This paper explores the behavior. attitudes and beliefs of primary school students towards mathematics in the schoolroom and the impact that this may hold on their mathematical ability. The survey focused on twelvemonth 3 students from a local school. some of whom took portion in focal point groups towards the terminal of the undertaking. The kids completed short worksheets. which were used to excite a guided treatment on what facets of mathematics the kids liked and disliked. The purpose of this undertaking was to insulate possible causes of negative attitudes towards mathematics and to discourse what their deductions might be. Keywords: Primary. Attitudes. Purpose. Anxiety. Confidence. Language. Contemplation

Introduction

Mathematicians have long held a high degree of regard amongst their academic equals. Yet the topic of mathematics. although august. remains a beginning of anxiousness and trepidation for a big figure of people. Widespread negativeness towards mathematics appears in many signifiers. from deceit in the media to the societal stigma that seems to environ those who are mathematically gifted. Children frequently set mathematics aside as a cause for concern. despite their limited exposure to it ( Hoyles 1982 ) . It is a capable unlike most others. since it requires a considerable sum of doggedness from the person in order to win.

A negative attitude towards mathematics could well cut down a person’s willingness to prevail with a job. Without the ability to persist. mathematical development is likely to be hard. The intent of this undertaking is to find the possible root causes of these negative attitudes towards mathematics.

The survey focused on Year 3 students from a local school. some of whom took portion in focal point groups. Three focal point groups were carried out. each dwelling

of four kids with similar abilities. Children were selected based on observations from old visits. Subjects were chosen if they displayed strong feelings for or against mathematics. or if they were at the extremes of the ability scope. The focal point groups lasted for about 30 proceedingss and were broken into two parts. First. the kids were given 10 proceedingss to try four inquiries tailored to their ability scope. The inquiries involved symmetricalness. arithmetic. a word job and a job work outing exercising.

The staying clip was used to discourse what the kids felt about mathematics. utilizing the worksheet as a focal point. It is hoped that this undertaking will supply important penetrations into why many kids have a pessimistic mentality on mathematics and bespeak where future research is needed. Mathematicss and its evident deficiency of intent

Children may happen the nature of mathematics hard to get by with as its wider making deductions can be difficult to see. Experiments are carried out for the physical scientific disciplines.

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Joubert. M. ( Ed. ) Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics 29 ( 1 ) March 2009

images are drawn in art category and linguistic communication accomplishments are used in mundane interactions with other people. However. mathematics has a really formal written sense about it. where activities remain intangible to the kid. From the comments I witnessed in the focal point groups. it seems that kids find it hard to do a connexion between the work they do on paper and its practical applications. The undermentioned transcript is taken from the high-ability focal point group: Charlie:

You need to be good with numeracy. state when you’re say. shopping for something – You need to work out how much you’re paying. You don’t hold to be a mastermind at it. but you have to be rather good at it.

degree Fahrenheit you’re a tradesman. and person gave you like about ?20. and something was like ?15 and they didn’t cognize much how much to give them back. And if you didn’t cognize. you should larn more in your maths.

It was instead surprising to see students across the full ability scope unable to do connexions between mathematics and its many practical utilizations. Counting money was the lone association that they were able to do. even though it had non been covered in recent work. It is interesting that the high winners. although mathematically gifted. could non set up any more existent universe applications than the low winners. However. the low winners present more of a concern. as motive to better their mathematical apprehension can non be aided by their unconditioned ability. Surely. the kids can non be expected to do these connexions without aid from a instructor.

In fact. some believe that the most effectual instructors are connectionists ( Askew et al. 1997 ) . although possibly there is presently deficient accent on the practical utilizations of mathematics in the course of study. Human nature does non favor ineffectual enterprises ; if a hard undertaking appears to hold no intent. so few will go on to follow it through. If low winners are unable to see the wider benefits of holding strong mathematical accomplishments. so they may miss motive. which is critical in a hard topic such as mathematics.

Understanding the intent of mathematics should non merely assist to better motive. but could assist in the existent preparation of constructs. In 1991. Harel and Tall discussed the importance of what they called ‘the necessity principle’ :

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Joubert. M. ( Ed. ) Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics 29 ( 1 ) March 2009

This rule states that the topic affair has to be presented in such a manner that scholars can see its necessity. For if pupils do non see the principle for an thought ( e. g. . a definition of an operation. or a symbolisation for a construct ) . the thought would look to them as being evoked randomly ; it does non go a construct of the pupils. ( Harel and Tall. 1991 41 )

They believed that a impression is more likely to be abstracted successfully if the scholar can admit the necessity of the construct. In the context of this undertaking. the scholar needs to be cognizant of the intent behind their work. For immature scholars. understanding the practical utilizations of mathematics could be sufficient to both actuate them and let the necessity rule to be satisfied.

Further research is required on this issue. as its range may be greater than antecedently thought. As with all the findings in this undertaking. the information was collected from a little sample group. and so it may be hard to generalize to a larger population. However. based on the singular similarities between responses in this peculiar schoolroom and the general attitude towards mathematics in our society. I would propose that the evident deficiency of intent in mathematics is a sentiment felt by many.

Self-belief and mathematical ability

Nothing was more apparent during the focal point groups than the deficiency of self-belief shown by many of the kids. Low and in-between winners rapidly resigned themselves to failure. without genuinely trying all of the inquiries on their worksheet. There was a consistent association of mathematics with ‘cleverness’ . as many of the kids felt non merely that numeracy was harder than literacy. but that to be cagey you had to be good at numeracy. In consequence the kids were connoting that person who excels in literacy will non be perceived as being cagey unless they can expose a similar model ability in numeracy. As a consequence. kids who perceived themselves to be weak felt that they would be incapable of work outing harder mathematical jobs. A miss from the middle-ability group remarked: Faye:

I’m merely traveling to make a simple reply. which is likely incorrect.

While some would state that any reply is better than no reply. Faye’s determination to give up and think occurred before she had given any existent consideration to the inquiry. This illustration was typical of her low assurance in mathematics ; an attitude which I believe greatly misrepresents her ability.

Many of the kids showed marks of anxiousness whilst trying the worksheets. scuffling awkwardly in their seats. peeking at their equals with disquieted looks and doing negative remarks about the trouble of the current undertaking. Previous research into anxiousness and mathematics ( Hoyles. 1982 ) indicates that a connexion may lie between an individual’s perceived ability and their degree of success. The absolute nature of mathematics. where there is usually merely one right reply. could add well to a negative attitude towards mathematics.

Overall. misss expressed much lower assurance than male childs. even among the high winners. They often attributed success and failure to external factors. such as fortune and the sensed trouble of a inquiry. In comparing. most male childs recognised that success was due to their ain ability. and that failure was caused by either a deficiency of attempt or understanding on their portion. Whilst this differentiation was non absolute it did use to the huge bulk of students that took portion in the focal point groups.

The difference in attitudes towards mathematics between genders has been researched in deepness by many. notably Stipek and Gralinski ( 1991 ) . Although misss and male childs are approximately equal in the conference tabular arraies at GCSE degree. there is a singular difference in A-level and University uptake. It is rather possible that primary school experiences are estranging misss from the topic. to the hurt of their long term mathematical development. The ground for this is presently ill-defined and warrants further

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Joubert. M. ( Ed. ) Proceedings of the British Society for Research into Learning Mathematics 29 ( 1 ) March 2009

Undoubtedly. the instructor faces an acclivitous battle seeking to equilibrate a diverse scope of abilities and attitudes. an of all time altering course of study and rigorous clip restraints. However. there are several results of this undertaking that should be considered by the instruction community. For illustration. it may be deserving researching how the kids perceive mathematics and its utilizations outside of school. By bettering the apprehension of the utilizations of mathematics. students will hopefully see the benefits of developing strong mathematical accomplishments for more than merely academic intents. Likewise. low self-belief is an issue that all instructors can try to turn to.

We need to chase away the impression that mathematics is a topic limited to masterminds and that kids of all abilities can be successful in the topic. The construction of the lesson and the clip restraints of the school twenty-four hours should besides be up for alteration. as

the current lesson format may non be the most efficient. The school course of study is frequently capable to repeat. some of which may be evitable with a elusive displacement in lesson construction.

Decision

It is clear that children’s attitudes towards mathematics can be influenced by a broad assortment of factors. This undertaking has gone some manner to place what a few of these factors might be. but there is still plenty of range for future research. In peculiar. children’s positions on practical utilizations of mathematics and the difference in attitudes between genders require farther survey. Additionally. the importance of contemplation in primary instruction demands to be discussed in much greater item.

Mentions

Beth. E. and J. Piaget. 1966. Mathematical Epistemology and Psychology. Dordrecht: Riedel. Hoyles. C. 1982. The Pupil’s View of Mathematics Learning. Educational Studies in Mathematicss 13 ( 4 ) : 349-372.

Dubinsky. E. 1991 Reflective Abstraction in Advanced Mathematical Thinking. In Advanced Mathematical Thinking. erectile dysfunction. D. Tall. 95-102. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Harel. G. . and D. Tall. 1991. The general. the abstract and the generic in advanced mathematical thought. For the Learning of Mathematics 11 ( 1 ) : 38-42. Stipek. D. and H. Gralinski. 1991. Gender Differences in Children’s Achievement-Related Beliefs and Emotional Responses to Success and Failure in Mathematics. Journal of Educational Psychology 83 ( 3 ) : 361-371.

Askew. M. . M. Brown. V. Rhodes. D. Johnson. and D. William. 1997. Effective Teachers of Numeracy: Concluding Report. London: Kings College.

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