King Philips War Sample Essay

King Philip’s War ( 1675-76 ) is an event that has been mostly ignored by the American Public and popular historiographers. “However. the about biennial struggle between the settlers and the Native Americans in New England stands as possibly the most annihilating war in this country’s history” ( Giersbach. 1 ) . Native American warriors and the opposing English military personnels fought brutally destructing everything and everyone in their sight. Women and kids on both sides were intentionally targeted. and many colonies were destroyed. After a twelvemonth of bloody contending. Captain Benjamin Church brought a little party of English military personnels to a swamp at Mount Hope where Metacom was concealing. A Native American ally contending aboard Benjamin Church named John Alderman killed Metacom for money. therefore stoping the acrimonious war. This was the last opportunity for Indians to command the losingss of their native lands in New England vs. the settlers. On a per capita footing. King Philip’s War is one of the bloodiest struggles in American history.

Barbarous statements ignite and contending began for the following 200 old ages between the Indians and Colonists. European fishermen carried infective diseases such as variola. enteric fever. rubeolas. and spotted febrility which causes many deceases to Native Americans around 1618. Massasoit was the sachem. or leader. of the Wampanoag Tribe. Calendar months after the Pilgrims arrived in Plymouth in 1620. Massasoit went to the new settlement and offered friendly relationship. He would subscribe a peace pact with the English stating that if either side were attacked. that they would demo nonaggression and common defence. Massasoit helped the settlers in their first winter by giving them nutrient and shelter. This uneasy confederation that the Wampanoag had with the English became harder and harder as the settlers pressured the Indians to sell land. The slightly friendly peace between the Settlers and Indians would shortly stop after Massasoit dies in 1962 and Metacom takes over. Metacom was Massasoit’s boy and was known by the English as King Philip because of his haughty idiosyncrasies.

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Metacom felt like he wasn’t treated with the regard he deserved like his male parent was. As the relationship between he and the Colonists got worse. he began to be after an onslaught on them. Settlers had successfully converted and educated some of the Indians and these people lived in separate colonies called “Praying Towns. ” John Sassamon. a Native American Christian convert and adviser to Metacom. told Plymouth Colony functionaries about Metacom’s efforts to set up Native American onslaughts on widely dispersed colonial colonies. Before these functionaries could look into. John was murdered on January 29. 1675. Three Wampanoag Indians were arrested for Sassamon’s decease. including one of them being King Philip’s counsellor. They were all sentenced to decease. “On June 20. perchance without Metacomet’s blessing. a group of Wampanoags attacked the small town of Swansea. Reacting to this foray. Puritan leaders in Boston and Plymouth instantly dispatched as force which burned the Wampanoag town at Mount Hope. RI” ( Giersbach. 2 ) .

Although Indians planned the first onslaughts. the war was non begun by Indians. Some Wampanoag Indians killed English-owned cowss doing the husbandmans to go really angry. “A husbandman so retaliated by killing an Indian. puting in gesture a native rebellion that would finally endanger to pass over Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth Bay Colonies out of existence” ( Tougias. 1 ) . As the Summer continued. the struggle between the Settlers and Indians escalated making many folks to fall in each side in conflicts. King Philip’s War officially began on June 24. 1675. “King Philip’s War began as a feud between the Wampanoags and Plymouth Colony. It rapidly spread. as Indians throughout New England sympathized with the Wampanoags cause” ( Cwiklik. 131 ) . The Native American tribes’ Alliess during this war contending against the English Settlers were the Nipmuck. the Podunk. the Narragansett. and the Nashaway people. The Nipmuck people joined Metacom’s side because they did non like the increasing sum of land being lost to the English colonists.

They were major participants in the besieging of Lancaster. Brookfield. Sudbury. and Bloody Brook. all in Massachusetts. The Podunk felt like they were being excessively restricted by the English colonists and had a peaceable relationship with them until King Philip’s War. The Narragansett Tribe’s arch challenger is the Uncas and they were contending aboard Metacom. Narragansett tribe eventually joined Metacom’s side after the Great Swamp Fight against the Colonists. The Nashaway people were frequently associated with the Nipmuck people who besides fought on Metacom’s side. The Colonists became Alliess with the New England Confederation. the Pequot Tribe. and the Mohegan Tribe. The New England Confederation was a military confederation of the English settlements of Massachusetts. Connecticut. Plymouth. and New Haven and declared war on Metacom on September 9. 1675. The Mohegan Tribe is an Algonquian-speaking folk who helped the English against the Pequots in the Pequot War of 1637.

The Pequot Tribe worked together with the English and Mohegan people to get the better of the Metacom and his Alliess. particularly the Narragansett people. There were many impersonal folks that had been friendly with the Settlers were drawn into war when the Colonists would take safeguards against them. “This sometimes included taking kids from the folk for ransom. or coercing the Indians to pass darks in the settlers’ locked barns” ( Giersbach. 1 ) . Some folks tried to look past these happenings to avoid come ining such a acrimonious war. but found themselves come ining on Metacom’s side because of this. An illustration is the Agawam Tribe. who was peaceable until the English colonists abducted its kids as sureties. The Narragansett Tribe avoided come ining for a long clip besides. Their arch challenger. Uncas. were contending aboard Metacom but they besides did non desire to side with the English colonists. Both the settlers and the Indians wanted the Narragansett Tribe to fall in them because they were estimated 1. 000 to 2. 000 warriors strong.

The folk was forced to side with Metacom when the English settlers attacked their winter cantonment. This was known as the Great Swamp Fight. The Great Swamp Fight of December 19. 1675. was a Colonist onslaught on the impersonal Narragansett Tribe’s winter cantonment. following failed efforts to acquire them to fall in the war on their side. The Colonists distrusted the folk due to the fact that they were sheltering Wampanoag adult females and kids. During the war. many wigwams in which adult females and kids were concealing were burned. The chief Narragansett garrison was attacked by about 1. 000 colonial reserves including 150 Pequot and Mohegan warriors. In the terminal every bit many as 1. 000 adult females and kids. 100 warriors. and 1 garrison were killed and destroyed in the onslaught. “…more than 20 per centum of the English soldiers had been either killed or wounded—double the casualty rate of the American forces at D-day” ( Philbrick. 278 ) . This conflict was considered a slaughter on the Narragansett Tribe and the folk ne’er to the full recovered from it. The few subsisters of the onslaught joined Metacom and his Alliess during the war to acquire payback against the English settlers.

This was non the lone slaughter during the war because the Narragansett Indians got the English back during the Cumberland Massacre. The Cumberland Massacre. or Nine Men’s wretchedness. on March 26. 1676 was one of the bloodiest and most distressing struggles of the war. This slaughter genuinely showed the ferociousness and hatred these two forces had against each other. On the forenoon of March 26. 1676. Captain Michael Pierce led 63 English and 20 friendly Wampanoag Indians to Cumberland where there was word of the enemy concealing out. “Upon making a ravine near Attleborough Gore on the Blackstone River above Pawtucket Falls. his company was ambushed by approximately 500 to 700 Narragansett led by head sachem Canonchet” ( Giersbach. 1 ) . When they retreated. Pierce and his combatants were attacked by a barricading force of about 300 Indians. Even though Pierce was killed early on. the contending continued for around 2 hours until few remained alive. “Nine English were captured and taken to a topographic point in Cumberland. now called Nine Men’s Misery. where they were tortured to death” ( Giersbach. 1 ) . This action by the Narragansett Tribe towards the English was payback from the Great Swamp Fight Massacre where the Narragansett were the 1s being killed in great Numberss.

There were many other conflicts besides Nine Men’s Misery and the Great Swamp Fight. but some of the most of import include the Brookfield Attack. Battle of Bloody Brook. Attack on Springfield. the Lancaster Raid. the Attack on Sudbury. and the Battle of Turner’s Falls. These conflicts all occurred from February 1675 to May 1676. These struggles made immense impacts on the consequence of the war and truly showed who had the strongest force. The Lancaster Raid was the first of all these conflicts happening on February 10. 1675. It was an onslaught on the community of Lancaster. Massachusetts by Metacom’s 1. 500 Wampanoag. Nipmuck/Nashaway. and Narragansett Indians. They attacked 5 houses including one being Reverend Joseph Rowlandson’s. with more than 30 people being killed indoors. The Indians took captives for ransom when they raided settlers’ small towns like this one. In this instance. they took in Mrs. Mary Rowlandson for 11 months and 5 yearss who. in imprisonment. wrote her celebrated book. “A Narrative of the Captivity. Agonies and Removes of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson. ” In her book. Mary writes about events she has witnessed or been a portion of and how she must last the imprisonment of the Indians.

Many people read this book after King Philip’s War because it gave everyone an penetration of what it was like to be a prisoner of the Indians. The Brookfield Attack occurred on August 2-4. 1675. It was an English surprise onslaught on a little group of Indians in which the English won. The conflict consisted of at least 100 Nipmuck Indians surprising and floging out a group of about 35-40 work forces and beleaguering 70 civilian settlers. The beleaguering shortly became unsuccessful due to the 350 English soldiers and many Mohegan Indians coming to the deliverance. Neither side could free the other. so Muttawmp ( Nipmuck leader ) decided to retreat him and his warriors from the war. In the terminal. it was a win by the Nipmuck Indians because they obtained important supplies from the robbery of Brookfield. The Battle of Bloody Brook occurred on September 12. 1675. It was conflict between the English Colonial reserves of Massachusetts Bay Colony and a set of Nipmuck Indians. This was another successful Nipmuck ambuscade killing about 60 people.

The Nipmuck Indians ambushed the Colonists train of waggons transporting the crop from Deerfield to Hadley. The crop was for the Settlers who were abandoned from their places in recent onslaughts. Historians believe that the soldiers on the waggons were inexperienced and laid down their arms when halting to eat and rest. “While the Colonial military personnels rested. the Native Americans attacked. Equally many as 90 colonial soldiers and teamsters were killed” ( Kembold. 1 ) . The Attack on Springfield occurred on October 1675. It was an Indian onslaught on the colony of Springfield. Massachusetts. This conflict is considered to be one of the Native Americans greatest successes during King Philip’s War because they burnt down a major colony to the Colonists. Springfield was the 2nd major colony that was burned to the land by Native Americans during the war. the first being Providence. Rhode Island. King Philip persuaded the Agawam Indians to arise against the English colonists of Springfield. He wanted them to assist him fire the Springfield colony to the land. Out of the 60 houses built in Springfield. 45 of them were burned to the land.

By the terminal of the war. 82 % of the Native American warriors and 23 % of the European colonists in Springfield died. The Attack on Sudbury occurred on April 21. 1676. The town of Sudbury. Massachusetts was surprised by Indian plunderers. destroying and stealing most of the places. barns. farm animate beings. tools. and other belongings. Some of the occupants in the metropolis were killed in the onslaught. but most of the occupants escaped with nutrient and arms to strengthen houses where they held off the Native Americans for many hours. The Native Americans tactically won the battle killing many Colonial colonists and about destructing the town. but did non carry through what they came to make. “However. some historiographers have speculated that the primary mission of the hostile Native American forces in their onslaught on the original Town of Sudbury was to get much needed supplies of nutrient. arms. ammo. and gunpowder and to wholly destruct the Town so that they could more easy assail coastal Towns where even larger shops of these points could be acquired” ( Tougias. 432 ) . The Battle of Turner’s Falls. or the Peskeompscut Massacre. occurred on May 19. 1676.

Led by Captain William Turner. the English Settlers from Massachusetts Bay Colony snuck up to the Indians wigwams killing Native American work forces. adult females. kids. the aged. and ruthlessly killing anyone in their sight. Even though it was an easy win for the English Colonists. William Turner was killed in action along with 40 other settlers. The warriors of approximately 150 strong killed around 200 Native Americans being chiefly adult females. kids. and the aged. From The History of Deerfield. Vol. 1. George Sheldon wrote. “Leaving his Equus caballuss under a little guard. Turner led his work forces through Fall river. up a steep acclivity. and came out on a incline in the rear of the Indian cantonment. He had reached his nonsubjective point undiscovered. Silence like that of decease brooded over the campsite by the river. salvage for the dark boom of the cataract beyond. With ears strained to catch any note of dismay. the English waited impatiently the dawdler visible radiation. and with the morning. stole mutely down among the kiping enemy ; even seting their guns into the wigwams undiscovered. At a given signal the clang of a 100 shootings aroused the dumbfounded slumberers. Many were killed at the first fire.

The amazed subsisters. saying their old enemy to be upon them. cried out “Mohawks! Mohawks! ” rushed to the river. and jumped pell-mell into the canoes which lay along the shore. Many pushed off without paddles ; in other instances the canoeists were shot. and falling overboard. upset the canoe ; many in the confusion plunged into the downpour. trying to get away by swimming. About all of these were swept over the cataract and drowned. Others. concealing about the Bankss of the river. were hunted out and cut down. “Captain Holyoke killing five. immature and old. with his ain Handss from under a bank. ” A really little opposition was made. and but one of the attackers wounded ; another “was killed in the action by his friends. who. taking him for an Indian as he came out of the wigwam shot him dead. ” The wigwams were burned. and the cantonment dismantled” ( Sheldon. 1 ) .

The harm from this war had already been done even with the decease of Turner. The major war cantonments of the Wampanoags and Nipmucks were comnpletely wiped out. and the few warriors that were still left with King Philip went to their chief central office at Mount Hope to conceal from the English. King Philip made many hit and run onslaughts on stray colonists’ farms. but Benjamin Church. utilizing Indian ushers. eventually tracked him down. By the clip Captain Church and the English got to King Philip. Philip’s Alliess were about all gone and it was an easy win for the English. An Indian by the name of John Alderman fired his musket and shooting King Philip in the caput twice. John received hard currency. the manus. and the caput of Metacom. The decease of Philip efficaciously ended Native American opposition in New England. But true to his word Philip had gone down contending “determined non to populate until I have no country” ( Tougias. 1 ) . The devastation King Philip’s War caused was on many Indian towns. Indian folk. and even to the English Colonists. Of the 90 Puritan towns established before the clip of the war. fifty-two were attacked. and 12 of that 52 were wholly destroyed. Equally many as 1. 000 English Settlers died from the war. but about 3. 000 Native Americans died floging out many Indian folks.

“The per capita decease rate of Native Americans was ten times higher than that of the English Colonial immigrants” ( Tougias. 1 ) . A big sum of Native Americans were sold into bondage in the West Indies by the English. The Narragansett. Nipmuck. Podunk. Wampanoag. and several other little Indian folks were eliminated as organized folk. “From the terminal of King Philip’s War until today. the Wampanoag have struggled to keep their individuality as an American Indian Tribe” ( Doherty. 20 ) . The manner the war started with the Native Americans non desiring to give up their land to the English is the predicament to many civilizations throughout history that went through the same thing. About every clip. the indigens are forced to give up their land and civilization to the westerners.

For approximately 2 old ages. Metacom fought a bloody conflict aiming English adult females. kids. and even the aged. largely. In this instance. the Indians that did last from the war and weren’t sent off for bondage had to accommodate certain facets of their civilization in order to last. This war was the last existent stand the Indians could present to the Westernization of their civilization and the loss of their native lands. “King Philip’s War was a terribly violent and destructive struggle. which was sparked by the desires of keeping cultural individuality and continuing power and authorization. both in societal and spiritual capacities upon what one believed to be his land” ( Leach 21 ) .


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