Junior Cert Science

Question Answer
What is the study of microorganisms called Microbiology
Name three types of microorganisms Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses
Are viruses considered a living cell No because they can only reproduce inside living cells
Describe the basic structure of a virus Consist of a chemical surrounded by a protein coat
Name three diseases caused by a virus Flu, measles, mumps
Do antibiotics work against viruses No
Do all viruses cause disease Yes
Are bacteria living cells Yes because they can feed, move, respire and reproduce
Are bacteria larger than viruses Yes
Do all bacteria cause disease No, some are beneficial
Why are soil bacteria beneficial They help break down the remains of dead animals and plants
Why are bacteria useful in sewage treatment They help break down human wastes to make them less harmless
Name two dairy products that are made by adding bacteria Cheese and youghurts
Name three disease caused by bacteria Food poisoning, pneumonia and meningitis
What does bacteria do to milk Causes it to go sour
Name three types of fungi Yeast, mould and mushrooms
What are the benefits of fungi Brewing, baking, source of food and making penicillin
What are the harmful effects of fungi Disease, food spoilage and poisonous
Name two diseases caused by fungi Athletes foot and ringworm
When bacteria break down the remains of dead plants and animals what is it changed to Humus, which contains minerals
What is the term used to describe the use of microorganisms to make substances useful to humans Biotechnology
Give two examples of uses of biotechnology in industry Using bacteria to make cheese and yeast to make alcohol
Give two examples of uses of biotechnology in medicine Using bacteria to make insulin and fungi to make penicillin
How would you show the presence of microorganisms in air Open an agar plate for 20min and then incubate it upside down for 2days – bacteria will grow on surface
Why would you also incubate an unopened agar plate To act as a control
How would show the presence of microorganisms in soil Sprinkle fresh soil on an agar plate and incubate
What would you use to act as a control in soil experiment Sprinkle sterile soil (strongly heated) on agar plate and incubate

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