KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT Knowledge management is a process of transforming information and intellectual assets into enduring value. Knowledge Management has two type: 1. Tacit Knowledge Highly personal, means the knowledge is unrecorded and unarticulated and it’s hard to formalized and therefore difficult, if not sometimes impossible to communicate. 2. Explicit Knowledge Formal and systematic, and can be easily to communicated and share, for example in a book or a database in a library.
Knowledge Hierarchy, to transfer tacit knowledge to explicit knowledge we need to use Human Resource Management. WISDOM easier to accessKNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT DATA We need knowledge management to reacting to new business opportunities and to build brain sensitivity to brain drain. So that we could create, transfer and apply knowledge with the purpose of better achieving objectives. Because knowledge is really important to achieve the goals.
What forces us to have knowledge management first is increasing in Domain Complexity means that is intricacy of internal and external processes, increased competition, and the rapid advancement of technology all contribute to increasing domain complexity. Second is Accelerating Market Volatility means that the pace of change, or volatility, within each market domain has increased rapidly in the past decade. Third is Intensified Speed of Responsiveness means the time required to take action based upon subtle changes within and across domains is decreasing.
And the last is Diminishing Individual Experience means it’s like a high employee turnover rates have resulted in individuals with decision-making authority having less tenure within their organizations than ever before. Roles of knowledge management workers is analyzing data to establish relationships, assessing input in order to evaluate complex or conflicting priorities, identifying and understanding trends, making connections, understanding causes and effects, ability to brainstorming, thinking broadly, ability to drill down, creating more focus producing a new capability, and creating or modifying a strategy.
Knowledge management system refers to a system for managing knowledge in organizations for supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of information. Stages in Knowledge Management System is identify knowledge, collect knowledge, select knowledge, store knowledge, share knowledge, create knowledge, and apply knowledge. Figure Knowledge Management System Life Cycle Classification of knowledge management system is knowledge discovery systems, knowledge capture systems, knowledge sharing systems and knowledge application systems.
Components of knowledge management systems is communication to access knowledge and to communicates with others, collaboration to perform group work which lead to synchronous, and also storage and retrieval is the component in knowledge management system to capture, storing, retrieval and management of both explicit and tacit knowledge through collaborative systems. Beside those component, we also need supporting technologies such as artificial intelligence, intelligent agents, knowledge discovery in databases and also XML.
There are some implementation of knowledge management system, those are challenge to identify and integrate components with early system that already developed by networks, groupware and databases, then it could be a knowledge-ware which could be a technology tools that support knowledge management, knowledge management system is also good for software packages available, consulting firms and outsourcing.
Relationship between Knowledge Management and Human Resource Management is articulating the main purpose of knowledge management, align knowledge management along the organizations mission and policies, and to transfer tacit knowledge into explicit knowledge, and to initiate culture change and learning initiatives.
In the work field itself, human resources really need knowledge management, example like for chief knowledge officer that in senior level and should sets strategic priorities to defines area of knowledge based on organization mission and goals which needed when we creates infrastructure and also the chief knowledge officer should identifies knowledge champions by manages content produce by groups and adds to knowledge base. And for the CEO, CEO should know about the champion of knowledge management. For the upper management, knowledge management is needed to ensure availability of resources to chief knowledge officer.
There also communities of practice and also knowledge management system developers to develop system for the team members and for knowledge management system staff, knowledge management used for catalog and management knowledge. We could see whether the knowledge management valuation based on asset-based approach which means identifies intellectual assets, and focuses on increasing value or we could see from the business benefits approaches example like balance scorecard, economic value added, knowledge capital measure, return on management, and inclusive valuation methodology or we could see from estimated sale price approach.
Factors leading to success and failure of systems is for the success, those factors are companies must assess need, system needs technical and organizational infrastructure to build one, system must have economic value to organization, senior management support, organizations needs multiple channels for knowledge transfer, appropriate organizational culture. Those failure are systems does not meet organization’s needs, lack of commitment, no incentive to use system, and lack of integration.