LAND USE/ LAND COVER DYNAMICS OF ABUJA FCT, NIGERIA.
This survey is about the Landuse/Landcover Dynamics of Abuja FCT, Nigeria. Abuja, the Federal Capital of Nigeria is a new, fast developing colony country. As the City becomes more urban, the farming areas are cut downing along with some landcover alterations. Am utilizing Landsat ETM images from 1987 and 2006 to demo the different alterations that has taken topographic point within these periods due to population growing, increase in socio-economic activity, urban planning, environmental forces etc.
Remote detection has been an of import constituent of urban and regional planning for long and has been used for many applications runing from rural-urban alteration sensing, deforestation, mineral geographic expedition, flora alterations, clime alterations etc.
The demand for an accurate, relevant and item and current information on the Earth ‘s land usage and land screen kineticss is increasing and despite progresss in satellite image engineering, computing machine assisted image categorization is still unable to bring forth accurate landuse /landcover maps and statistics. ( Lo and Choi, 2004 ) . A important constituent of alteration sensing methods utilizing distant detection is related to the word picture of both natural and urban ecosystem.
Barnsley et Al. ( 2001: p. 116 ) refer to set down screen as “the physical stuffs on the surface of a given package of land ( e.g. grass, concrete, tarmac, H2O ) , ” and land usage as “the human activity that takes topographic point on, or makes usage of that land ( e.g. residential, commercial, industrial ) ” . Land usage can dwell of varied land screens, ( i.e. a mosaic of biogeophysical stuffs found on the land surface ) . ( Treitz et al. 2004 ) Remote feeling information record the spectral belongingss of surface stuffs, and therefore, are more closely related to set down cover than to Landuse which constitute a mixture of societal, cultural, economic policy factors, which have small physical importance with regard to reflectance belongingss, and therefore has a small relationship to remote feeling. Land usage can non be measured straight by remote detection, but instead requires ocular reading or sophisticated image processing. ( Treitz et al. 2004 )
Information acquired from distant feeling information has frequently been used to assist in Policy and determination devising, resource direction and planning, thereby supplying insight into land-cover /land-use forms, and tendencies.There has been a alteration in graduated table in the manner in which remote feeling engineerings, and analysis methods are being used to map out how land-cover and land-use alteration both at local, landscape, regional and Continental graduated tables that this yearss remote feeling images from orbiter and airborne platforms provide digital informations at graduated tables of observation that meet assorted mapping standards for qualifying different land screens. Land screen /land usage can be mapped operationally now with orbiters which provide high spacial item thereby great graduated tables of information as compared to aerial exposure. High spacial item local- to landscape-scale analysis has great possible because orbiters presently provide graduated tables of information comparable to aerial exposure.
For alteration to be detected between the different day of the months without mistake, a consistent atmosphere between day of the months must be modelled so that fluctuations in atmospheric deepness ( i.e visibleness ) do non act upon surface coefficient of reflection to the extent that land-cover alteration is detected with errors. ( Treitz et al. 2004 )
A batch of survey has been done on Landuse/landcover alteration by different people ( Knorn et al, 2009, Erickson D.L, 1995, Mesev et Al. 1997, Moller-Jensen.1997, Pauleit et al 2005, Poudevigne 1997, Rembold et Al. 2000, Senaya G.B and R.L. Elliott. 2000, Song et Al. 2001 ) . All these surveies utilizing really different tools and attack have pointed out different causes and effects of landuse /landcover kineticss.
The survey country, Abuja the federal capital district of Nigeria is situated within the geographic co-ordinates of Latitude: 09 10 ‘ 00” N and Longitude: 007 11 ‘ 00” E. It is located in the Centre of Nigeria. Abuja was built chiefly in the 1980s and officially became Nigeria ‘s capital on 12 December 1991. It has an country coverage of 713 km2 ( 275.3 sq myocardial infarction ) and denseness of 1,091.9/km2 ( 2,828/sq myocardial infarction ) . As of the 2006 nose count, the metropolis is said to hold a population of 778,567.
REMOTE SENSING IMAGE DATA
The images used in this analysis were gotten from distant feeling Centre in Nigeria. The images are landsat Tm image acquired in 1966 and Landsat ETM image acquired 2006.
LANDSAT-1 was the first orbiter ( EOS ) , to be launched in the universe. It was launched in 1972 in United States. Its first-class ability to detect the Earth far from infinite made it of import for usage in different remote feeling applications.Following LANDSAT-1, LANDSAT-2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 ( presently operated as a primary orbiter ) were launched.
LANDSAT-5 was equipped with a multispectral scanner ( MSS ) , an optical detector used in detecting solar radiation reflected from the Earth ‘s surface utilizing optical system and detector with four different spectral sets, and thematic plotter ( TM ) which observes the Earth ‘s surface in seven spectral sets that range from seeable to thermal infrared parts.
The thematic plotter ( TM ) which is multispectral scanning, earth resources detector is designed to accomplish higher image declaration, sharper spectral separation, improved geometric fidelity, and greater radiometric truth and declaration than MSS detector. It can besides images a swath that is 185 kilometer ( 115 stat mis ) broad, each pel in a TM scene represents a 30 m x 30 m land country, except in the instance of the far-infrared set 7, which uses a larger 120 m x 120 thousand pel. The TM detector has seven sets that at the same time record reflected or emitted radiation from the Earth ‘s surface in the bluish green ( band 1 ) , green ( band 2 ) , ruddy ( band 3 ) , near-infrared ( band 4 ) , mid-infrared ( bands 5 and 7 ) , and the far-infrared ( band 6 ) parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. TM band 2 can observe green coefficient of reflection while set 3 is used in observing observing chlorophyll soaking up in flora ; band 4 is used for observing water-land interfaces for near-infrared coefficient of reflection extremums in green flora, and for observing water-land interfaces. TM set 1 is usage for soil-vegetation distinction, every bit good as forest type ‘s differentiation. The two mid-infrared sets on TM are utile for flora and dirt wet surveies, and know aparting between stone and mineral types. The far-infrared set on TM is designed to help in thermic function, and for dirt wet and flora surveies.
LANDSAT-7 which is a 5,000 pound-class orbiter was launched on April 15, 1999. It is designed for a 705 kilometer, sun-synchronous, earth mapping orbit with a 16-day repetition rhythm. It is equipped with Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus ( ETM+ ) , the observation bands ( seven set ) are same as TM, A panchromatic set 8, with a high declaration of 15m was added was added late.
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LANDSAT SATELLITE SENSOR CHARACTERISTICS
Launch Date 15 April 1999, at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California
Spatial Resolution 30 metres
Orbit 705 +/- 5 kilometer ( at the equator ) sun-synchronous
Orbit Inclination 98.2 +/- 0.15
Orbit Period 98.9 proceedingss
Anchoring Track Repeat Cycle 16 yearss ( 233 orbits )
Resolution 15 to 90 metres
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