Knowledge Management Strategies And Tools Commerce Essay

This research article presents a model for cognition coevals that consists of a merger procedure to make new cognition and technological inventions. It so proposed a method that can be used in helping managerial determination doing procedure.


The aim of this article is to plan a model to help determination devising. Furthermore, the model covers “ a cognition merger procedure for making new cognition and technological inventions. ” ( Heffner, Nawaz M.Sharif, 2008, p.79 )

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Article Sphere

The article ‘s sphere is on cognition coevals peculiarly the utilizations of cognition merger to make new cognition and speed up technological invention.


This article is recommended for pupils, academicians, company managers, caput of sections and stakeholders that are straight involve in cognition direction. The article is a utile usher particularly to those in the managerial degree to derive penetrations on how to ship on cognition merger processes to promote inventions in their several Fieldss. It gives an in-depth position on how human and organisational resources can be integrated to make new cognition therefore encourages technological invention. It besides prepares them for the impact on implementing this procedure and the result it brings. Therefore, this article is intended for specific group that is involved in cognition direction.

Brief Summary

This research paper was written by Michael C. Heffner, Vice President for Strategic Development, Software Applications Corporation and Nawaz M. Sharif, Professor and Program Director in University of Maryland USA in 2008 to deduce and cover cognition merger procedure for technological invention. The writers have developed a conceptual model to exemplify the interactions of cognition, with organisational resources and capablenesss in a rhythm of technological invention and coevals of rational capital. Then it explores bing literatures on how silent cognition can be transform to explicit cognition ( Heffner, Nawaz M.Sharif, 2008, p.83 ) . Furthermore, it discusses the fusing processes of cognition with technoware, humanware, inforware and orgaware ( Heffner, Nawaz M.Sharif, 2008, pp. 86-87 ) .

The construction of this article is as followed. First, it explains the positions of cognition cardinal country, viz. personal cognition and organisational cognition. It furthers explains the procedure of incorporating cognition which is known as cognition merger. Subsequently, it explains exhaustively the transmutation procedure of tacit cognition to explicit. Next, it suggests sing the cognition in four typical incarnation signifiers which was foremost proposed by Mintzberg and Shariff in 2005. The four signifiers are Tehcnoware ( tools ) , Humanware ( endowments ) , Inforware ( facts ) , Orgaware ( methods ) . These engineerings are besides “ usage in combination to carry through a certain undertaking or aid in determination devising. ” ( Mintzberg, Shariff, 2005, p. 87 ) . Then it explains the day-to-day operations of concern for undertaking executing which revolves around four classs which are art ( represents penetrations, vision, and imaginativeness ) , bravery ( represents spirit, declaration and the will to move ) , scientific discipline ( represents the application of analysis and systematic cognition ) and trade ( represents application of experience. It is important for directors to equilibrate these four to promote rational entrepreneurship ( Mintzberg, 2004 ; Sharif, 2005 p87-88 ) . Then the writers presented The Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) which was developed by Saaty ( 1980, 1982 ) to ease analysis and determination devising.


This is a basic/fundamental/pure research which was done to bring forth organic structure of cognition in the locality of cognition direction ( Sekaran, 2003 ) . The writers suggested a model of cognition merger procedure as portion of organisational learning rhythm. It consists of “ knowledge acquisition and formation, technological incarnation of cognition, application of engineerings and appraisal of knowledge-in-use by the organisation ” ( Sharif, 2005, p.85 ) . Subsequently, this research proposed a method called The Analytical Hierarchy Process ( AHP ) to ease analysis and determination devising. From this hierarchy, a director can weigh the comparative importance of assorted subdivisions of the tree and prostration those subdivisions of lesser involvement, Saaty ( 1980, 1982 ) . As a consequence, directors can concentrate on the staying elaborate constructions. Then, pair-wise comparings ( in matrix ) are made to set up the comparative weight of involvement for each assorted elements. At the terminal of the procedure, directors are able to find where attempts should be concentrated to work out certain crisis ( Saaty 1980, 1982 ) .

Consequence and Contributions

This research presents a model that integrates assorted types of cognition doing it comprehendible and easier to understand and to measure the cognition direction activities that takes portion in a twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours work in an organisation. Furthermore it ventures into a new and reviewing construct which views engineerings in four signifiers which are technoware, humanware, inforware and orgaware ( Mintzberg, Shariff in 2005 ) This partitioning harmonizing to Sharif ( 1986,1988,1995 ) , makes it easier to mensurate invention, alteration in each technological type and displacements in accent among those four classs. Subsequently, the writers recommended the usage of AHP theoretical account to help determination doing procedures to cut down the force per unit area on determination devising ( Saaty 1980, 1982 ) .

Harmonizing to Thomas Davenport in his book titled Working Knowledge ; Knowledge merger is a procedure that “ brings people with different positions to work on a job or undertaking, coercing them to come up with a joint reply ” ( Davenport, 1998, p.60 ) . However in this research, the writers suggested that the cognition merger procedure non merely brings people together but besides integrates tools, facts, endowments and methods in the merger procedure therefore making more new organisational cognition and enhanced technological invention ( Heffner, Nawaz M. Shariff, 2008 ) .


This research can be considered as recent because it was written in 2008. The research on this topic is really limited. The model that was presented can be applied to about all organisations as it exploits on common resources such as tools, human, facts and endowments ( Heffner, Nawaz M. Shariff, 2008 ) . However, directors might hold uncertainties on implementing the model in helping determination devising as the procedures is a spot complex and if it ‘s non applied accurately, rearward consequence could happen.

Issues ( Listed by the writer )

There are two signifiers of cognition ; explicit and tacit. The major challenge is to transform silent cognition to explicit signifier to enable cognition sharing within the organisation ) Polanyi, 1962 ) . This is an of import issue and it must be addressed consequently because tacit cognition is the most valuable cognition that organisation demands retain in order to stay competitory. The writers suggested the “ usage of duologue and mold for the transmutation procedure and the results are conceptual diagrams and perchance in other codification in other signifiers or media ” ( Heffner, Nawaz M. Shariff, 2008, p. 83 ) . The writer uses concept diagram as a tool to come up silent cognition within an organisation in order to do that cognition shareable within the organisation. However it is non to the full known on how cognition is created, stored and retrieved by the encephalon and the value of cognition is really subjective, even by experts ( Heffner, Nawaz M. Shariff, 2008, p. 83 ) .

Decision devising, job resolution and chance realizing environment for directors is really intricate. In this context, the spirit of the rational enterpriser may be critical for success. Even though the topic is germinating, the survey on rational entrepreneurship is still scarce and mentions on this topic are really limited.

Issues ( In my sentiment )

The writers suggested a complex cognition merger procedure which involves homos and company resources, but it might non be executable to use it in an organisation. This is because the attack suggested was ‘one size tantrums all ‘ but in existent fact this procedure is really specific and complex. This is an of import issue because the top direction demands to be convinced of the benefits before they can perpetrate to ship this method of cognition coevals that integrates tools, human, facts and information.

Consequences of the merger procedure can non be buttockss accurately if the procedure is excessively complicated therefore get the better of the whole intent as it can non help in determination devising. One of the solutions is to present one resource at clip to the merger procedure to minimise the complexness and to familiarise with the cognition coevals procedure.

Another issue that may originate is that when conveying people together to work out a certain crises, pandemonium might happen. So, determination on seting together the right combination of people is easy as it seems. Management should besides make up one’s mind on consensus determination for every issue and non allow political influence interfere with the determination made. Selection procedure must be done exhaustively and avoid employees with negative attitude to be in any squad as this will impede brainstorming therefore doing merger procedure hard.

There are a few pros and cons in seting together employees utilizing the matrix attack, the pros are of class thoughts would be diversified. But the con is that their immediate foremans would non allow their subsidiaries join the squad, fearing that the subsidiaries might pretermit their nucleus undertaking, stifle their productiveness or lose concentration. However if all the employees have the same vision for the organisation, and are willing to give their clip, energy and attempt the cons can be diminish.

The AHP theoretical account that directors use to weigh the comparative importance of assorted topics and the pair-wise comparings between elements at each degree of the hierarchy can be biased therefore impacting the consequence. This can be resolve by holding panel of experts on the squad which may be made up by members of the organisation every bit good as external advisers so that the procedure becomes more crystalline.


This research has open up a new degree of cognition coevals procedure via cognition merger that non merely integrates human positions but besides combines other resources to make new cognition and technological inventions. It besides gives better understanding on organisational cognition creative activity with the usage of model. Finally, this research should be usage as a counsel to other research workers who wants to venture their research in the country of cognition merger.


The writers outline the cognition merger procedure to ease determination devising. It is a much needed country of research as organisations become more competitory and susceptible to public sentiment if incorrect determinations are made. In respects of the words that he used to explicate his findings, and the model presented, the writers conveyed their findings really clearly utilizing minimum slangs. As a consequence, this article can be considered as a high-quality article. However, the country of cognition merger is really complex and readers may necessitate to read it a few times and refer certain footings to academic dictionary to to the full understand the suggestion made by the writers.

Furthermore, the diary that published this article was of international criterion with rigorous standards for entree. This shows that the writers has proved his authoritativeness when lucubrating this peculiar subject and managed to convert the panel of editors from the diary.


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