in southern Philippines and hence has possible profusion for empirical survey. Second. Marawi City is an Islamic metropolis where the presence and proliferation of Islamic establishments of higher instruction within its territorial sphere reenforce the values of Islam. both as a faith and a consolidative system of educational ends. 1. 1. Background of the Study The development of pupils as leaders remains a cardinal end for establishments of higher instruction as evidenced by mission statements and the increased presence of leading development programmes of college campuses ( Astin & A ; Astin. 2000 ; Mclntire. 1989 ) . Non-Muslim academic bookmans have systematically demonstrated that pupils increase their leading accomplishments while in college ( Pascarella & A ; Terenzini. 2005 ) .
In Astin’s ( 1999 ) position. collegiate engagement in positional leading functions ( i. e. . election to a peculiar office ) was the strongest extracurricular forecaster of leading ability ( Dugan. 2006 ) . Apparently. it can be argued that despite voluminous surveies on pupil leading in secular establishments worldwide. the centrality of developing pupils for future leading besides addresses the presence and consequence of crisis in leading ( Khan. 2007 ; Hargreaves. 2005 ) . Harmonizing to Ahmed ( 1999 ) . this crisis is a phenomenon that is globally impacting all Muslims and is manifested in the failure of the modern-day Muslim leaders to emulate the model leading qualities of the ) . In fact. “good leading is hard to happen among Moslem minority groups Prophet ( throughout the Western world” ( Aabed. 2006: 19 ) . Asiatic states are similarly likewise situated. Based on a paper presented in a conference on Islamic Perspective on Leadership by Filipino Muslim European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 20. Number 1 ( 2011 ) writers ( Lingga. et Al. . 2008:4 ) . “Muslim states face a crisis of leading which affects both themselves and their relationship with other states. ”
They further say that in the Philippines. “there is a spread in leading as portrayed in by the Qur’an and the existent leading seen and felt by Muslims down in the community level” ( Lingga et al. . 2008:4 ) . A clear indicant on the pervasiveness of leading crisis among pupils in Marawi City is shared by Muslim professors from the Mindanao State University. Marawi City. Philippines. In an interview with Dr. Abdullah and Dr. Matuan ( May 12. 2009 ) . they claimed that among the major grounds why Meranao pupils joined the supreme pupil authorities ( SSG ) were to be popular and celebrated in their establishments and with their friends and equals. The leading orientations of current or future Meranao pupil leaders in supreme pupil authorities organisations remain undiscovered. This undiscovered phenomenon gives the research worker a fertile land for empirical research. In add-on. the scrutiny of the Meranao supreme pupil authorities ( SSG ) leading experiences and patterns is a positive avowal to the contention that student authorities is one common agencies by which pupils assume a seeable leading function among campus components ( Dias. 2009 ) . This instance survey purposes to add to the bare literature on Islamic leading behavior.
However. it is limited to Meranao pupil leaders involved in supreme pupil authorities ( SSG ) in two Islamic establishments of higher acquisition in Marawi City. Philippines. 1. 2. Aims of the Study This survey has the undermentioned aims: 1. to research the Muslim undergraduate pupil leaders’ experiences and patterns on pupil leading in the two Islamic establishments in Marawi City. Philippines. 2. to synthesise their corporate constructs on leading. 1. 3. Research Questions This survey seeks to reply the undermentioned inquiries: 1. How do the pupil leaders in the two Islamic establishments in Marawi City. Philippines gestate their leading experiences and patterns? 2. What are the corporate constructs on leading of these pupil leaders? 1. 4. Significance of the Study Data gained from this survey will supply utile information for pupil personal businesss practicians. As both Golden and Schwartz ( 1994 ) and Sandeen ( 1991 ) suggested. the relationship between pupil authorities and pupil personal businesss officers is critical. Therefore. informations from this survey could heighten communicating and aid in programme development. The findings of this survey contribute to a greater organic structure of cognition on making and back uping a holistic. prosecuting pupil experience ( Holland-Brown. 2008 ) .
Furthermore. the findings serve as ushers for policy preparation and execution by the authorities subdivisions and units. every bit far as the behavior of administration of the Muslims in the Philippines is concerned. 1. 5. Astin’s Involvement Theory The Student Involvement Theory ( SIT ) of Astin ( 1999 ) is used as a model of this survey. SIT has been cited in many surveies ( Chebator. 1995 ; Dugan. 2006 ; Dias. 2009 ; Torres. 2008 ) . Cardinal to the thought of SIT is the investing of clip. attempt. and energy in faculty members. and of relationships and activities related to the campus. The nucleus issue in SIT is on the sum of clip and energy extended by the college pupils in both curricular and co-curricular programmes in establishments of higher acquisition. A instance survey on pupil development conducted in the Philippines which has relevancy to the present survey is done by Bernardo ( 2007 ) . Her survey analyzed the pupil larning procedure. concentrating on personal businesss that bridge the spread between the academia and the wider society. It revealed that pupil experience is preponderantly framed by the environmental factors internal and external to the European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 20. Number 1 ( 2011 ) organisation.
The research worker agrees with Bernardo that educators must predate a mechanistic ( controlled ) position of the educational procedure in order to develop the college pupils for effectual leading. However. Bernardo’s survey did non cover the range of student authorities nor the leading experiences and patterns of Muslim pupil leaders which the nowadays survey attempts to turn to. Supreme student authorities ( SSG ) is one of the extracurricular programmes provided by the Islamic establishments of higher acquisition in Marawi City. Philippines to prosecute and affect the pupils in campus activities. The principle behind choosing supreme pupil authorities ( SSG ) as a benchmark in the geographic expedition of Meranao pupil leading in the survey lies in the fact that among other pupil activities within Islamic establishments in Marawi City the supreme pupil authorities ( SSG ) is the most active and organized.
2. Research Methodology
2. 1. Research Design The cross-case design was applied in this research. The information of the cross-case were derived from the little group treatments ( SGDs ) of the Meranao pupil leaders stand foring the two Islamic establishments. Since each group was alone in footings of their leading experiences and patterns. there was a demand to synthesise the information as a instance survey of Muslim undergraduate pupil leaders. 2. 2. Pilot Interview Before the existent little group treatment ( SGD ) took topographic point. the research worker did a pilot interview to one of the former pupil leaders in one of the mark Islamic establishments. This pilot interview was aimed to help the research worker in guaranting that the semi-structured inquiries formulated were clear and relevant to the aims of the survey. This besides helped the research worker in finding the degree of trouble of the inquiries and the continuance of the interview. Accordingly. some interview inquiries were modified and rephrased. One such alteration was on the inquiry of motive. It was suggested that alternatively of inquiring. “what motivated you to prosecute your current place of leading? ” it was more preferred to inquire. “why did you fall in the pupil authorities? ” 2. 3. Participants There were six Muslim pupil leaders selected as cardinal sources for the small-group treatments ( SGDs ) .
In placing the cardinal sources. pupil leaders who were either in their 3rd or concluding twelvemonth and who occupied the most of import stations in their student authorities such as the president. frailty president. secretary or the financial officer were given precedence. Students were assigned the undermentioned anonym: P1. P2. P3. M1. M2. and M3. Pseudonyms correspond to distinct letters taken from the acronyms of the establishments ( e. g. . P is for JPI ) . 2. 3. 1. Jamiatul Philippine Al-Islamiah ( JPI ) The JPI SSG president ( P1 ) . financial officer ( P2 ) and secretary ( P3 ) were the participants in the little group treatment ( SGD ) conducted on May 4. 2009 at the Guidance Office. JPI. Marawi City. Philippines. At the clip of the SGD. all the three pupil leaders were in their 3rd twelvemonth in college prosecuting Bachelor of Secondary Education ( BSED ) . P1 ( male ) was 23 old ages old. P2 ( female ) was 20 old ages old. and P3 ( female ) was 20 old ages old. 2. 3. 2. Jamiatu Muslim Mindanao ( JMM ) The three pupil leaders ( M1. M2. and M3 ) from JMM who joined the little group treatment ( SGD ) were all 4th twelvemonth prosecuting Bachelor of Secondary Education ( BSED ) .
M1 was 22 old ages old male president of the SSG Arabic section ; M2 was 23 old ages old female president of the SSG English section and M3 was 23 old ages old female frailty president of SSG English section. The SGD was on May 5. 2009 at the SSG office of the Arabic section. JMM. Marawi City. Philippines. 2. 4. Data Collection Procedure Qualitative information in this survey were collected through little group treatments ( SGDs ) which were conducted from March 2009 to May 2009. They were arranged by specific assignments. and the clip was determined by the pupils themselves. One month before the existent SGDs. the research worker sent consent letters to the president or president of each of the two Islamic establishments every bit good as the mark participants. The research worker used an open-ended interview usher and in some occasions departed from the usher to inquire follow-up inquiries or explored unforeseen but relevant issues brought up by the participants.
The research worker assured them that their responses will be kept with extreme confidentiality so that they will be more relaxed and honest in their replies. The SGDs were recorded utilizing the MP3 device and subsequently transcribed. While the SGD was traveling on. the research worker took down notes to footnote the treatment. 2. 5. Data Analysis Procedure The analysis of the information from the little group treatments ( SGDs ) utilized what Patton ( 1990 ) refers to as cross-case analysis. where replies to similar inquiries from different participants are grouped together to assist place emerging subjects or forms. In combination. the comparative form analysis. described by Guba ( 1978 ) that identifies classs and subjects and so analyzes the information by seeking subjects the information best tantrums. was employed to analyse the information derived from the interviews.
3. Analysis and Discussion of Findingss
3. 1. Specifying Leadership Some definitions given by the pupils interviewed do converge in some ways. Their points of position were defined by their position as elective leaders. socio-cultural affinities and spiritual associations to Islam. Most of the pupils were speedy in reacting when asked to specify or depict what leading meant. The subject “defining leadership” has seven subthemes. These are: relationship edifice ; leaderfollower synchronism ; public service ; function theoretical account ; trust ; duty and proactive. ( 1. 1 ) Relationship Constructing One definition given by a male pupil participant carries a contextual significance of leading. Code exchanging in Tagalog and English. besides called “Taglish” . P1 said: Leadership is the ability to intermix and mix good with people and to hold a good relationship with them. In my place as president. I realized that it is in the manner I deal with the pupils and the school functionaries that carry more weight. My friends were stating me that I have the accomplishments in organizing good relationships to about everyone – kids. grownups. adolescents. and old people. Here in Marawi City. a leader should truly be good in edifice and keeping positive relationships with people. A leader is non so much judged by his/her intelligence but by how strong he/she can construct and keep positive relationships with people. This definition by P1 has several contextual deductions in the Philippine Muslim society and civilization. It highlights the sacred position given to relationship edifice of all Filipino Muslims and the prestigiousness and award attached to it.
Therefore. the student authorities engagement of the pupil leaders in their several Islamic establishments is in kernel a micro relationship edifice and an act of go oning the genealogical importance in their cultural tradition. Likewise. this definition is in understanding with the thoughts of Rost ( 1993 ) . Nik Ahmad Hisham ( 1998 ) and Dugan ( 2006 ) that the kernel of leading is non the leader but the relationship bing between the leader and the followings every bit good as to other human persons ( El-Meligi. 2005 ) . The subject relationship edifice was besides mentioned by Brown ( 2001:3 ) when he said: “leadership involves inspiration. motive. aspiration. relationship edifice. and originative alteration. ” Additionally. edifice relationship is identified by Fullan ( 2001 ) as one of the five constituents of effectual leading. ( 1. 2 ) . Public Service The same participant ( M1 ) has another manner of looking at leading: Leadership besides for me is public service. The public assistance of the people will ever be the precedence before anything else.
If there’s something good for the people take it and give it to them. However. if there’s something bad take it and happen a solution to work out it. In that manner. the people will voluntarily assist you out in work outing the jobs. This statement is in line with servant leading developed by Greenleaf ( 1977 ) . Harmonizing to Greenleaf ( 1977 ) as cited by Black ( 2007:1 ) “servant leaders put peoples’ demands. involvements. and aspirations above their ain. ” Islam besides echoes similar thought. Beekun and Badawi ( 1999 ) claimed that servant leading is one of the basiss of Islamic leading. ( 1. 3 ) . Role Model To be a function theoretical account is what leading is all approximately. This is the effect of M2’s definition that: Leadership is to pattern a good attitude and behaviour. Whatever is the action of the leader the followings will make the same and so it’s hard to do errors. The leader is observed by the followings all the clip. They are watching the leader’s every move. When the leader tries to enforce some regulations and he/she doesn’t pattern them the followings will non follow either. These words of M2 bespeak how decisive is the influence of the leader to the followings which is consistent with the most popular look: “Follow the leader. ”
The leader must non merely function as an first-class illustration for all his followings but he must besides be extra-careful and aware in all his propulsions. publically or in private. because he is closely looked upon by his followings to copy. He must therefore emulate his people to all good Acts of the Apostless and workss. His words and his actions must be consistent at all times. A best illustration of this function ( Sacranie. 2003:1 ) is what Abu Bakr Siddique. proclaimed during his inaugural reference as first Caliph of Islam. therefore: People! Behold me charged with attentions of Government I am non the Best among you ; I need all your advice and all your aid. If I do good. back up me ; if I mistake. advocate me. To the truth to a individual commissioned to govern is faithful commitment ; to hide it is treason. In my sight. the powerful and the weak are likewise. and to both Prophet. obey ; if I neglect the Torahs of God and Prophet. I have no more right to your obeisance!
It can be concluded that the pupils interviewed all had a strong sense of what it meant to be a leader. yet had differing positions of what leading meant to them. Most of them defined leading through the lens of their ain leading experiences and patterns. ( 2 ) . Constructing Identity Three subthemes emerged from the interviews when the pupil participants were asked how they describe themselves as Muslim pupil leaders. These subjects are: ideal leading traits ; MeranaoMuslim duality ; and leading manner. Students interviewed in this survey tend to make individuality through their student authorities engagement and the prevalent civilization within their several school campuses.
European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 20. Number 1 ( 2011 ) ( 2. 1 ) Meranao-Muslim Dichotomy Three of the pupil participants have ambivalent replies when asked to depict themselves as Muslim pupil leaders. The ambivalency stems from the moral struggle between what they think is right and proper and what they really pattern. It took several follow-up inquiries before decisive replies were obtained. The initial ambivalency can be gleaned from the words of P1: I would instead prefer to name myself a Meranao pupil leader alternatively of a Muslim pupil leader because I don’t want to stain the true significance of the word “Muslim. ” I know I have good relationships with people and I am sort to everyone but to me a true believing Muslim is person who sacredly do the five day-to-day supplications and subscribe to other commandments of Allah. And so because of my failure to offer my day-to-day supplications I feel it’s inappropriate for me to name myself a good Muslim. I guess I will be more comfy turn toing myself as a Meranao pupil leader because the term “Meranao” signifies a group of people who profess the faith Islam and non the other manner around.
This means that I am merely a pupil leader who professes Islam and still open to perpetrate wickednesss. The insisting of P1 of naming himself as a Meranao pupil leader alternatively of a Muslim pupil leader is brooding of his apprehension of Islam. It besides shows the trouble of Muslims to be citizens of a Muslim minority state. Practicing Islam in a secular state like the Philippines airss greater challenges. Therefore. P1’s responses are contemplations of the worlds of many Muslim leaders in the Philippines that while they classify themselves as Muslims yet they can non execute all the demands of Islam. It is non the sensed rigidness of Islam that made them non true Moslems but more on the enticements of predominating un-Islamic patterns. ( 2. 2 ) Leadership Style A male pupil president described himself through his leading manner: I’d like to depict myself through my leading manner which I emulate from how the 3rd calif of Islam had led the Ummah during his clip. Caliph Uthman’s leading manner is between that of Abu Bakr and Umar. He was non every bit indulgent as Abu Bakr but non every bit rigorous as Umar. In short. he was moderate.
Leadership is a affair of accommodation and a leader should hold the accomplishment to set to different people in different state of affairss ( M1 ) What can be taken from M1’s words is the thought that there is no “fit all” leading manner and what is desirable is to unite several. compatible leading manners. Besides. leading manner must be flexible to accommodate the nature and type of leading. followership and the circumstantial state of affairss. ( 3 ) Enhancing Skills The pupils clearly have made sense of their leading experiences as larning chances. They are cognizant of the accomplishments that they have gained and believed that they had personally benefited from their leading experiences. Two subjects are identified from the interviews with the pupil leaders.
These are: treasurer’s pursuit and refinement innate accomplishments. The pupils interviewed believed that they were geting valuable organisational and interpersonal accomplishments in their functions as leaders. Majority of the pupils mentioned deriving assurance when they joined their campus pupil authorities. M1 said: I gained assurance. communicating accomplishment and interpersonal accomplishments. The experiences and the exposures I got from my active engagement with SG have helped me a batch in my academic and personal life. Before. I couldn’t bear to stand in forepart of the category and speak but now I can. My communicating accomplishments have improved and I can now fall in meetings and assemblages and talk my positions. Mixing with different pupils requires a batch of bravery and accomplishments. So aside from deriving assurance I besides improved my communicating accomplishments and my interpersonal accomplishments. It was really hard at first but Alhamdulillah with forbearance and doggedness I earned them bit by bit ( M2 ) Astin’s ( 1999 ) engagement theory reverberations in the interview responses of the pupil participants refering the accomplishments that they acquired or enhanced as a consequence of their engagement and engagement in the pupil authorities ( SG ) .
The consensus hence among the pupils interviewed in this survey ( with M1 and M2’s words as benchmarks ) was that their leading experiences in their pupil authorities have positive and important impact in their lives. ( 3. 1 ) . Treasurer’s Quest The accomplishments gained by a female pupil financial officer are embedded in how she described her ain leading experience: Before I became our SSG financial officer I thought roll uping money was easy. But when I got the station I could barely believe that it was really hard. I was shocked. Like for case the instance when I collected the SSG fees during the registration I had to do certain the figure of pupils who paid tallied with the sum of money I collected. Well. managing rather a batch of money of the pupils is an amanah ( trust ) which requires greater duty from me. It was truly chilling ( P2 ) The fiscal duty experienced by P2 is one of the practical experiences mentioned by Chiles & A ; Pruitt ( 1985 ) in Dias ( 2009 ) as a positive benefit for student authorities engagement.
Positive benefit to pupil leaders may include the proficient know how on income budgeting and wise disbursement. ( 3. 2 ) . Polishing Innate Skills Two of the pupil participants admitted holding the necessary accomplishments required for their leading places. What they emphasized nevertheless is polishing these innate accomplishments that they have: Through fall ining the SSG I was able to enrich my interpersonal accomplishments. SSG has given me the proper locale to develop my interpersonal accomplishments because being the SG president I have the chance to pass on with many pupils who have diverse concerns and personalities. It is a truly tough occupation but it was deserving my clip. I besides develop job work outing accomplishments. determination doing accomplishments. dialogue accomplishments and even how to manage jobs under force per unit area. I guess I would ne’er hold gained these accomplishments had I non joined the SSG. It was truly a approval from Allah ( P1 ) .
Even before I joined SSG I already have assurance. I think its heredity ; I likely got it from my gramps. What I did acquire from my engagement with SSG is the accomplishment to command my emotion and being unfastened to the thoughts of others. Before I barely consider the thoughts of others. I merely believe in my ain. All in all what I gained from SSG was something profound ( M3 ) . Every individual is born with some built-in qualities which are waiting for development or encouragement for optimal public-service corporation. In the instance of the three pupil participants ( F3. P1 and M3 ) their engagement in the SSG helped in the sweetening of their innate accomplishments such as assurance. interpersonal accomplishments. job work outing accomplishments. determination doing accomplishments. dialogue accomplishments and managing jobs under force per unit area. Therefore. these accomplishments by P1 and M3 are populating testimonies to man’s innate or built-in leading qualities.
Decisions and Recommendations
The cross instance of the qualitative information analysis has shed visible radiation on how the pupil leaders conceptualize their leading experiences and patterns in the supreme pupil authorities ( SSG ) . The pupil leaders in the survey have personal definitions of leading and identified features of a leader. They likewise have well-developed and divergent definitions of leading. When asked about their motives in fall ining the SSG. two distinguishable factors emerged. One is to show a profound sense of positive reform while others have motives that are tainted with the deficiency of proper apprehension of the affiliated duties of leading as if it was merely for popularity and adventurism. The feeling of ambivalency is apparent with some of the pupil leaders interviewed in this survey when asked to depict themselves as Muslim pupil leaders. Two plausible accounts can be deduced ; one is the moral struggle between what they think is right and proper and what they really pattern. and the 2nd 1 is that practising Islam in a secular state like the Philippines airss greater challenges. It is hard for the Muslims to populate and pattern purely the Islamic rules in a heterogenous secular society like the Philippines.
It is similarly disputing for the Islamic establishments runing in secular environment to efficaciously implement their academic and co-curricular programmes. Consequences from the little group treatments ( SGDs ) affirmed the observations of Astin and Astin ( 1999 ) that establishments of higher acquisition give small attending and support to pupil development programmes. The experiences of M3 and M2 provide a footing for these observations. Consequently. they could non originate reforms and to the full implement their programs due to limitations and limited freedom imposed upon them by the school. In some cases. they get limited support ( particularly fiscal ) or at other times. none at all. Thus. by deductions. the two Islamic establishments covered in this survey need to reexamine their policies refering the support they give for the development of their pupils. Recommendations for Further Research This survey explored the undergraduate Muslim pupil leading patterns and experiences.
The researcher’s recommendations for future research are as follows: 3. To carry on a longitudinal survey with the six pupil participants for the following 10 old ages to analyze their single life experiences. The end of the research would be to find what. if any important alterations in the participants’ lives could be attributed to their leading experiences as SSG members. 4. To carry on an ethnographic survey on Meranao pupil leading that included observations. interviews. scrutiny of artefacts and certification. This survey will showcase fertile countries on Meranao civilization. faith and society that shaped the worldviews of the Meranao pupil leaders. Findingss of this ethnographic survey may supply some replies in the on-going struggles between the Filipino Government and the active members of the Moro Islamic Liberation Front ( MILF ) every bit good as the Abu Sayyaf groups.
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