Kelvin Estevez Essay

Attorney General October 17, 1995, Memorandum on Resolution 14 (Attachment) | AG | Department of Justice. (2016). Retrieved 17 November 2016, from
I can use this source as a reference to get my point across according to the department of justice deadly force is whena police officer can apply deadly physical force when the situation calls for it. A lot comes to play during an altercation, the perpetrator might have a loaded weapon and doesn’t care the police officer is ordering them to put the weapon. The memorandum allows the civilians mind to be put at ease as police agencies have to follow the Attorney General Memorandum established in 2014.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2001) (1st Ed.). Retrieved from
This report brings together in a single publication national statistics on two distinct types of homicide: the justifiable homicide of felons by police, and the murder of police officers by felons. Although the two are fundamentally different the use of deadly force against a police officer is almost never justified, while the use of deadly force by police often is certain connections can be made between them beyond the fact that both always involve the police.

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K9 Unit Policy ; Procedure Manual. (2016). Strategic Management. Retrieved 17 November 2016, from
Utilization of properly trained police service, dogs represent a highly cost effective and reliable asset to law enforcement personnel, by utilizing the canine’s acute olfactory and hearing senses as well as guarding and maternal instincts. The police service dog is a force multiplier; it also provides a psychological deterrent by their mere presence at the scene of a potentially volatile confrontation, conflict or disturbance.

Less Lethal Force. (2004) (1st Ed.). Retrieved from
The amount of force used by a police officer should be proportionate with the threat posed to the police officer or to the public. Officers should begin at the lowest levels of force necessary to effect an arrest or to control and contain a threat, and escalation of force to the next level should occur only when the officer has determined that such an escalation is reasonably necessary.
Fyfe, J. J. 1979. “Administrative Intervention on Police Shooting Discretion: An Empirical Examination.” Journal of Criminal Justice 7 (4):309-323.

A considerable amount of research has documented that administrative rule making has significant effects on the frequency and nature of police deadly force and firearms use. This research typically has analyzed the effects of internal policies governing the circumstances in which police officers can shoot. These policies generally have eliminated or restricted discretion to shoot in circumstances deemed not to present imminent danger to the lives of officers or others.

Memorandum of Agreement, United States Department of Justice and the District of Columbia and the D.C. Metropolitan Police Department | CRT | Department of Justice. (2016). Retrieved 17 November 2016, from
This resource I can use it for reference. The term “deadly force” means any use of force likely to cause death or serious physical injury, including but not limited to the use of a firearm or a strike to the head with a hard object
National Institute of Justice. (2010) (1st Ed.). Retrieved from
The research on injuries from less-lethal weapons, for example, is something community leaders and members of police-citizen review boards will find useful. The data show that using conducted energy devices, known commonly by the manufacturer name Taser, can reduce injury rates for suspects and officers when compared to other less-lethal options, such as fists or batons. Though proper training is always essential before officers use CEDs, this research demonstrates that both officers and civilians may benefit from their use.

New NYPD Use of Force Guidelines Announced | NYPD News. (2016). Retrieved 17 November 2016, from
New YorkMayor Bill de Blasio and Police Commissioner William J. Bratton announced today sweeping reforms to the NYPD use-of-force policy, including changes in how use of force is defined, how it is reported, and how it is investigated. “The NYPD has been a leader in firearms policy for more than 40 years, but our policies and training in other uses of force have lagged,” said Commissioner William J. Bratton.
NYPD Department Policy Prohibiting Racial Profiling and Bias – Based Policing. (2016) (1st Ed.). Retrieved from
Members of the service are reminded that the New York City Police Department is committed both to the impartial enforcement of law and to the protection of constitutional rights. To reinforce these commitments and to ensure that all members of the service engage only in constitutionally sound policing practices, the Department prohibits the use of racial and bias-based profiling in law enforcement actions.

NYPD Vehicle Checkpoints. (2016) (1st Ed.). Retrieved (Patrol Guild) (Procedure No: 221-16)
To establish the criteria by which members of the service can conduct a safe, legal, and effective vehicle checkpoint program. A vehicle checkpoint is a site on a roadway designated by the commanding officer of a patrol borough, Traffic Operations District, precinct, police service area, transit district, highway district/unit, or task force, which is overseen by uniformed personnel.

NYPD Vehicle Pursuits. (2016) (1st Ed.). Retrieved from (Tactical Operations) (Procedure No: 221-15)
Using the patrol guild, I can determine the necessity of commencing a vehicle pursuit and the method to be employed in conducting such a pursuit. Upon observing a vehicle which is to be stopped or there is a likelihood that vehicle pursuit may be imminent.

Peters, M. & Eure, P. (2015). Police Use of Force in New York City (1st Ed.). Retrieved from
Use of force is a defining issue in modern policing. Police officers, by the very nature of their duties, are entrusted, empowered, and at times obligated by local governments to use force against citizens when appropriate. In Exchange for this grant of power, communities and their police departments require that the use of force be governed by a set of standards. These Standards stem from the premise that the force used must be reasonable, an idea rooted in the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of the United States.

Use of oleoresin capsicum pepper spray devices (2016) (1st Ed.) Retrieved
To inform uniformed members of the service of circumstances under which Oleoresin Capsicum (O.C.) pepper spray may be intentionally discharged and to record instances where O.C. pepper spray has been discharged, intentionally or accidentally.

Patrol guide force guidelines (2016) (1st Ed.) Retrieved
The primary duty of all members of the service (MOS) is to protect human life, including the lives of individuals being placed in police custody. Force may be used when it is reasonable to ensure the safety of a member of the service or a third person, or otherwise protect life, or when it is reasonable to place a person in custody or to prevent escape from custody.

Investigative encounters: Requests for information, common law right of inquiry and level 3 stops (2016) (1st Ed.) Retrieved
To describe the types of encounters a uniformed member of the service may initiate with a member of the public during the course of his or her official duties, the level of know ledge required for each type of encounter, the scope of a police officer’s authority for each type of encounter, the measures that are permissible to protect uniformed members of the service from injury while engaged in such encounters, and the procedures to be followed by a member of the service during these encounters.


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