John Locke wrote on many topics. ‘An Essay Concerning Human Understanding’ is largely about cognition. world and head in doctrine. and is a major classic in all those Fieldss. He besides wrote a major classic of political doctrine. ‘Essay on Civil Government’ . along with major plants on faith. instruction and economic sciences. Friday. December 3. 2010 CHARLES II OF ENGLAND ( 1630-1685 ) CLAIMED ABSOLUTE POWERS. BUT WAS RESTRAINED IN USING THEM. THE TEXT BELOW THE PICTURE REFERS TO CHARLES’ WORK AS PATRON OF THE SCIENCES.
LOCKE’S POLITICAL THOUGHT WAS DIRECTED AGAINST ABSOLUTISM AND HIS ETHICAL THOUGHT HAS A RELATED INDIVIDUALISM. Friday. December 3. 2010 He had a great cognition of the scientific discipline of the clip. as he met the taking scientists as a pupil and chap of the University of Oxford: Isaac Newton. Robert Boyle. Robert Hooke. His philosophical attack reflected a desire to supply a suited philosophical model for the experimental scientific disciplines. His attack followed a British Empiricist tradition. which puts experience at the Centre of doctrine. a tradition which antecedently included Francis Bacon and Thomas Hobbes.
Friday. December 3. 2010 JAMES II OF ENGLAND ( 1633-1701 ) . REIGNED FROM 1685-1688 JAMES UNDERMINED HIS POSITION IN THREE YEARS BY TAKING HIS CLAIMS TO ABSOLUTE POWERS TOO FAR AND TRYING TO Give THE CATHOLIC CHURCH MORE RIGHTS AND POWERS IN BRITAIN. Lead TO THE PARLIAMENTARY ‘GLORIOUS REVOLUTION’ Friday. December 3. 2010 Locke had learning places at Oxford in Greek and Rhetoric. but preferred to be a physician. as the university atmosphere at that clip was non the best for new thoughts in doctrine. or related thoughts in faith and political relations.
His life as a physician led him towards ( or reinforced ) the other involvements he developed. as he became a physician to Anthony Ashley Cooper. who subsequently became the first Earl of Shaftesbury. Friday. December 3. 2010 THE RIGHT TO RESIST AN OPPRESSIVE EXECUTIVE WILLIAM OF ORANGE ( DUTCH PRINCE MARRIED TO THE HEIR TO THE ENGLISH MONARCHY ) SETS SAILS FOR ENGLAND AT THE INVITATION OF THE ENGLISH PARLIAMENT WHICH WANTED ASSISTANCE IN RESISTING THE RULE OF JAMES II Friday. December 3. 2010 Shaftesbury was a outstanding figure in Whig political relations of the clip.
The Whig party was one of two political currents in Parliament at that clip. the other was the Tories. The Whigs were more supportive of parliament. less supportive to the power of the monarchy. and closer to the major economic endeavors of the clip. Friday. December 3. 2010 THIS Painting SHOWS WILLIAM III AND MARY BEING CROWNED JOINT MONARCHS OF ENGLAND AFTER THE FLIGHT OF JAMES II IN 1688. THE Text REFERS TO THE BILL OF RIGHTS OF 1689 WHICH ENSURED THAT ONLY PARLIAMENT COULD PASS LAWS AND RAISE TAXES. LOCKE’S POLITICAL THOUGHT IS CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THIS REVOLUTION. MAKING HIS ETHICS CONNECTED.
Friday. December 3. 2010 As a radically minded Whig. Cooper was near to the most anti-monarchist circles at a clip. when English male monarchs were seeking to set up absolute royal power. In an ambiance of confederacy and accusal. Cooper spent clip in prison before the 1688 Glorious Revolution. which established parliamentary power under a new male monarch. Locke shared Cooper’s political relations. and had to pass clip in expatriate in the Netherlands. where he had the chance to widen his cognition of new philosophical. scientific. and political thoughts. Friday. December 3. 2010
LOCKE THOUGHT THERE SHOULD BE AN INDEPENDENT LEGISLATIVE BODY IN A CIVIL GOVERNMENT. HIS BELIEF IN A POLITICS OF A STATE UNDER LAW REFLECTS A BELIEF IN INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS. AND THE INDIVIDUAL FOUNDATION OF ETHICS ENGLISH PARLIAMENT ( 1610 ) Friday. December 3. 2010 Locke went beyond a place as Cooper’s physician and worked with Cooper in all his involvements. This included a authorities Board to advance colonization and trade in the Carolinas ( what are now the US provinces of North and South Carolina ) . Locke served as the Secretary. and his function included composing. or at least take parting in. the authorship of the Constitution of the Carolinas.
Friday. December 3. 2010 LOCKE’S PLACE OF BIRTH WRINGTON. SOMERSET. ENGLAND A VILLAGE IN RURAL SOUTH-WEST ENGLAND Friday. December 3. 2010 Locke’s doctrine in ‘An Essay Concerning Human Understanding’ is empiricist ( based on experience ) . Locke defines the simplest possible experiences. which he thinks is what enters our head before the head creates complex and abstract thoughts. What we experience. before the head transforms simple experience into all that we find in the head. is simple thoughts. Friday. December 3. 2010.
MAP OF seventeenth CENTURY ENGLAND LOCKE’S HOME COUNTY OF SOMERSET IS IN THE SOUTHWEST BELOW WALES. THE MAP REFERS TO THE MID-CENTURY CIVIL WAR BETWEEN MONARCH AND PARLIAMENT. LOCKE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE LATER TRIUMPH OF PARLIAMENT IN 1689. Friday. December 3. 2010 Simple thoughts come both from esthesis and from the contemplation of the head on itself. These thoughts are the get downing point for cognition for Locke. and for everything else in the head. including our sense of good and evil. Our thoughts of good and evil semen from simple thoughts of pleasance and hurting.
That is thoughts which come from esthesiss. which we can non depict. or define. in any manner. other than to state that they are painful or enjoyable. Friday. December 3. 2010 PENSFORD A LARGER TOWN IN RURAL SOMERSET. WHERE LOCKE’S FAMILY MOVED SOON AFTER HIS BIRTH Friday. December 3. 2010 Our passions depend wholly on pleasance and hurting. When we reflect on how pleasance or hurting modifies our head. we have the thoughts of our passions. Contemplation on delectation green goodss love ; the idea of hurting green goodss hatred. Friday. December 3. 2010 JUST OUTSIDE PENSFORD WHERE LOCKE WAS BROUGHT UP.
BELLUTON Friday. December 3. 2010 Absence of something. which is the beginning of something. which gives us pleasures causes us an edginess. That edginess is the beginning of desire. Uneasiness. and the desire it creates. are good things because they lead us to move and work in order to acquire our objects of desire. Friday. December 3. 2010 WESTMINISTER SCHOOL. LONDON LOCKE ATTENDED THIS FAMOUS HIGH SCHOOL Friday. December 3. 2010 Joy is the delectation of the head from sing a present good. or a good that we are certain of holding.
A adult male who is hungering has joy from nutrient even before he eats it. which is an illustration of joy in its 2nd facet. The male parent who has delight in the wellbeing of his kids. has this delectation all the clip that his kids are in that province. by reflecting on that province ( which seems to be portion of the 2nd facet of joy for Locke ) . Friday. December 3. 2010 seventeenth CENTURY VIEW OF LONDON PAINTED BY NICOLAES JANSZ VISSCHER Friday. December 3. 2010 Sorrow is the edginess. which comes from believing of a good we have lost. but might hold enjoyed for longer.
Sorrow besides comes from the sense of an evil nowadays to us. Again the passion comes from either the presence of something. or something in the head. but in this instance from retrieving what is lost. non expecting something that will go on. Friday. December 3. 2010 CHRIST CHURCH COLLEGE WHERE LOCKE WAS STUDENT. EVENTUALLY QUALIFYING AS A DOCTOR UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD Friday. December 3. 2010 Hope is a passion wholly tied to outlook. It is the pleasance. which comes from anticipating something that gives us delectation. Fear is besides directed to outlook. but outlook of an expected immorality.
Friday. December 3. 2010 JOHN LOCKE Friday. December 3. 2010 Anger and enviousness have a peculiar topographic point in the passions caused by pleasance and hurting. because they involve mention to ourselves. and to others. which is missing in other passions. In choler. I want retaliation against person who caused me hurting ; in enviousness I want something that person else has. Not all people feel anger and enviousness. because though everyone feels pleasance and hurting. non everyone has this reaction to other people. Friday. December 3. 2010 FIRST EARL OF SHAFTESBURY LOCKE’S PATRON ANTHONY ASHLEY COOPER Friday. December 3. 2010
Pleasure and hurting. delectation and edginess. make non merely come from the bodily hurting and pleasance. They besides come the delectation. or uneasiness. that come from welcome and unwelcome esthesis. or contemplation. Locke thinks it is necessary to underscore that hurting and pleasance are non merely in the organic structure. and goes on to underscore that hurting comes from decreasing of pleasance. and that pleasance comes from decreasing of hurting. Friday. December 3. 2010 THOMAS SYDENHAM ( 1624-1689 ) THE FATHER OF ENGLISH MEDICINE/ THE ENGLISH HIPPOCRATES TAUGHT MEDICINE TO LOCKE DID MAJOR Work ON THE ‘BLACK PLAGUE’ AND THE GENERAL METHODS OF MEDICINE.
A MAJOR INFLUENCE ON LOCKE. Friday. December 3. 2010 There is a simple thought of power. which comes from the manner that things conveying about alterations or are changed by other things. Where we see that some thing brings about some regular alteration in some other thing. we have the thought of an active power ; and where we see that some thing on a regular basis has alterations brought out by some other thing. we have the thought of inactive power. The thought of power does non come clearly from a beginning outside ourselves. since the power is something we infer from out esthesiss. it is non something we sense straight.
Friday. December 3. 2010 REPUBLICANS AND SUPPORTERS OF PARLIAMENTARY POWER CONSPIRED TO KILL KING CHARLES II AND HIS BROTHER JAMES. DUKE OF YORK ( THE FUTURE JAMES II ) ON THEIR WAY BACK TO LONDON. IN 1683. THE DISCOVERY OF THE PLOT LED TO SEVERE REPRESSION OF OPPONENTS OF ABSOLUTISM. COOPER WAS ARRESTED. LOCKE FLED TO THE NETHERLANDS RYE HOUSE. HODDESON. HERTFORSHIRE Friday. December 3. 2010 We get the thought of power most straight from contemplation on our heads. We can detect a power. which controls the order of our thoughts and our actions. inside the head. That power is the will. Friday. December 3. 2010.
Major ENGLISH REPUBLICAN THINKER AND ACTIVIST. ARRESTED AND EXECUTED AFTER THE RYE HOUSE PLOT ALGERNON SYDNEY ( 1623-1683 ) Friday. December 3. 2010 The public presentation of an action. or our patience ( seting up with ) of action from exterior. which comes from a bid of the head. is where we have the volunteer. Where such a bid is missing. the action/ patience is nonvoluntary as the will was non making anything. Locke is now traveling into inquiries of free will and determinism in human action. which itself brings up inquiries of how much moral duty. and pick. we have.
Friday. December 3. 2010 SAYS GOOD BYE TO HIS FAMILY JUST BEFORE HIS EXECUTION IN CONNECTION WITH THE RYE HOUSE PLOT. MAY HAVE BEEN EXECUTED AS A POLITICAL MEASURE RATHER THAN FOR ANY GENUINE CONNECTION WITH THE PLOT. A LEADER OF THE COUNTRY PARTY. LATER KNOWN AS WHIGS WILLIAM RUSSELL. LORD RUSSELL ( 1639-83 ) Friday. December 3. 2010 The will is a module. or power. of the head. which comes under another module. That is the module of apprehension. which is the power of perceptual experience. The power of perceptual experience is how we perceive: thoughts. marks. dealingss between thoughts.
Friday. December 3. 2010 HOBBES WAS AN EARLIER ENGISH EMPIRICIST. HE IS BEST KNOWN FOR HIS IDEAS ABOUT POLITICS WHICH CONTAIN LIBERAL INDIVIDUALISTIC AND LAW GOVERNED ELEMENTS AS IN LOCKE. BUT ALSO A STRONGER NOTION OF STATE AUTHORITY AND A PREFERENCE FOR MONARCHY. THOMAS HOBBES ( 1588-1679 ) Friday. December 3. 2010 The thoughts of autonomy and necessity ( free will and determinism ) comes from comprehending our power to move or hold back. In this instance. Locke is doing free will/liberty primary in relation to necessity/determinism.
Liberty is the power of the will over thoughts and actions. and we have liberty where we have complete bid ; there is necessity where we lack such complete power. and this can be instance even where we have thought. will. will. Friday. December 3. 2010 THE FRONT PAGE OF HOBBES’ MOST INFLUENTIAL THE GIANT REPRESENTS THE POWER OF THE STATE BOOK LEVIATHAN ( 1660 ) NECESSARY TO DEFEND INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND LAW. Friday. December 3. 2010 The term voluntary is to be opposed to the term involuntary. non to necessity. It possibly that we are in a topographic point we want to be. but we are non able to go forth.
The fact that we are there is voluntary. because we want to be at that place. but it is a state of affairs in which we lack liberty to alter the state of affairs. There are state of affairss which are both voluntary and necessary ( determined. missing in free will ) . Friday. December 3. 2010 NATHANIEL CULVERWELL ( 1619-1651 ) THEOLOGIAN AND PHILOSOPHER. A Leading Early seventeenth CENTURY ETHICAL THINKER. WHO INFLUENCED LOCKE THOUGH FROM A DIFFERENT POINT OF VIEW. THE NATURAL LAW TRADITION GOING BACK TO ARISTOTLE IN WHICH ETHICAL LAWS CAN BE FOUND IN OUR NATURE Friday. December 3. 2010 We are missing in autonomy ( free will ) . where we can non command our idea and thoughts.
Examples of this include: waking up in the forenoon when we find our thoughts do non follow our will. and the individual being tortured who can non get away from the thought of hurting. An person is a free agent merely when freed of such restraints on thoughts in the head. Friday. December 3. 2010 RICHARD CUMBERLAND ( 1631-1718 ) PHILOSOPHER AND BISHOP. ONE OF THE MAJOR ETHICAL THINKERS OF LOCKE’S TIME. THOUGH NOT WIDELY READ NOW. AM STRONG ADVOCATE OF NATURAL LAW. WHO INFLUENCED CONTINENTAL THINKING. HE ALSO INFLUENCED UTILITARIANISM WITH HIS BELIEF THAT NATURAL LAW SHOULD BE FOLLOWED BECAUSE IT MAXIMISES BENEFITS TO HUMANITY
Friday. December 3. 2010 We should non state that the will has freedom ( though since Locke it has become normal to speak about ‘free will’ ) . Freedom is an property. or belongings. as is will. Properties or belongingss. belong to a substance which in therefore instance is an agent ( the person individual ) . Freedom and will are two attributes/properties of an agent. Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 Will is the ability to prefer. or take. and that is something that characterises what is voluntary. and is non a feature of freedom.
The will and the apprehension to non move on each other. the power of thought is non the same thing as the power of pick. Friday. December 3. 2010 CUMBERLAND’S EUROPEAN INFLUENCE IS CONFIRMED BY 1744 THIS TRANSLATION OF ‘ON NATURAL LAW’ . THE TRANSLATOR IS JEAN BARBEYRAC ( 1674-1744 ) . HIMSELF A MAJOR FIGURE IN NATURAL LAW. Friday. December 3. 2010 Willing/volition is an action. freedom is a power of moving or non moving. Willing follows upon a idea. a penchant. in our head. and it is that idea which is free. non the act which follows from it. Freedom is where we can move on our penchant. Friday. December 3. 2010.
RALPH CUDWORTH ( 1617-88 ) CUDWORTH WAS A PHILOSOPHER AND CHURCH MINISTER. WHO PREACHED SERMONS AT THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. HE WAS CONNECTED WITH THE INFLUENTIAL CAMBRIDGE PLATONISTS. AND HAD A RATIONALIST BASIS FOR ETHICS. LIKE THE OTHER ETHICISTS OF THE TIME. HE WAS A ‘LATITUDINARIAN’ . THAT IS HE ADVOCATED A STATE CHURCH OF TOLERANCE AND CHARITY Friday. December 3. 2010 The will is moved by desire. and desire is moved by malaise. Unease is the consequence of the deficiency of an object that brings about pleasance. It is lack which brings about desire. because the hurting of non holding something outweighs the positive good of holding something.
Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 It is desire which determines the will. non good or evil. Most of our life is determined by desire responding to the malaise of deficiency. which has much more influence on us that good and evil. though these are sometimes present in the head. Misery and felicity are the utmost provinces of hurting and pleasance. Friday. December 3. 2010 LADY DAMARIS ( CUDWORTH ) MASHAM ( 1658-1708 ) LOCKE FORMED A ROMANTIC ATTACHMENT WITH THE DAUGHTER OF RALPH CUDWORTH IN 1682. THIS WAS INTERRUPTED BY LOCKE’S EXILE IN THE NETHERLANDS.
SHE MARRIED SIR FRANCIS MASHAM AND LOCKE BECAME A CLOSE FRIEND OF BOTH ON HIS RETURN. SHE IS THE FIRST PUBLISHED WOMAN PHILOSOPHER IN BRITAIN. WITH VIEWS CLOSE TO HER FATHER Friday. December 3. 2010 Our desires are largely controlled by comparings between pleasance and hurting. in which we try to understate hurting. This has more influence over us than the positive thought of the good of wages in the hereafter. or of thoughts of good and evil. Our life is dominated by the desire to avoid malaise: some malaise comes from natural beginnings. like hungriness and thirst. and is so multiplied by the instruction and manners of human life.
Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 Person who is wholly satisfied with the status of life has no edginess. is non disturbed by anything. Everyone can see that this must be the instance. and that in these fortunes we have no will towards anything. except to stay in that province. Locke suggests that merely hurting makes us make anything. Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 It is God. the ‘all-wise maker’ the hurting of hungriness. thirst and other natural desires. Te hurting. and the desire to stop the hurting. is what makes us make things.
The actions that follow from this. protect the lives of he persons who act. and the human species as a whole. Thinking approximately good terminals. for persons and humanity. does non do us move. on its ain. Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 If merely believing approximately good terminals made us make anything. we would non necessitate hurting. So it looks like God gave us hurting to do us better ourselves. and humanity as a whole. Locke quotes St Paul ( originally Saul of Tarsus ) . whose letters form portion of the ‘New Testament’ of the Bible. and who was one of the chief makers of early Christianity. Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010.
Locke quotes one of Paul’s most celebrated expressions ( in Letters to Corinthians. Book 7. Verse 9 ) . ‘it is better to get married than burn’ . That is. it is better to get married than to be obsessed with desire. Locke’s suggestion is that God moves us to the morally desirable province of matrimony which besides ensures the continuance of the human race. through desires which are painful if non satisfied. Avoiding the hurting is a bigger influence on our actions than the thought of matrimony. Friday. December 3. 2010 ROYAL ACADEMY LONDON Friday. December 3. 2010 Trying to avoid a current hurting is a much bigger motivation for us than the hope of a future pleasance.
Peoples merely try to get away from poorness when they are disturbed by the state of affairs. and non because they think it might be more enjoyable than the pleasance they already have in their lives. Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 Locke looks at moral motive itself. We are non motived to virtue because we think about it and see it as good. We act from virtuousness. when we are full with the desire to be righteous. and experience uncomfortable at missing a high province of righteousness. This is spiritual linguistic communication. or being righteous in the eyes of God. which Locke translates into moral logical thinking.
Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 Even an alcoholic. who is destructing his wealth and life through drink. is unwilling to give up the pleasances of imbibing in a saloon with his friends. The alcoholic knows he risks his wellness and money. and may even neglect to come in heaven in the following life ( as Locke suggests indirectly ) . He knows that drink and confab in the saloon is a lesser good than what he is losing. but he can non bear to lose his present pleasance. Friday. December 3. 2010 Werner Horvath: “John Locke” . Color pencils on paper. 32 ten 24 centimeter. Crete 1999 ( left ) and “John Locke” . oil on canvas. 50 ten 40 centimeter. Crete.
Friday. December 3. 2010 Mere cognition of the good in life. and in the following live. can non act upon our actions. The same job applies to everything to make with the following life. Knowledge that we should move in certain ways to be rewarded by God in the hereafter. has a really weak influence on our actions. It is present conditions which influence us. Our will can non direct us to future provinces. nevertheless great the good that we may win or lose in the hereafter. Friday. December 3. 2010 Friday. December 3. 2010 Current edginess. that is hurting. influences us much more profoundly than an infinite good in the hereafter.
We can see this in the behavior of person who is passionately in love. The hurting of non holding the individual. who is loved. is a physical hurting. as is the desire for retaliation. It is physical hurting which influences us. Friday. December 3. 2010 TWO TREATISE OF GOVERNMENT ( 1690 ) A BOOK CLOSELY ASSOCIATED WITH THE GLORIOUS REVOLUTION. THE FIRST TREATISE IS AN ATTACK ON THE MONARCHICAL ABSOLUTIST ROBERT FILMER. THE SECOND TREATISE IS AN ESSAY ON CIVIL GOVERNMENT. THE MOST INFLUENTIAL PART. HERE LOCKE SAYS WE HAVE NATURAL RIGHTS. WHICH MAY CONFLICT WITH HIS EMPIRICISM IN THE ‘ESSAY’ Friday. December 3. 2010.
One job that is sometimes raised with Locke’s moralss and doctrine. is that there may be a contradiction between his position of the head as determined by present esthesiss. and his position of natural rights in political relations. In ‘The Essay Concerning Civil Government’ . Locke argues that we have rights before authorities emerges. Friday. December 3. 2010 BOOK BY LOCKE IN THE ITU LIBRARY Friday. December 3. 2010 In a province of nature. without authorities. Locke suggests that we have rights to continue our life. have liberty from other people’s intervention. and maintain our ownerships.
Governments are formed to do those rights better protected. If Locke thinks our morality comes from reaction to esthesis. there is a inquiry of how we have rights belonging to all worlds at all times irrespective of context. Friday. December 3. 2010 THIS IS IN SERIES DESIGNED TO BE READ BY STUDENTS LOWE IS A PROFESSOR OF PHILOSOPHY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF DURHAM. ENGLAND BOOK IN ITU LIBRARY Friday. December 3. 2010 Related books by John Locke: Most of import book related to moralss. ‘Two Treatises on Government’ . peculiarly the ‘Second Treatise’ . ‘Essay on Civil Government’ . Besides.
‘A Letter refering Toleration’ . Friday. December 3. 2010 BOOK IN ITU LIBRARY RELATED TO ETHICS IN LOCKE AND LATER BRITISH PHILOSOPHER. THE SHAFTESBURY REFERRED TO WAS THE GRANDSON ON LOCKE’S PATRON. THE EARL OF SHAFTESBURY. CAREY TEACHES AT THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF IRELAND IN GALWAY. Friday. December 3. 2010 Books on Locke ( in the ITU library ) : Routledge Philosophy Guidebook to Locke on Human Understanding. by E. J. Lowe. Routledge Philosophhy Guidebook to Locke on Government. by D. A. Lloyd Thomas. ( E-version ) Friday. December 3. 2010 PHOTOGRAPH ‘THE END’ RICHARD ROBERTS Friday. December 3. 2010.