Language in the lives of ethnic minorities Essay

Wallace, W.E. & A ; Taylor, D.M. ( 1996 ) “Language in the Lifes of Cultural Minorities: Cuban American Families in Miami”Applied Linguisticss17 ( 4 ) , pp 477-500

Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: hypertext transfer protocol: //

This article discusses a survey of linguistic communication loss, care and proficiency amongst bilingual Cuban immigrants populating in Miami, Florida. The survey itself focuses on female grownup respondents from two different societal categories ( working- and middle-class ) raising their kids in the USA, and their differing attitudes to the saving of their heritage linguistic communication and civilization. Respondents were selected on the footing of standards such as their age ; the figure of old ages they had been resident in the US ; figure of kids in the province school system ; etc. The research was conducted by agencies of a elaborate questionnaire put orally to the respondents in the informal scene of their ain places by bilingual interviewers from the same cultural background.

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The qualitative and quantitative consequences of the survey reveal a marked contrast between the two groups: whilst, when questioned, both are decidedly in favor of continuing their heritage linguistic communication and civilization and experience that their proficiency in Spanish far exceeds that in English, the propertyless female parents appear to underscore the importance of English ( at the disbursal of Spanish ) in “getting ahead” in America ( termed a “ ‘subtractivesignifier of bilingualism” by the writers ) ; middle-class female parents, conversely, promote their kids to safeguard their heritage linguistic communication and go more balanced bilinguals in order to come on in a multilingual society ( this is termed an “ ‘linearsignifier of bilingualism” ) .

Whilst this article is edifying, it is condescending to the respondents at times, contains a figure of value opinions and, by the writers ‘ ain admittance, guess with small or no footing in the information.

Gardner-Chloros, Penelope & A ; Edwards, Malcolm ( 2004 ) “Assumptions behind grammatical attacks to code-switching: when the design is a ruddy herring”London Birkbeck ePrints

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This article is basically an overview and review of grammatical attacks to code-switching. The writers contend that research focused on “finding universally applicable, prognostic grammatical constraints” ( 2004: 3 ) have been unsuccessful owing to “misapprehensions as to the manner in which grammar is relevant to code-switching” ( ibid ) . They identify five chief senses of the word ‘grammar ‘ and the premises underpinning these, before continuing to analyze the assorted efforts made to set code-switching in some sort of grammatical model ; in peculiar: Poplack ‘s Equivalence and Free Morpheme Constraints ( 1980 onwards ) theory ; Myers-Scotton ‘s Matrix Language Frame theoretical account ( 1993 onwards ) ; Mahootian ( 1996 ) and Chan ( 1999 ) on productive grammar and code-switching ; and Muysken ( 2000 ) , with whom the writers seem closest to agring.

The writers argue that the code-switching address behavior of bilingual persons is such that, by its really nature, it can non be framed in universally-applicable grammatical footings. Speech seldom produces to the full “grammatical” sentences, for one ; code-switching, harmonizing to the writers, feats that facet of address. They rather justly contend that, while the assorted theories advanced by the above-mentioned research workers may suit their several principal, another linguistic communication brace can ( and frequently does ) undo a given theory wholly ; hence the different constructs jostling with one another in the field of code-switching.

The statements in this article are forceful, convincing and backed up by informations from Penelope Gardner-Chloros ‘ ain research. Indeed, they appear to be an extrapolation of the statements advanced in her chapter in Milroy and Muysken ( explosive detection systems. ) ( 1995 ) ( see below ) .

Lynch, Andrew ( 2009 ) “A sociolinguistic analysis of concluding /s/ in Miami Cuban Spanish”Language Sciences31, pp 766-790

Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // doi:10.1016/j.langsci.2008.08.002

This article attempts to cast visible radiation on the effects of linguistic communication contact on a phonological degree, viewed and interpreted from a sociolinguistic point of view. The survey discussed in the article focused on cross-generational differences between bilingual Miami Cubans in the pronunciation of the concluding /s/ ( fricative failing ) . The survey was designed to prove the hypothesis that linguistic communication contact in Miami ( English and Spanish, with English as the dominant linguistic communication ) across several coevalss had resulted in “much higher rates of aspiration and deletion” ( p. 766 ) amongst younger Miami Cubans ( i.e. those born in or who emigrated to the USA from Cuba as little kids ) whose dominant linguistic communication was English.

Data was collected by agencies of recorded interviews conducted with a little, cross-sectional group of bilingual talkers: “older, early-exile immigrants” ( p. 773 ) who arrived in Miami as grownups, and “young, Miami-born Cuban adults” ( ibid ) . The writer conducted these interviews entirely and wholly in Spanish, with no aid from other interviewers from the same cultural group as the respondents ; this, in my position, may hold had some impact on the sources ‘ responses to the inquiries put to them. The sources interviewed were reasonably balanced in footings of societal class/status, with more female than male respondents.

Two chief facets of the informations collected are analysed: sociolinguistic factors impacting on fricative strength/weakness, and language-internal factors impacting pronunciation of concluding /s/ sounds. The information is presented in both qualitative and quantitative footings. The article as a whole raises interesting points to be borne in head as respects pronunciation being declarative of individuality and societal category and position.

Bentahila, Abdelali & A ; Davies, Eirlys E. ( 1995 ) “Patterns of code-switching and forms of linguistic communication contact”Tongue96, pp 75-93

Available at: hypertext transfer protocol: // doi:10.1016/0024-3841 ( 94 ) 00035-K

As the rubric suggests, this article focuses on code-switching and linguistic communication contact ; more specifically, the writers seek to reason that linguistic communication contact state of affairss, ensuing from authorities linguistic communication policies, influence forms of code-switching across the coevalss. Their dual principal of bilingual talkers of Moroccan Arabic and French was made up of one group of older persons born between 1939 and 1951, along with another group of younger persons born in the late sixtiess and early 1970s. The writers selected those two groups as they correlate with two different periods of linguistic communication planning and linguistic communication policy in Morocco: for the first group of bilinguals, Gallic remained the dominant linguistic communication used in instruction and disposal ; for the 2nd, Moroccan Arabic had come to replace Gallic as the chief medium for instruction ( with the exclusion of scientific discipline topics and Gallic ) as a consequence of governmental ‘Arabisation ‘ policies. The writers make reference of immature kids of bilingual parents towards the terminal of the article, the suggestion being that farther research is required in this country.

The information collected and used by the writers consists chiefly in recordings of conversations between bilingual talkers ; no reference is made of whether these exchanges are cross-generational. One could presume that, as the writers are seeking to compare and contrast two different types of code-switching, the recorded exchanges are between equals. The writers do, nevertheless, make premises as to the proficiency of their capable bilinguals in both linguistic communications examined ; they do non establish this on any informations, and disagreements in single degrees of proficiency may hold had some impact on the information collected and, accordingly, the decisions drawn therefrom.

Maschler, Yael ( 1998 ) “On the passage from code-switching to a assorted code” in Auer, P. ( ed. )“Code-switching in conversation”London: Routledge ( pp. 125-149 )

Available at: Birkbeck College Library – call number/shelfmark 306.446 COD

In this paper, Maschler argues a theory that code-switching and linguistic communication contact can finally develop into a assorted codification. He bases this position on quantitative informations drawn from a principal of taped Hebrew-English bilingual conversations between two adult females in Israel. He analyses the structural and intonational forms of those conversations, along with the assorted dianoetic markers used by one talker in peculiar, Shira. The phenomenon that Maschler high spots in this article is that Hebrew markers are used in Shira ‘s address to “frame” English phrases – whence Maschler ‘s claim that the informations – viewed from both a qualitative and a quantitative position – is declarative of an emerging “mixed code” . He contrasts Shira ‘s address with that of Grace, who has lived in Israel for a much shorter clip than Shira and whose linguistic communications have, accordingly, non been in contact for every bit long a period as Shira ‘s. It would hold been particularly enlightening if, in the class of Maschler ‘s research, he had compared Shira ‘s peculiar sort of code-switching with informations taken from the address of other adult females who had been populating in Israel for a similar figure of old ages and, more significantly, whose linguistic communications had been in contact for the same sort of period. It is one thing to pull support from one individual principal and analyse that from two extremely important and informative angles ; given the foibles that come with code-switching, I for one would hold liked to see more informations from other talkers ‘ ain trade names of code-switching in support of Maschler ‘s claim.

Sebba, Mark & A ; Wootton, Tony ( 1998 ) “We, they and individuality – Consecutive versus identity-related account in code-switching” in Auer, P. “Code-switching in conversation”London: Routledge ( pp. 262-286 )

Available at: Birkbeck College Library – call number/shelfmark 306.446 COD

This chapter offers an account of code-switching as viewed from two different positions: consecutive analysis and as an look of individuality. It takes as its get downing point the constructs of “we-code”and “they-code” , foremost formulated by Gumperz ( 1982 ) . Sebba and Wootton discuss the issues involved in placing “we” and “they” associations in code-switching ( page 263 ) , comparing and contrasting use in Cantonese-English CS and London English-London Jamaican CS and foregrounding troubles encountered in clearly set uping “we” and “they” associations, particularly in relation to the instance of London English-London Jamaican.

The chapter goes on to depict the methodological analysis employed by the writers to roll up dependable informations from the two groups within the LE-LJ principal: the first being a group of London-born striplings ; the 2nd being older sources. A consecutive analysis of different facets of the taped stuff – collected in scenes familiar to the sources – concludes that LE-LJ switches correspond “in a wide sense to a alteration from the chief subject of the conversation to some sort of ‘sub-routine ‘ or secondary material” ( page 275 ) , while the opposite switch constitutes “an ‘upgrading ‘ of the LJ material” ( ibid ) . The writers so proceed to see LE-LJ/LJ-LE switches in footings of individuality, and examine constructs of “we” and “they” in narrative. They point out that single individualities, as expressed in and symbolised by the code-switching schemes employed by the sources, are precisely that: single: “We can non presume a fixed relationship between a societal individuality and the linguistic communication of the vocalization that evokes ( or invokes ) it” ( page 284 ) .

Rampton, Ben ( 1998 ) “Language crossing and the redefinition of reality” in Auer, P. ( ed. ) “Code-switching in conversation” London: Routledge ( pp. 290-317 )

Available at: Birkbeck College Library – call number/shelfmark 306.446 COD

In this chapter, Rampton begins with a description of the phenomenon that he footings “language crossing” ( or “code-crossing” ) : “the usage of a linguistic communication which is n’t by and large thought to ‘belong ‘ to the speaker” ( page 291 ) . This, harmonizing to the writer, involves a motion in linguistic communication that transcends cultural backgrounds and heritage linguistic communications.

The research conducted by Rampton, and the illustrations cited in the chapter, examines the linguistic/code-switching behavior of adolescent sources from a assortment of cultural and racial backgrounds, each with their ain heritage linguistic communication and ‘brand ‘ of code-switching. The research undertaking that Rampton discusses in the chapter, employed different ethnographic and interactive sociolinguistic methodological analysiss to look at assorted facets of the phenomenon from a sociolinguistic and a discourse-analytic position. Data was collected utilizing an array of different methods, including ( like other surveies mentioned in this annotated bibliography ) tape-recording and interviewing.

Rampton relates linguistic communication traversing to code-switching in footings of a move from code-switching in one ‘s ain linguistic communication to code-switching in ‘someone else ‘s ‘ . It would look to emerge in urban state of affairss where both monolingual and bi/multilingual striplings come into close contact in societal and school scenes – a consequence, so, of linguistic communication contact. He besides stresses the significance of Gumperz ‘s differentiation between “situational” and “metaphorical” code-switching, reasoning that linguistic communication crossing is a clear illustration of the latter ( besides termed “double-voicing” : “a misdemeanor of accompaniment expectations” ( page 303 ) . Language crossing is, Rampton argues, a contemplation of socio-economic alterations in society and challenges to socio-political constructs of cultural groups. Code-switching as a lingual contemplation of adolescent rebellion?

Muysken, Pieter ( 2000 ) “Bilingual address: a typology of code-mixing” Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press

Available at: Birkbeck College Library – call number/shelfmark 306.44 MUY

In this book, Muysken seeks to set up a typology of code-mixing in which he presents a comprehensive overview and critical scrutiny of current theoretical accounts and theories in the field of code-switching. He begins by analyzing the three basic procedures of what he footings “code-mixing” ( instead than code-switching ) : interpolation ( Myers-Scotton ‘s Matrix Language Frame theoretical account ) , alternation ( Poplack ‘s Equivalence and Free Morpheme restraints ) , and congruous lexicalisation ( code-mixing by bilingual talkers of morphophonemically similar linguistic communications ) . Each of these procedures is examined in item in chapters 3, 4 and 5 severally.

It should be noted that Muysken focuses on intra-sentential code-switching over the class of the book. He argues that “code-mixing” , which he defines as “all instances in which lexical points and grammatical characteristics from two different linguistic communications appear in one sentence” is a more appropriate term than “code-switching” , which he reserved for the “rapid sequence of several linguistic communications in a individual address event” .

Subsequent chapters discuss farther facets of code-mixing, including map words and the differentiation between lexical points and grammatical characteristics as mentioned above ( chapter 6 ) ; verbs used in bilingual address, viewed from the position of the three basic procedures mentioned above ( chapter 7 ) ; the correlativity between forms of code-mixing and external factors that may impact on those forms ( chapter 8 ) ; and, eventually, code-mixing and linguistic communication alteration ( chapter 9 ) .

Ultimately, the book ‘s implicit in premiss is that all three basic forms of code-mixing/switching should be considered in the class of one ‘s research, and peculiarly when analyzing the information collected.

Milroy, Lesley & A ; Muysken, Pieter ( explosive detection systems. ) ( 1995 ) “One talker, two linguistic communications: cross-disciplinary positions on code-switching” Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

Available at: Birkbeck College Library – call figure 306.44 MIL

This book is a aggregation of documents by a assortment of research workers offering a scope of different point of views on the topic of code-switching. The construction of the book covers four wide countries of research: code-switching in institutional and community scenes ; in societal life ; the grammatical restraints on code-switching ; and, eventually, code-switching in bilingual development and processing.

Within the range of its several subdivision in the book, each chapter provides a different attack to code-switching, incorporating a scope of positions on, analyses of and accounts as to why different bilingual talkers code-switch in assorted state of affairss ; the discourse strategies they employ ; the psycholinguistic facets of code-switching ; the impact of linguistic communication upsets on code-switching ; and so on.

Of peculiar relevancy to my ain research are the documents by:

– Dabene and Moore ( ch. 2 ) , who discuss code-switching amongst two groups of migrators in Grenoble, France against the wider historical background of socio-economically-motivated migration in Europe and its close neighbors. The methodological analysis employed in their research is likely to be emulated in my ain work ;

– Gardner-Chloros ( ch. 4 ) , who discusses the construct of code-switching itself ; she argues that, even as an abstract lingual concept, code-switching is a much hazier impression than research workers purport it to be, and should be treated consequently ;

– Milroy and Li Wei ( ch. 7 ) , who discuss a societal network-based construct of code-switching, with specific mention to the Chinese community on Tyneside: the construct of societal webs act uponing code-switching forms is really interesting ;

– Poplack and Meechan ( ch. 10 ) , who look at forms of linguistic communication mixture in bilingual address in Senegal.

Dewaele, Jean-Marc ; Housen, Alex ; Li Wei ( explosive detection systems. ) ( 2003 ) “Bilingualism: Beyond Basic Principles” Clevedon: Multilingual Matters

Available at: Birkbeck College Library – call number/shelfmark: 306.446 BIL

This book, published in honor of Hugo Baetens Beardsmore, is a aggregation of documents by taking writers in the field of bilingualism research. Each chapter/paper covers a different facet of current issues in bilingualism/multilingualism, uniting in this volume to supply a comprehensive overview of the field as it stands: 2nd linguistic communication acquisition, linguistic communication planning and policy, bilingualism in the schoolroom, and so on.

Of peculiar involvement to me, and of specific relevancy to my ain research, are John Edwards ‘ chapter on the importance of being bilingual ( chapter 2 ) , in which he discusses single versus group individuality and argues that individuality ballads at the very bosom of bilingualism/multilingualism ; Michael Clyne ‘s paper on plurilingualism, how any attack to it ought to be much more language-based and the ways in which linguistic communication contact can determine individuality ( as opposed to individuality determining linguistic communication usage in contact state of affairss ) ( chapter 3 ) ; and Georges Ludi ‘s paper on code-switching and imbalanced bilinguals ( chapter 10 ) , in which he examines three illustrations of code-switching by linguistic communication scholars and discusses ‘translinguistic markers ‘ in their address.

In footings of research and its methodological analysiss, one chapter in peculiar bases out: Anthea Franklin Gupta ‘s paper titled “The Imagined Learner of Malay” , in which she examines, compares and contrasts different language-acquisition text editions on Malay ( published over the class of three centuries ) from both the scholar ‘s point of view and a sociolinguistic/discourse analysis position. While its relevancy to my ain research is questionable, this is the first paper of its sort that I have come across in the class of my reading, so I found it particularly interesting.


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