LCCW Neuromusc with Dr Mo

Question Answer
What is Vesicular transport? the means by which large particles, macromolecules, and fluids are transported across the plasma membrane, or within the cell
Exocytosis? move substances from inside the cell to the extracellular environment
Endocytosis? move substances from OUTSIDE the cell to the intracellular environment
Phagocytosis? type of endocytosis where an entire CELL is engulfed
What are the 2 vesicular transport processes that move molecules using protein-coated vesicles? Transcytosis and vesicular traffiking
Where is Na+ more concentrated? OUTSIDE the cell
Where does Na+ want to move? Inside the cell
Where is K+ more concentrated? INSIDE the cell
Where does K+ want to move? to the outside of the cell
The Na+K+ pump is what kind of pump? it is a counter transport
What are the 2 main types of secondary active transport? The cotransport and the counter transport
CoTransport = ? substance is transported in the SAME direction as the driver
Counter transport = ? Substance is transported in the OPPOSITE direction as the driver
The Carrier Protein is located where? on the plasma membrane of all cells
What plays an important role in regulating osmotic balance by maintaining Na+ and K+ balance? Carrier Proteins
Inhibition by ouabain causes what? Cells to swell and burst
The Na+-K+ pump exports what? 3 Na+
The Na+-K+ pump inports what? 2 K+
How much energy does the Na+-K+ ATPase pump use? 2/3rds of cells energy!
What are the 3 primary active tranporters? Na+-K+ ATPase pump, Ca2+ ATPase (Serca pump), and H+ ATPase
Which pump is present on the cell membrane and the Sarcoplasmic reticulum? The CA2+ ATPase (active transport)
Which pump is found in parietal cells of gastric glands and intercalated cells of renal tubules? The H+ ATPase
What is a secondary Active Transporter? The energy is derived secondarily from energy that has been stored in the form of ionic concentration differences of secondary molecular or ionic substances between the two sides of a cells membrane (1st from primary active transport)
What is a primary active transporter? the energy is derived directly from breakdown of ATP or some other high energy phosphate compound. Molecules are pumped against gradient. DIRECT use of energy
Voltage gated = ? responds to the electrical potential across the cell membrane
Chemical (ligand) gating = ? some protein channel gates are opened by the binding of a chemical substance (ligand), which causes a condormational/chemical bonding change in the protein molecule that opens/closes the gate (Ach)
Characteristics of Ion channels? Ungated (size, shape, distribution of charge, etc) and Gated (voltage and chemically)
Nicotinic ACh receptor Channels are an example of what kind of channel? A chemically gated ion channel
What are the 3 things that ion channels 'gate' in response to? (1) Changes in membrane potential (2) occupation of receptors (3) mechanical forces
Changes in membrane potential: (usually depolarization) Voltage gated channels. Action Potential propagation relies on voltage gated channels
Occupation of receptor: Ligand-gated or receptor operated channels
Mechanical forces: Mechanosensitive channels – important for proprioception
What are the structures in the Ion Channels? Protiens that span the membrane, gave water filled channel that runs through protein
What are the properties of Ion Channels? Have Conducting and Non-conducting states. Transition between states = "gating"
What is the permeability of axon membrane to ions determined by? The number of OPEN channels
Which of the following can go into non-selective cation channels?
Na+, Cl-, K+
Na+ and K+
Which can go into Anion Channels?
Na+, Cl-, K+
Most voltage-gated channels open in response to what? depolarization
Activation = ? opening of channel when membrane is depolarized
Deactivation = ? Closure of channel when membrane repolarizes
What 3 molecules diffuse through the cell membrane? O2 (non polar), CO2 (polar and small), H2O (also polar and small)
What kind of molecules pass through the protein channels? Glucose, Amino acids, and Na+
Glucose, Amino acids, and Na+ pass through channels via what kind of diffusion? Facilitated Diffusion (it is still PASSIVE, but they have a protein channel)
Passive Channels? Non gated, Open at all times
Voltage gated channels? contain voltage sensitive string of amino acids that cause the channel pore to ope or close in response to changes in membrane voltage
Channel pump? Are Energy-driven ion exporters and/or importers designed to maintain steady-state ion concentrations.
What is vital to maintenance of the RMP? the Na+K+ pump and leak channels
Transmitted gated channels? abound in post-synaptic membranes. some are activated by transmitter molecules, others inderectly
Transductoin channels? Are activated by peripheral sensory stimulation. sensory nerve endings exhibit different stimulus specificities in different locations, (eg mechanical in mm)
What molecules can diffuse through the cell membrane? O2 (non polar), CO2 (polar, but small), H2O (polar, but small)
what molecules pass through protein channels/facilitated diffusion? Na+, Glucose, and amino acids
(simple) Diffusion = ? is a process in which substances move directly through the plasma membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Facillitated Diffusion = ? Substances are moved through the plasma membrane by binding to protein carriers in the membrane or by moving through the channels membrane proteins
What are the 2 passive processes? diffusion (no protein) and facilitated diffusion (protein needed to get larger molecules through)
Lipid-soluble molecules move how? readily across the membrane
Water-soluble molecules cross how? via channels or pores
K+ always wants to go which way? from inside to OUTSIDE the cell
Na+ always wants to go which way? from outside to INSIDE the cell
conformation change means what? a gate opens
What are the 3 factors affecting the rate of diffusion? Concentration difference, Permeability, and electrical potential
Concentration difference = ? basically, the steepness of the concentration gradient. The bigger the difference between the 2 sides, the quicker the rate of diffusion
Permeability = ? It is decreased by molecular weight of molecule. It is increased in membrane thickness. It is Controlled by the type of molecule or ion diffusing.
Which kind of transports require energy? Active transports
Which kind of transports don't require energy? Passive transports/facilitated diffusion
Passive process encompasses which kinds of transportation? diffusion, osmosis, and facilitated diffusion
Active process encompasses which kinds of transportation? Active transport, Exocytosis and Endocytosis
O2/H2O diffusing into the cell and CO2 diffusing out is what kind of transport? Simple diffusion
A nerve electrical impulse results from opening protein channels for ions that move how? via facilitated diffusion
pumping Na+ out and K+ in the cell is what kind of transportation? Active transportation
How many Na+ move in the Na+K+ pump? 3 Na+ out
How many K+ move in the Na+K+ pump? 2K+ in
What are the functions of the plasma membrane? maintain high concentration of materials inside the cell, keep bad stuff out, control movements in/out of cell, and let the cell sense its environment
what are cations? Positively charged ions (Na+ and K+). They migrate to the cathode
what are anions? Negative charged ions (Cl-). Migrate to the anode.
Which molecule can move most freely in/out of the cell and why? Cl- —- because its equilibrium potential is closest to the inside of the cell (~ -71mV)
what (molecules) don't move through the cell on their own? Ions, Hydrophilic molecules larger than water, and large molecules such as proteins
To regenerate, neurons must: Be myelinated, have intact cell body, have functional schwann cells, axonal sprout growth rate is 1-4mm/day, and has to be close together
tract = a collection of axons traveling together (CNS)
nucleus = a cluster of cell bodies (CNS)
Lemniscus = a tract in the brainstem (CNS)
Funiculus = "small cord" region of white matter in the spinal cord (CNS)
Fasciculus = "small bundle" of nerve fibers in the CNS (smaller than funiculus)
Decussation = the region where a tract crosses to the opposite side (CNS)
Glial cells = support cells in the CNS
Nerve = a collection of axons traveling together (PNS)
Ganglion = a cluster of cell bodies (PNS)
Schwann Cells = Cells providing myelination (PNS)
Glial cells = Support cells in the PNS
Multiple sclerosis occurs in the PNS or CNS? The CNS – immune attack on Oligodendrocytes
What is the onset like for MS? Rapid or slow onset
Guillain Barre occurs in the PNS or CNS? PNS – immune mediated attack on nerve roots (schwann cells)
what is the onset like for Guillain Barre? RAPID onset
Why can't the CNS regenerate? no basement membrane, aconds in the CNS don't form neurilemmas, damaged neurons rapidly convert to scar tissues, and oligodendracytes bear growth-inhibiting proteins that prevent CNS fiber regeneration
Mature neurons are what? Amitotic
Macrophages do what? remove debris
Schwann cells =? form regeeration tube and secrete growth factors
axons do what for the regeneration of nerve fibers in the PNS? they regenerate damaged part
The Sodium-potassium pump moves ions across the cell membrane in which of the following configuration? 3 sodium out, 2 K+ in
The parasympathetic system does what? slows heart rate/ speeds peristalsis/ slows the breathing range/ constricts the pupil
What are some major components of the PNS? Spinal nerves INSIDE the vertebral column/ DNRG/ spinal nerves outside the spinal cord/ peripheral nerves
What are the major components of the CNS? the spinal cord and brain
Where do axon collaterals emerge on a myelinated neuron? From the nodes of ranvier
Both MS and Guillain Barre: Are disorders of the immune system
What is a main factor associated with inscreased conduction velocity in the axon? large diameter (aka lots of mylenation)
Which type of neurons is found in the olfactory epithelium? Bipolar
Which type of neurons is found in the DNRG (somatosensory)? Pseudounipolar
Which type of neuron is found in CN 8? Bipolar
Which type of neuron is found in the retina? Bipolar
Which type of neuron is found in the purkinje cells (cerebellum)? Multipolar – Golgi Type I
Which type of neuron is found in pyramidal cells (cerebral cortex)? Multipolar – Golgi Type I
Which type of neuron is found in the Ant Horn cells of the spinal cord? Multipolar – Golgi Type I
Which type of neuron is found in the stellate and Granule cells (cerebellar cortex)? Multipolar – Golgi Type II
Which type of neuron is found in the Renshaw cells of the spinal cord? Multipolar – Golgi Type II
Which kind of neuron has 1 LONG axon and 2+ dendrites? Multipolar – Golgi Type 1
Which kind of neuron has 1 SHORT axon and 2+ dendrites? Multipolar – Golgi Type 2
Which neurons are in the CNS ONLY? Multipolar – Golgi Type 2 (Interneurons)
What are 2 other names for Interneurons? Association and internuncial neurons
Which type of neurons transmit info from external environment to the CNS? Sensory neurons (pseudounipolar and bipolar)
Which type of neurons transmit info from the CNS to the external environment? Motor Neurons (Multipolar – Golgi type I)
Materials can be moved from low to high concentration via what transport? Active transport
Which of the ion channels in the neuron are always open? Leakage channels
Which of the following transport mechanisms can move Na+ across the cell membrane? (yes or no) Primary active transport/Secondary active transport/ Facilitated diffusion? Primary: Yes/ Secondary: Yes/ Facilitated: Yes
In the resting state the neuron has: Higher concentration of K+ and lower concentrations of Na+ and Cl-
If the Na+ equalibrium potential is 60+mV and the membrane potential moves from its resting potential to 0mV, in what direction will Na+ now move through any open Na+ channels? Na+ will tend to move into the cell
if the K+ equilibrium potential is -90mV and the membrane potential is -70mV, in what direction will K+ move through open K+ channels? K+ will tend to move OUT of the cell
In order for sodium to pass through a voltage-gated channel: Both gates must be open
What is the Equilibrium potential for K+? Ek = -90
What drives K+ in and out? Electrostatic forces drive K+ in//Concentration gradient drives K+ out
The resting membrane potential of a neuron is determined by: The permiability of the membrane to particular ions.
"the resting membrane potential is closest to the equilibrium potential for the ion with the highest permeability"
Gated channels exhibit which kind of properties? They can be either voltage or chemically gated// They are activated in response to depolarization// they are deactivated in response to repolarization
What is important in determining the membrane potential when multiple ions are permeable to the membrane? The concentration gradient of the individual ionic species// The permeability of the membrane to the individual ionic species
What is mostly responsible for the negative charge? The protein anions primarily on the ICF side
In the resting state, the neuron membrane is: impermeable to protein anions, slightly impermeable to Na+, 75X more permeable to K+, freely permeable to Cl-
What are the 3 important factors? concentration gradient, electro chemical gradient, and permeability
what is the mV for K+? -90
what is the mV for Na+? +60
What is the mV for Cl-? -71-ish
A membrane potential = ? is a voltage across the cell membrane that occurs due to a separation of oppositely charged particles (aka charge difference across the membrane)
The resting membrane potential = ? is a condition in which the inside of the cell membrane is negatively charged compared to the outside
K+ concentration = K+ goes OUT of the cell (based on how many other K+'s are hanging out in the cell — goes from High to low concentration)
K+ electrochemical gradient = ? K+ goes IN (based on cell charge)
Axodendritic synapses usually have what effect on the target neurons? MOSTLY Excititory effect
Axosomatic synapses have what effect on the target neurons? MOSTLY Inhibitory effect
Axoaxonic synapses have which effect on the target neurons? almost always inhibitory
Neurofilaments = ? provide skeletal stability by attachment to proteins beneath the axolemmal membrane
Tetanus toxin prevents the release of what? Glycine (= motor neurons go out of control – especially those to the face, jaws, and spine)

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