As a modern audience, we must remember to be mindful of the society in which Shakespeare wrote The Taming of the Shrew when we analyze it. This was a time when marriages were made for the convenience of the fathers far more often than for a love already existing between the bride and groom; people often were married without having known each other for very long, and sometimes without ever having met. Instead, one hoped to find love within the marriage once it was in place, to learn to love one’s partner–there really were no “better” options.
It is also doubtful that acting upon “love at first sight,” in any society, necessarily brings greater happiness in marriage than does the slowly-developed, consistent love of a married couple who have learned how to live with and for each other. These are the two contrasting relationships that we see in the play, the former between Lucentio and Bianca, and the latter between Petruchio and Kate. Thus the “ideal” married relationship presented by the play does not concern the “match made in heaven,” in which the man and woman are perfectly suited for each other from the beginning.
Rather, and much more realistically, it deals with the proper dispositions that a man and woman might arrive at in order to form a more peaceful, if not perfect, union. The question is not whether Petruchio is Italy’s most eligible bachelor–certainly, he is at times grossly misogynistic, possessive, and condescending. However, at the beginning of the play, Kate is by disposition Padua’s most ineligible maid. After all, as the title suggests, the play is fundamentally about a shrew, and Kate’s transformation is its primary dramatic element.
So the question becomes, is Petruchio the right man to bring about this transformation, and the answer is a resounding “yes. ” Only the carefree, persistent, self-assured manner of a man like Petruchio could break through the barriers of words that Kate has put up between herself and marriage. Furthermore, Kate gradually reveals throughout the play that she does not truly wish for these barriers to remain standing; when Petruchio is late in arriving to the wedding, she fears the loneliness of an old maid far more than the constrictedness of a marriage.
It would hardly have done her any good to have married a malleable man who would alway consent to her headstrong will and endure her tongue-lashings, for that marriage could never have been anything but a dichotomy. Though Petruchio stifles and at times humiliates her, the result is that Kate in the end can enjoy her married life, and, as she finally reveals near the end of the play, can love her husband in that life. The play is about a young woman, Catherine, her sister, Claire, and a young man, Hal, who studied under her father, Robert and their search for the truth about a mathematical proof.
The main character, Catherine, is a confused and disturbed young woman who gave up her own dreams to care for her dying father. Catherine has spent the past five years taking care of her mentally ill father, and when he dies her sacrifices are completely under appreciated. Her sister, Claire, wants Catherine to come to New York where she can keep an eye on Catherine. Then there is Hal who plays Catherine romantic interest. With Hal, Catherine gets a change to claim herself as a mathematician of her father’s statue. The conflict comes when she generates a mathematical proof that might revolutionize mathematics.
Yet Claire and Hal do not believe her and question whether she is trying to pass off her father’s work as her own. John Lee Beatty’s back-porch set indicates Robert and Catherine’s living space through windows and screen doors. You could fell fall on the stage with a few leaves on the porch and some naked trees of to the side. Pat Collins’ lighting is especially effective in the play. To fit the Walter Kerr stage, the porch appears to have been stretched out with neighbors’ houses on either side. My personal reaction to this play was a good one.
I truly believe that the entire production and the success of this play is dependent on Mary-Louis Parker’s performance, since there isn’t a single other performer in this play that could come even close to her stunning presence. The dullest character in the play would have to be Hal played by Ben Shenkman. Also I found that while I actually enjoyed “Proof” and I don’t think I would want to see another one. II The Taming of Katherine In Shakespeare’s time, the ideal wife was subservient to her husband, and it was the husband’s inherent duty to take care of his wife’s money, property, and person, including both physical and moral welfare.
If a man’s spouse proved rebellious, he had the right to physically brutalize her into submission. This social phenomenon of domesticating an unruly woman as one might an animal was the inspiration for The Taming of the Shrew. Kate fits the stereotype of the shrewish woman at the play’s outset and the Renaissance ideal of the subservient, adoring wife by the play’s close, but her last speech as the final monologue of the play-rightly interpreted-undercuts her stereotype. Even before his initial encounter with Katherine, Petruchio knows exactly how to handle her resistance.
In a short monologue, Petruchio proclaims in great detail just how his unorthodox approach will work. He plans not to use violence, but psychological warfare. For every evil Katherine displays, Petruchio will praise the opposing virtue in her character-even if it does not exist: “Say that she rail, why then I’ll tell her plain She sings as sweetly as a nightingale. Say that she frown, I’ll say she looks as clear As morning roses newly wash’d with dew … If she deny to be wed, I’ll crave the day When I shall ask the banns and when be married” (II, i). Petruchio plans to win this woman over by simply confronting her temper with flattery.
Of course, the infamous Kate lives up to her reputation and is every bit as cold and difficult as Petruchio has been told to expect. After observing arguments, base insults, and even a blow inflicted upon Petruchio, the audience begins to lose faith in Petruchio’s unusual methods. This extremely clever gentleman, however, will not easily give up such a dowry. Still, he does not wish to waste a vast amount of time and energy on a woman that could just as soon walk away and leave him looking foolish despite his best efforts. He knows that, in order to tame her, he must first obtain her.
Though little ground has been gained in the fight against her inflexibility, Petruchio, upon Baptista’s return, tells him the outcome of his meeting with Kate. He speaks of a bond so natural and strong that they have agreed to marry on the following Sunday. Instantly, Kate recognizes the lies in his assertions and tries to convince her father of the true nature of their meeting, calling Petruchio, “… one half lunatic, a madcap ruffian and a swearing Jack, that thinks with oaths to face the matter out” (II, i). Though one might expect Kate’s complaints sway her father’s opinion of Petruchio, Petruchio adheres to his original statements.
He discards her complaints as nothing more than silly falsehoods in a playful game: “‘Tis bargain’d ‘twixt us twain, being alone, that she shall still be curst in company” (II, i, 297). Even more incredible, Petruchio enthusiastically convinces all present of Katherine’s sincere love and affection saying: “I tell you ’tis incredible to believe How much she loves me. O, the kindest Kate! She hung about my neck, and kiss on kiss She vied so fast, protesting oath on oath, That in a twink she won me over to her love” (II, i). To the delight of all present-except for Kate, that is-Baptista immediately gives her hand to Petruchio.
Soon, their wedding day approaches, and, as part of his campaign to make Kate realize the error of her current disposition, Petruchio makes a point of embarrassing her. Biondello’s detailed description of the groom’s appearance portrays Petruchio coming in ridiculous dress to the formal occasion. Through his outrageous clothing and extremely harsh ways, Petruchio blatantly mocks Kate. In the same way that Kate’s loud and irritating disposition caused her family so much embarrassment, Kate suffers embarrassment at her future husband’s inexcusable conduct.
The way that Petruchio strikes the priest reminds all of Kate’s violence toward Bianca and countless others. Though Kate never shows knowledge of Petruchio’s intentions of taming her, she receives her first sample of just how difficult married life will be. Now, under the laws of marriage, Petruchio has legal and societal approval to quit all previous games and, once and for all, put Katherine in her place. He does not resort to the common method of violent persuasion. The time soon after their marriage shows the effectiveness of Petruchio’s psychological methods.
No longer does he flatter Kate, but perpetrates a moderate torture upon her mind and body. Masked under the guise of love, Petruchio finds ways to starve her, and perform other various punishments to punish her for her turbulent and unyielding nature. After falling victim to such treatment, Kate becomes absolutely frustrated: “The more my wrong, the more his spite appears. … [I] Am starv’d for meat, giddy for lack of sleep, With oaths kept waking, and with brawling fed. And that which spites me more than all these wants, He does it under the name of perfect love… ” (IV, iii).
Later in this scene, when the Haberdasher presents the hat and gown commissioned for Kate, Petruchio openly criticizes its design. Katherine, delighted by its structure and fashion, angrily opposes her husband. Of course, this reminder of her shrewish nature causes Petruchio to punish her further by revoking the Haberdasher’s products altogether. Unfortunately for Kate, it seems she cannot resolve her problems with tantrums. Kate is slowly learning that her marriage leaves no choice but submission. After many pains, Kate masters the practice of silence and unthinking agreement.
She comes to realize that she must swallow her pride and submit to the whims of her husband, no matter how irrational. Traveling to Baptista’s house, he tests her by intentionally mislabeling the sun as the moon. Naturally, Kate responds by calling attention to his mistake. Angered at such disagreement, Petruchio threatens to turn around and abandon the trip. Though Kate still has a great deal of independence and wildness in her character, Petruchio’s newest test of obedience, along with the impetus of possible repercussion, forces her to grudgingly concede: “Forward, I pray, since we have come so far,
And be it moon, or sun, or what you please. And if you please to call it a rush-candle, Henceforth I vow it shall be so for me” (IV, v). One might argue that such submission proves Kate newfound tameness. However, according to Petruchio, Kate still needs to learn more. He does not want to fight over every minuscule issue of obedience, and the fact that Kate submits grudgingly proves to Petruchio and his audience that more work is necessary. From this point until the end of the play, Petruchio makes astonishing progress in the domestication of Katherine, mainly because of his unrelenting determination.
The final scene of the play depicts Petruchio’s final test of obedience. Confident in Katherine’s level of devotion, he wagers against the two other newlywed husbands, Hortensio and Lucentio. The bet-testing the obedience of their wives-holds very high monetary stakes and important bragging rights. The clear winner turns out to be Kate. Not only is she the only wife to report when beckoned, but she also delivers a lengthy speech outlining the virtue of an obedient wife and the importance of the husband’s role as lord and protector when she says: “… Thy husband is thy lord, thy life, thy keeper,
Thy head, thy sovereign; one that cares for thee, And for thy maintenance; commits his body To painful labour both by sea and land To watch the night in storms, the day in cold, Whilst thou liest warm at home, secure and safe; And craves no other tribute at thy hands But love, fair looks, and true obedience… ” (V, ii). Of course, everyone observing this incredible change in Kate’s character is astounded, as she has demonstrated, most convincingly, just how effective Petruchio’s work has been. And thus Petruchio’s unconventional methods have tamed the cursed shrew. III Taming of the Shrew 2
In the Taming of the Shrew, Petruchio recognizes, respects and desires Kate’s intelligence and strength of character. He does not want to conquer or truly tame her. He is a man who is very confident in himself and does not want or need someone to massage his ego. Petruchio seems to me to be a man of sport and challenge and likes to surround himself with witty, challenging people. He wants in a mate what Kate has – fire. From Petruchio’s response to his friend Hortensio (I. ii. 64-75), it might be said that Petruchio came to Padua to make himself richer by marriage, to any woman, no matter how wretched.
Petruchio is not in desperate need of money (I. ii. 56-57). He tells Hortensio (I. ii. 49-57) that his father has died and that he is out in the world to gain experiences he cannot at home and only secondarily to find a wife. Also, immediately before this declaration, is the scene of misunderstanding between he and his servant Grumio about knocking on the gate (I. ii. 5-43). I see this exchange as demonstration of his enjoyment of verbal sport, a good example of Petruchio’s sense of humor and his appreciation of things non-conventional. Though Petruchio may not agree with hat society has determined to be proper and dignified, he is aware of the importance of appearing to conform. In what he says to Hortensio, I feel he is simply extending this sport and humor into the ironic. It is in Hortensio’s description of Kate that I believe Petruchio’s interest is captured. Hortensio describes Kate (I. ii. 85-89) as wealthy, young, beautiful, properly brought up intolerably cursed, shrewed and froward. Though Hortensio finds the last three traits negative characteristics, Petruchio appears to be a man who also posses, and is proud of, these negative qualities.
That the qualities are considered negative in Kate and not Petruchio is a reflection of the societal standards of the fifteen hundreds. It was okay for a man to be that way, but not a woman. Petruchio is the kind of man who would want a mate with similar qualities to his own to challenge him, sharpen his wits and keep his interest. If he had wanted someone who was conformed to societies expectations, or who had already determined to deceive by concealing opinions and views, he would have chosen someone more like Bianca. However, Petruchio is a clever man who sees beyond fa? des because he uses them, in addition to a lot of irony himself (II. i. 46), (II. i. 283-289). It is clear in Grumio and his other servants (as demonstrated in the opening of act 4 (IV. i. 1-113) that Petruchio prefers the interesting to the conventional. But because Petruchio understands the ways of society, he knows he must demonstrate to Kate the importance of proper public appearance. To Petruchio it is appearance rather than genuine conformance that is important. Otherwise, the woman he loves would be called names and treated in ways Petruchio might be required by honor to defend.
In his ironic way, Petruchio does speak consistently about making Kate yield to him (II. i. 124,136), (II. i. 269-271) and of his monetary motivation (II. i. 123,124). But, his methods are sportsman-like (Falconry, (IV. i. 183-190) and game-like demonstrations of the outrageous (beating Grumio because Kate’s horse stumbled IV. i,68-80). Petruchio’s servants like him very well and enjoy his entertainments. In what Petruchio says following he and Kate’s first meeting (when her father walks in with Gremio and Tranio (II. i. 269)) it becomes clear just how heavily Petruchio employs irony.
He states that he is born to tame and conform Kate. Though the servants he has chosen to surround himself with are neither tame nor conforming to what most would consider proper servants. He also says he must and will have Katherine for his wife. This is a man who is completely taken by this woman: he called her properly by her formal name and says he will have her. Petruchio is as taken by Kate’s person as the other suitors are taken by Bianca’s beauty and coyness. In the above scene, Petruchio tells Kate to never make denial. He knows she is not yet convinced, but is telling her to trust him nd go along with what he says for the sake of appearance. This slowly sinks into Kate and finally takes hold when she understands Petruchio’s way of irony on the way home to her father’s (IV. v. 12-22). Because they are so much alike, Kate takes very quickly to Petruchio’s games of words and irony (IV. v. 37-50). Petruchio is the kind of lively person who would be disappointed in a victory too easily won, and disappointed in Kate if she were genuinely tamed. I feel certain she will have her victories, and Petruchio will enjoy them as much as his own. IV
The play is about a young woman, Catherine, her sister, Claire, and a young man, Hal, who studied under her father, Robert and their search for the truth about a mathematical proof. The main character, Catherine, is a confused and disturbed young woman who gave up her own dreams to care for her dying father. Catherine has spent the past five years taking care of her mentally ill father, and when he dies her sacrifices are completely under appreciated. Her sister, Claire, wants Catherine to come to New York where she can keep an eye on Catherine. Then there is Hal who plays Catherine romantic interest.
With Hal, Catherine gets a change to claim herself as a mathematician of her father’s statue. The conflict comes when she generates a mathematical proof that might revolutionize mathematics. Yet Claire and Hal do not believe her and question whether she is trying to pass off her father’s work as her own. John Lee Beatty’s back-porch set indicates Robert and Catherine’s living space through windows and screen doors. You could fell fall on the stage with a few leaves on the porch and some naked trees of to the side. Pat Collins’ lighting is especially effective in the play.
To fit the Walter Kerr stage, the porch appears to have been stretched out with neighbors’ houses on either side. My personal reaction to this play was a good one. I truly believe that the entire production and the success of this play is dependent on Mary-Louis Parker’s performance, since there isn’t a single other performer in this play that could come even close to her stunning presence. The dullest character in the play would have to be Hal played by Ben Shenkman. Also I found that while I actually enjoyed “Proof” and I don’t think I would want to see another one.