Leadership Styles, Characteristics and Management Skills Essay

The word leading drives its significance from the word ‘Leader’who is defined as a individual capable of animating and tie ining others with a dream. ” It is hence of import that organisations have a mission to beef up the leading of its managers.

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Leadership can be described as the “ procedure of societal influence in which one individual can

enlist the assistance and support of others in the achievement of a common undertaking ”. Alan Keith of Genentech provinces that, “ Leadership is finally about making a manner for people to lend to doing something extraordinary happen. ” Harmonizing to Ken “ SKC ” Ogbonnia, “ effectual leading is the ability to successfully incorporate and maximise available resources within the internal and external environment for the attainment of organisational or social ends. ”

Leadership can besides be defined as the act of forming a group of people to accomplish a common end. ” The leader may or may non hold any formal authorization.

Leadership is besides the mode or the procedure through which a individual influences others in an organisation to accomplish pre-defined aims in a cohesive and consistent mode.

The leaders must hold all the necessary cognition and skills.Leaders should clearly show themselves, know what they want and communicate it to their topics for cooperation.

In general, direction is the activity of deciding a disorderly state of affairs into an deliberately orderly state of affairs, to accomplish pre-determined ( i.e., purposeful ) outcomes.

Since upset continuously arises from creativeness, devastation, decay, discrepancy, versioning, pandemonium, and other natural and knowing alterations, deciding that upset into an intended order requires uninterrupted tracking and accommodations in the “ architecture ” of the intended order ‘s parts, portion relationships, and portion and relationship properties.

Management is a pattern of using all available resources to obtain a coveted consequence.

Management is necessary because

A coveted consequence must be established,

Person must be delegated, or presume the authorization, to obtain, form, steer, and direct those resources toward the coveted consequence. Person must “ pull off ” the full procedure. For that ground, all individuals involved must hold to the desired consequence, and even if non in entire understanding with the program being advocated, still hold to the program so as non to consciously or unconsciously undermine the journey.

I think it ‘s safe to state that the success of any managed undertaking is determined in direct ratio to the control of all resources utilized, particularly human resources.

Management is besides the art of acquiring things done from others. Management is a cosmopolitan phenomenon and it exists in all the sectors. In instance of private sector the direction is really crystalline. The ends are decently defined and all the employees are really good cognizant of their ends and are rewarded good for difficult work. In instance of public sector, there ‘s non that much transparence.

Management can besides be defined as the act or art of managing ; the mode of treating, directing, transporting on, or utilizing, for a intent ; behavior ; disposal ; counsel ; control ;.



1. Authenticity “ After old ages of analyzing leaders and their traits, I believe that leading Begins and ends with genuineness. ”

2. Desire to Serve Others “ Authentic leaders truly desire to function others through their leading. ”

3. Empowering Peoples “ They are more interested in authorising the people they lead to do a difference than they are in power, money, or prestigiousness for themselves. ”

4. Guided by Heart, passion and compassion “ They are as guided by qualities of the bosom, by passion, and compassion, as they are by qualities of the head. ”

5. Acknowledge their defects “ Authentic leaders use their natural abilities, but they besides recognize their defects and work hard to get the better of them. ”

6. Lead with Purpose “ They lead with purpose, significance and values. ”

7. Construct Enduring Relationships “ They build digesting relationships with people. ”

8. Clear Where They Stand “ Others follow them because they know where they stand. ”

9. Refuse to Compromise “ When rules are tested, they refuse to compromise. ”

10. Develop Themselves “ Authentic leaders are dedicated to developing themselves because they know that going a leader takes a life-time of personal growing. ”


There are four Main Leadership Styles





Autocratic Leadership Style

This is frequently considered the classical attack. It is one in which the director retains every bit much power and decision-making authorization as possible. The director does non confer with employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without having any accounts. The motive environment is produced by making a structured set of wagess and penalties.

This leading manner has been greatly criticized during the past 30 old ages. Some surveies say that organisations with many bossy leaders have higher turnover and absenteeism than other organisations.

The surveies say that bossy leaders:

Rely on menaces and penalty to act upon employees

Do non swear employees

Make non let for employee input

Yet, bossy leading is non all bad. Sometimes it is the most effectual manner to utilize. These state of affairss can include:

New, untrained employees who do non cognize which undertakings to execute or which procedures to follow

Effective supervising can be provided merely through detailed orders and instructions

Employees do non react to any other leading manner

There are high-volume production demands on a day-to-day footing

There is limited clip in which to do a determination

A director ‘s power is challenged by an employee

The country was ill managed

Work demands to be coordinated with another section or organisation

The bossy leading manner should non be used when:

Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful

Employees expect to hold their sentiments heard

Employees begin depending on their director to do all their determinations

There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work arrest

Bureaucratic Leadership Style

Bureaucratic leading is where the director manages “ by the bookA? Everything must be done harmonizing to process or policy. If it is n’t covered by the book, the director refers to the following degree above him or her. This director is truly more of a constabulary officer than a leader. He or she enforces the regulations.

This manner can be effectual when:

Employees are executing everyday undertakings over and over.

Employees need to understand certain criterions or processs.

Employees are working with unsafe or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of processs to run.

Safety or security preparation is being conducted.

Employees are executing undertakings that require managing hard currency.

This manner is uneffective when:

Work wonts form that are difficult to interrupt, particularly if they are no longer utile.

Employees lose their involvement in their occupations and in their fellow workers.

Employees do merely what is expected of them and no more.

Democratic Leadership Style

The democratic leading manner is besides called the participative manner as it encourages employees to be a portion of the determination devising. The democratic director keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and portions determination devising and job work outing duties. This manner requires the leader to be a manager who has the concluding say, but gathers information from staff members before doing a determination.

Democratic leading can bring forth high quality and high measure work for long periods of clip. Many employees like the trust they receive and respond with cooperation, squad spirit, and high morale. Typically the democratic leader:

Develops programs to assist employees measure their ain public presentation

Allows employees to set up ends

Encourages employees to turn on the occupation and be promoted

Recognizes and encourages accomplishment.

Like the other manners, the democratic manner is non ever appropriate. It is most successful when used with extremely skilled or experienced employees or when implementing operational alterations or deciding single or group jobs.

The democratic leading manner is most effectual when:

The leader wants to maintain employees informed about affairs that affect them.

The leader wants employees to portion in decision-making and problem-solving responsibilities.

The leader wants to supply chances for employees to develop a high sense of personal growing and occupation satisfaction.

There is a big or complex job that requires tonss of input to work out.

Changes must be made or jobs solved that affect employees or groups of employees.

You want to promote squad edifice and engagement.

Democratic leading should non be used when:

There is non adequate clip to acquire everyone ‘s input.

It ‘s easier and more cost-efficient for the director to do the determination.

The concern ca n’t afford errors.

The director feels threatened by this type of leading.

Employee safety is a critical concern.

Individualistic Leadership Style

The individualistic leading manner is besides known as the “ hands-offA? manner. It is one in which the director provides small or no way and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authorization or power is given to the employees and they must find ends, make determinations, and decide jobs on their ain.

This is an effectual manner to utilize when:

Employees are extremely skilled, experient, and educated.

Employees have pride in their work and the thrust to make it successfully on their ain.

Outside experts, such as staff specializers or advisers are being used

Employees are trusty and experient.

This manner should non be used when:

It makes employees experience insecure at the inaccessibility of a director.

The director can non supply regular feedback to allow employees cognize how good they are making.

Directors are unable to thank employees for their good work.

The director does n’t understand his or her duties and is trusting the employees can cover for him or her.

Factors Affecting Leadership Styles

While the proper leading manner depends on the state of affairs, there are three other factors that besides influence which leading manner to utilize.

1. The director ‘s personal background. What personality, cognition, values, moralss, and experiences does the director have. What does he or she think will work?

2. The employees being supervised. Employees are persons with different personalities and backgrounds. The leading manner directors use will change depending upon the single employee and what he or she will react best to.

3. The company. The traditions, values, doctrine, and concerns of the company will act upon how a director acts.



Management success is gained through achievement of mission and aims. Directors fail when they do non carry through mission and aims. Success and failure are tied straight to the grounds for being in concern, i.e., mission and aims. However, carry throughing mission and aims is non sufficient. Success requires both effectiveness and efficiency. Directors who accomplish their mission and aims are said to be effectual. Efficiency describes the relationship between the sum of resources used ( input ) and the extent to which aims were accomplished ( end product ). If the cost of carry throughing an aim is prohibitory, so the aim is non realistic in the context of the house ‘s resources. Additional planning is necessary.

Management is originative job work outing. This originative job resolution is accomplished through four maps of direction: planning, forming, taking and commanding.


Planning is the on-going procedure of developing the concern ‘ mission and aims and finding how they will be accomplished. Planing includes both the broadest position of the organisation, for example, its mission, and the narrowest, e.g., a tactic for carry throughing a specific end.

Forming is set uping the internal organisational construction of the organisation. The focal point is on division, coordination, and control of undertakings and the flow of information within the organisation. It is in this map that directors distribute authorization to occupation holders.

Staffing is make fulling and maintaining filled with qualified people all places in the concern. Recruiting, hiring, preparation, measuring and counterbalancing are the specific activities included in the map. In the household concern, staffing includes all paid and unpaid places held by household members including the owner/operators.

Directing is act uponing people ‘s behaviour through motive, communicating, group kineticss, leading and subject. The intent of directing is to impart the behaviour of all forces to carry through the organisation ‘s mission and aims while at the same time assisting them carry through their ain calling aims.

Controlling is a four-step procedure of set uping public presentation criterions based on the house ‘s aims, mensurating and describing existent public presentation, comparing the two, and taking disciplinary or preventative action as necessary.

Each of these maps involves originative job work outing. Creative job resolution is broader than job determination, pick devising or determination devising. It extends from analysis of the environment within which the concern is working to rating of the results from the option implemented.


i‚· It helps in Achieving Group Goals – It arranges the factors of production, assembles and organizes the resources, integrates the resources in effectual mode to accomplish ends. It directs group attempts towards accomplishment of pre-determined ends. By specifying aim of organisation clearly there would be no wastage of clip, money and attempt. Management converts disorganised resources of work forces, machines, money etc. into utile endeavor. These resources are coordinated, directed and controlled in such a mode that endeavor work towards attainment of ends.

i‚· Optimum Utilization of Resources – Management utilizes all the physical & A ; human resources fruitfully. This leads to efficacy in direction. Management provides maximal use of scarce resources by choosing its best possible surrogate usage in industry from out of assorted utilizations. It makes usage of experts, professional and these services leads to utilize of their accomplishments, cognition, and proper use and avoids wastage. If employees and machines are bring forthing its upper limit there is no under employment of any resources.

i‚· Reduces Costs – It gets maximal consequences through minimal input by proper planning and by utilizing minimal input & A ; acquiring maximal end product. Management uses physical, human and fiscal resources in such a mode which consequences in best combination. This helps in cost decrease.

i‚· Establishes Sound Organization – No imbrication of attempts ( smooth and co-ordinated maps ). To set up sound organisational construction is one of the aim of direction which is in melody with aim of organisation and for fulfilment of this, it establishes effectual authorization & A ; duty relationship i.e. who is accountable to whom, who can give instructions to whom, who are higher-ups & A ; who are subsidiaries. Management fills up assorted places with right individuals, holding right accomplishments, preparation and making. All occupations should be cleared to everyone.

i‚· Establishes Equilibrium – It enables the organisation to last in altering environment. It keeps in touch with the altering environment. With the alteration is external environment, the initial co-ordination of organisation must be changed. So it adapts organisation to altering demand of market / altering demands of societies. It is responsible for growing and endurance of organisation.

i‚· Necessities for Prosperity of Society – Efficient direction leads to break economical production which helps in bend to increase the public assistance of people. Good direction makes a hard undertaking easier by avoiding wastage of scarce resource. It improves criterion of life. It increases the net income which is good to concern and society will acquire maximal end product at minimal cost by making employment chances which generate income in custodies. Organization comes with new merchandises and researches good for society.

Management Skills

There are three basic direction accomplishments: proficient, human and conceptual.

A proficient accomplishment is the ability to utilize tools, techniques, and specialized cognition to transport out a method, procedure, or process. Much of the engineering that husbandmans know and can utilize so good comes under this direction accomplishment.

Human accomplishments are used to construct positive interpersonal relationships, work out human dealingss jobs, construct credence of one ‘s colleagues, and relate to them in a manner that their behaviour is consistent with the demands of the organisation.

Conceptual accomplishments involve the ability to see the organisation as a whole and to work out jobs in a manner that benefits the full organisation. ( Higgins, page 15 ) Analytical, originative and intuitive endowments make up the director ‘s conceptual accomplishments.

Introductory Management plans ( Pull offing for Success ) pay small attending to proficient accomplishments. Most directors in attending have developed these accomplishments far beyond their human and conceptual accomplishments. In some advanced Management plans, e.g., carnal nutrition and fiscal direction, the accent is on integrating of proficient, human and conceptual accomplishments instead than on a more traditional proficient attack.

The comparative importance of conceptual, human and proficient accomplishments alterations as a individual progresses from lower, to middle, to exceed direction. Although all three direction accomplishments are of import at all three degrees of direction, conceptual accomplishments become comparatively more of import at the top degree of direction. The systematically high degree of importance of human accomplishments helps us understand why people jobs are so frequently cited as a nucleus cause of concern failure.

Differences between Leadership and Management accomplishments

The undermentioned matrix offers a good grouping of features to believe about for undertaking directors:

Leadership Skills

Management Skills

More concerned with vision

More concerned with execution than the vision

Oriented toward driving changeA and expecting environmental alterations

Oriented toward accommodating to alter, non taking the enterprise

Concerned with kineticss of a state of affairs, which provides intimations on how to leverage or determine ; concerned with scene or altering the civilization

Concerned more with technique ; sometimes preoccupied with keeping order and the position quo, but otherwise with accommodating to the civilization

Concerned with authorising

Concerned with BEING empowered

Actions demonstrate accomplishment, but are strongly character based

Actions tend to be more strongly skill-based

More concerned with positive possibilities

More concerned with negative effects

Concerned with edifice and/or reshaping the organisation ; willing to utilize accomplishments of persuasion to progress vision and thoughts of possibilities – regardless of place

Concerned with make fulling out the prescribed organisation ; adopt behaviour and attitudes harmonizing to degree or place ; be given to be more protective of place, information, and cognition ; may experience that a state of affairs is out of their control or influence

Understand their strengths and failings, and are willing to larn from their errors and grow ; able and interested in assisting others do the same

Tend to avoid hazards for ego protection, and therefore growing is more limited ; might understand strengths and failings, but unaware of how to pull off them to accomplish ends

See relationships as chances for growing ; personal ends in alliance with organisational ends ; acknowledge that mutuality is the best manner to achievement

See a more limited web of relationships in footings of instantly next countries ; be given to concentrate largely on ends set by others, and work more independently within organisational restrictions

Build systems to back up ends, empower others, and supply way ; promote sharing and coaction ; concerned with remotion of public presentation barriers ; and continued growing of squad members

Concerned with sectioning countries of duty ; become indispensable and portion of the system ; excessively concerned with what squad members do and how they do it.A

Leadership without direction

… sets a way or vision that others follow, without sing excessively much how the new way is traveling to be achieved. Other people so have to work hard in the trail that is left behind, picking up the pieces and doing it work. Eg: in Lord of the Rings, at the council of Elrond, Frodo Baggins rescues the council from struggle by taking duty for the pursuit of destructing the pealing – but most of the direction of the group comes from others.

Management without leading

… controls resources to keep the position quo or guarantee things go on harmonizing to already-established programs. Eg: a referee manages a athleticss game, but does non normally provide “ leading ” because there is no new alteration, no new way – the referee is commanding resources to guarantee that the Torahs of the game are followed and position quo is maintained.

Leadership combined with direction

… does both – it both sets a new way and manages the resources to accomplish it. Eg: a freshly elected president or premier curate.

What is the difference between direction and leading? It is a inquiry that has been asked more than one time and besides answered in different ways. The biggest difference between directors and leaders is the manner they motivate the people who work or follow them, and this sets the tone for most other facets of what they do.

Differences between a Leader and a Manager

The followers shows the difference between a director and a LeaderA one time faced with different topics.








Leading people

Pull offing work











Sets way

A Plans detail





Personal personal appeal

Formal authorization

Entreaty to



















Exhilaration for work

Money for work

















New roads

Existing roads





What is right

Bing right








Leadership is about puting new way for a group while Management is about directing and commanding harmonizing to established rules.

The term leader and director are interchangeable in this context because we ca n’t divide leading and direction. By and large, the four theoretical accounts lets leaders take what action program to take when covering with any state of affairs that faces the company. A good leader should seek to utilize a combined signifier of the theoretical accounts since state of affairss differ. However, there are factors that determine what manner can be used, for illustration, how much clip is available and whether relationships are based on trust, regard or otherwise ( Hersey 1984 ). If information is available both from the direction and the employees, participative manner has to be employed so that better and more informed determinations are reached. The extents to which employees are trained could be a deciding as to how they should be dealt with. A worker on preparation demands to be treated in an important mode so that they can larn. Incase of internal struggles, it is good for the directors to exert some authorization so that there can be a clear class of action.

External challenges can be counteracted through employment of selling schemes that aims at seting the company at a competitory border and enable growing even in times of strains ( Ivancevich et al 2007 ). Positive leaders treat employees with wagess, such as instruction to actuate them alternatively of utilizing punishments such as firing employees, warnings or even yearss off. Foremans work through the negatives while leaders work through the positives.


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