3. COMPANIES BACKGROUND:
Sedatives design is one of the turning company in the in the soft trappings industry. The organisation offers consultative service and comprehensive measurement and supply adjustments such as paths and poles with their handmade drapes, panels, blinds and besides trades in upholstery. The most of the concern of the organisation is commissioned by the interior interior decorators and the trade clients. The concern was started in 1991 in Wandsworth by two sisters SHERI DOWNER and KELLY DOWNERS. SHERI DOWNER had ten old ages experience as the fabric engineer at Marks & A ; Spencer and KELLY DOWNERS have a good experience in the soft trappings particularly in drape. KELLY DOWNERS is now the in charge of the loose screen estimating and production. At the minute, 15 people are working for the organisation. The mean sale of the company is about ?18000 pcm. In the recent old ages there is the dip in the organisation net income. In 2005 the organisation net income was ? 53797 after revenue enhancement. But in 2006 the organisation net income was -?29760. In 2008 the company do some net income up to ?30224. But once more in 2009 the net income lessening to ?12118. ( Source company internal paperss )
Silent Gliss is started in 1952 by the Swiss applied scientist ALEXANDER WEBER who invents the first drape path system. The organisation is considered to be the leader in the industry. At the minute is offering broad scope of the window intervention and ever doing the invention in this sector. This organisation is runing in more than 50 states now and still the organisation is spread outing in the market. One of the chief grounds of their success is the inventions thoughts which are inspired and driven by the client demands. The head office of the organisation is based in Gumligen Switzerland.
( www.silentgliss.com )
3.3RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATIONS:
Silent Gliss supplies, different sorts of paths poles and roller blinds for Downers Design to fit their drapes. Both organisations have got the same field but different merchandises. Comparison between these two companies will enable a richer apprehension for the causes and effects in fixing and implementing a perfect thin fabrication theoretical account for Downers Design.
4. LITERATURE REVIEW:
Following is the literature reappraisal related to this subject.
Harmonizing to Radhakrishnan ( 2008 ) , a procedure of Lean Manufacturing is the systematic riddance of waste from all facets of an organisation ‘s operations, where waste is seen as any usage or loss of resources that does non straight lead to making the merchandise or service that a client wants at the clip of desiring it. In many industrial procedures, such non value added activity can consist more than 90 per centum of a mill ‘s entire activity.
Normally, different organisations implement thin fabrication to accomplish the highest quality merchandise or service, at the lowest possible cost, with maximal client sensitiveness. They typically focus on the basic three cardinal ends i.e. Decrease of demands of merchandise or service production resource in the signifier of capital and stuffs. Second, Increase in fabricating speed and flexibleness and the 3rd one is that the betterment in first clip merchandise quality. ( Page: 94 and 95 )
Harmonizing to Wang ( 2010 ) , the method of leanA manufacturingA has much in common with theA Total Quality ManagementA ( TQM ) scheme. These schemes empower workers on the assembly line, in this manner that those closest to production must cognize that how the production system should work. In a thin fabrication system, the providers deliver truly little tonss on day-to-day footing and machines do n’t run at full capacity. The thin fabrication has a primary focal point that to extinguish waste which can be anything that does n’t add value to the concluding merchandise gets eliminated. A 2nd major focal point is to authorise workers, and seek to do determinations for production at the lowest degree where it can possible. The procedure of supply concatenation direction factors to a great extent into thin fabrication, and should be tight partnership with the providers. This can ease the rapid flow of merchandise and parts to the store floor. ( Page: 1 and 2 )
4.2TOOLS AND METHODS USED FOR LEAN Fabrication:
Harmonizing to Radhakrishnan ( 2008 ) , there are legion methods and tools that organisation uses to implement thin production system. Eight nucleus tilt methods are described briefly in the undermentioned lines. These methods include:
Kaizen Rapid Improvement Procedure:
This method is all about that little, incremental alterations routinely applied and relentless over a long period consequence in of import betterments.
This method is to cut down waste and optimize productiveness through keeping an orderly workplace and utilizing ocular remedies to acquire more dependable operational consequences.
Entire productive care:
This method engages all maps in an organisation to maximise the overall value equipment.
One piece flow production system:
This method represents the first major displacement in production activity and store floor formation, and it is the cardinal enabler of increased production speed and flexibleness.
Just-in-time production systems / kanban:
JIT enables an organisation to bring forth the merchandises that its clients want, when they want them, in the sum they want. JIT techniques work to level production, distributing production equally over clip to advance a smooth flow between these procedures.
A sigma quality degree serves as an index of how frequently defects are likely to happen in procedures, parts, or merchandises.
Pre-production planning ( 3P ) :
This method focuses on extinguishing waste through “ Greenfield ” merchandise and procedure redesign.3pP procedure represents a cardinal pivot point, as organisations move beyond a focal point on efficiency to integrate effectivity in run intoing client demands.
Thin Enterprise Supplier Networks:
This method purpose to present merchandises of the right design and measure at the right topographic point and clip, ensuing in shared cost, quality, and waste decrease benefits. ( Page: 99-104 )
4.3STEPS IN LEAN MANUFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION:
Harmonizing to Swamidass ( 2000 ) , these are the 10 stairss are used as the default methodological analysis for thin fabrication:
Measure 1: Reengineer the fabrication system:
Restructure or reorganise fiction and assembly systems into cells that produce households of parts or green goods. The cells should hold one-piece parts motion within cells and small-lot motion between cells, achieved by making a linked-cell system.
Measure 2: Reduce and extinguish setup clip:
Setup clip for a cell should be less than manual clip ( the clip a worker needs to lade, unload, inspect, introduction, etc )
Measure 3: Integrate quality control into fabrication:
The operation should be of the “ make-one, check-one, and move-on-one ” type, and the quality of merchandise end product from the system should be 100 per centum.
Measure 4: Integrate preventative care in to fabrication:
No equipment failure and the workers must be trained to execute everyday low degree procedure care.
Measure 5: Degree, balance, sequence and synchronize:
Fluctuations in concluding assembly should be eliminated, end product from cells should be equal to the necessary demand for parts downstream, and rhythm clip should be equal to take clip for concluding assembly.
Measure 6: Integrate production control into fabrication:
Ensure that cells respond to demand by presenting parts and merchandises merely as they are needed, or merely in clip.
Measure 7: Reduce work-in-process ( WIP ) :
Minimize the necessary WIP between cells, and guarantee that parts are handled one at a clip within cells.
Measure 8: Integrate providers:
Reduce the no. of providers and cultivate a individual beginning for each purchased constituent of subassembly.
Measure 9: Autorotation:
Inspection should go a portion of the production procedure ( 100 per centum review ) . And there should be no overrun.
Measure 10: Computer-Integrated Fabrication:
Production system should be as free of waste as the fabrication system. ( Page: 347 and 348 )
4.4BENEFITS OF LEAN MANAFACTURING:
Thin fabrication can be good if it is implemented decently in the organisation, and it might take clip to demo consequence. Harmonizing to J P Saxena ( 2009 ) the benefits of the thin fabrication could be spliting in to three parts.
In the operational portion of the company it enable the organisation to take down the lead clip which is used in the production, the production rate of the house increases, the work in process stock list is reduced without compromising the quality, and the infinite required for the production besides decreases.
The other portion in which the thin fabrication plays an of import function is the disposal. In this section, the mistake in the order processing is reduced and client service of the organisation is increased. This all consequences in increased efficiency, reduced work force, or the same figure of the staff can manage more work. Improves the enlisting procedure.
The 3rd of import function is the strategic portion of the organisation. It enable the organisation to do the new selling schemes for the organisation based on the cut down clip and the decreased cost. This besides helps the organisation to capture more clients and it give competitory border on other rivals. ( Page 514 and 515 )
The chief ground behind the execution of this system is to cut down the cost of the fabrication and to better the services provided.
4.5POSSIBLE Barriers TO LEAN MANAFACTURING IMPLEMENTATION:
Whenever organisation wants to convey the alteration in the organisation there is ever some kind of opposition to it. This opposition could be from outside the company or it could be from inside the company every bit good. It is rather of import for the organisation to do the note of these barriers as it could detain the whole procedure which could consequence on the organisation net income, production and future mark of the organisation.
Harmonizing to valuestreamguru.com the first barrier come from the staff of the organisation itself. If all the work force of the organisation does non endorse the thin fabrication in the organisation it could be the failure to the organisation and it could go a serious job for the organisation. Senior direction drama an of import function in all this procedure. The issues come be arise from the staff they show the opposition to alter or some clip they are unwilling to take portion in the preparation procedure. This could over all become bring job for the organisation. ( www.valuestreamguru.com )
hypertext transfer protocol: //www.sme.org/images/press/2005/20051038-2.gif
( www.sme.org )
Harmonizing to wiley.com another barrier which comes in the execution of the thin fabrication in the organisation is the sum of cost requires implementing thin fabrication in the organisation. Cost could be large issue for the organisation has the organisation is traveling to convey large alterations in the organisation and that need brawny sum to make that. Lack of fundss could go job for the organisation.
( hypertext transfer protocol: //eu.wiley.com )
Harmonizing to smthacker.co.uk another barrier for the execution of the thin fabrication is the construction of the organisation. Is the construction of the organisation is flexible so thin fabrication could implement in the organisation. So construction of the organisation demand to be flexible so that it can follow new fabricating system in the organisation. Besides the civilization of the organisation could move as the barrier for execution of the scheme. As the organisation is working on some kind of manner and process. The execution of thin fabrication could ensue in alteration of that civilization.
( www.smthacker.co.uk )
5. RESEARCH Purpose:
The purpose of this survey is to find that causes and effects of presenting thin fabrication in the little companies and to analyze if it can increase efficiency and effectivity?
6. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:
Following are the purposes and aims of the survey:
How can tilt techniques could be introduced in DOWNERS DESIGNS?
What are the possible barriers to presenting thin fabrication in DOWNERS DESIGNS?
Is there is a feasible concern instance for making this? In other words are the likely additions in public presentation sufficient to warrant the fiscal and organisational cost ( e.g. lost managerial clip ) in such a thin execution program?
Identify the preparation demands needed related to thin fabrication in the organisation
Identify the best ways of presenting thin techniques in organisation.
Specify the expected benefits of presenting thin fabrication in the organisation.
7. DATA COLLECTION METHODS:
Normally there are two types of method are used while carry oning survey one is the quantitative method and the other one is the qualitative method. Harmonizing to Robert Murray Thomas ( 2003 ) this is method which gather information from measuring and sums beginning. Which help the research worker to acquire the generalize consequence for its survey. This information can be collected in so many different ways and beginnings, but it has to be specific towards the numerical facet. Besides it has great importance as it is the chief beginning of the primary informations in the survey. ( Page 1 and 2 ) .
Harmonizing to Deborah Padgett ( 1998 ) the qualitative method is more focal point on the non numerical informations unlike the quantitative method. In this method the information is usually collected by the questionnaires, focal point groups and by the in depth interviews. This information drama an of import function in the in acquiring the in depth information sing the survey. ( Page 1 and 2 )
7.1PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD:
Harmonizing to Philip Kotler, Gary Armstrong, Veronica Wong and John Saunders ( 2008 ) the primary informations play an of import function in the carry throughing the aim and specifying the research in the survey. As the secondary informations merely helps in the start of the survey. It is really of import to utilize the primary informations really carefully, if the information is non used decently, it can take the survey in the incorrect way which will in the terminal consequence on the consequence of the survey. Most of the clip the primary information is collected by interviews and the questionnaires. ( Page 335 and 336 )
In this survey the primary informations will be collected by questioning the production and gross revenues directors of both companies.
7.2SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION METHOD:
Harmonizing to Nicholas S.R Walliman the secondary information is consider to be the of import beginning of information for the survey. It helps the research worker to see the information which is already written on the topic which give the research worker the brief understanding the background and position point about different authors. ( Page 273 and 274 )
The chief beginning of secondary informations in this survey is traveling to be internet, on line resources, British library, books, magazine, articles, diaries and other publication. All the information from the organisation will be requested and will be used in the survey where of all time needed.
The informations used in this survey will be the mixture of both qualitative and quantitative method. The informations collected from both companies will non be misused and all the relevant information which will be received from different resource will be compiled in the survey, and will be used harmonizing to the regulations.
Harmonizing to Zikmund ( 2000 ) , a research design is a construct that specifies the methods and processs for roll uping and analyzing the needed information. Research designs consist of three methods: exploratory, descriptive and explanatory. Each one has an single intent.
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2004 ) , the intent of explorative research is to seek through a state of affairs to supply penetrations and apprehensions. This account is applied when the subject to be investigated which is non decently researched. Besides, Proctor ( 2003 ) argues that explorative research is utile in happening out what is go oning, to seek new penetrations and to inquire inquiries to buttockss ‘ phenomena in a new visible radiation.
Harmonizing to Proctor ( 2003 ) , the object of descriptive research is to depict the exact profile of individuals or state of affairss. Malhotra ( 2004 ) says that descriptive research is conducted to accomplish different ends such as describe the features of relevant groups and gauge the per centum of units in a specific population. ( Page 6-8 )
Harmonizing to Malhotra ( 2004 ) , causal research is suited for the undermentioned intents: To understand which variables are the causes ( Independent variables ) and which variables are the effects ( Dependent variables ) of a phenomenon every bit good as to find the nature of the relationship between the causal variables and the consequence to be predicted. ( Page 273 and 274 )
Harmonizing to Crossan ( 2004 ) , there are assorted grounds why the survey of doctrine may be important in the research methodological analysis: First, it can assist the research worker to stipulate the research methods to be used in a survey. Second, the choice of a research doctrine will hold an impact on the type of grounds gathered and its beginning, the manner in which such grounds is interpreted, and how it helps to reply the research inquiries posed. Finally, it will enable the research worker to measure different methods and avoid inappropriate usage and unneeded work by placing the restrictions of peculiar attacks. ( Page 1 )
Three chief different research doctrines can be identified in the literature:
Harmonizing to Proctor ( 2003 ) , Positivism adopts a clear quantitative attack to look intoing phenomena. The research worker in this attack assumes the function of an nonsubjective analyst with an accent on a extremely structured methodological analysis to ease reproduction and on quantifiable observations that lend themselves to statistical analysis. ( Page 6-8 )
Phenomenologist attacks assume that world is multiple, subjective, and mentally constructed by persons. The usage of flexible and multiple methods is desirable as a manner of analyzing a little sample in deepness over clip that can set up warranted assert ability as opposed to absolute truth ( Crossan, 2004 ) . The research worker interacts with those being researched, and findings are the result of this synergistic procedure with a focal point on significance and understanding the state of affairs or phenomenon under scrutiny. ( Page 1 )
Harmonizing to Suanders ( 2009 ) , Realism is based on the belief that a world exists that is independent of human ideas and beliefs. Realism as applied to the survey of human topics recognizes the importance of understanding people ‘s socially constructed readings and significances within the context of seeking to understand broader societal forces or processes that influence the nature of people ‘s positions
Harmonizing to Robert Murray Thomas ( 2003 ) , the quantitative ‘ method focal points on measuring and sums ( more and less big and little or either similar or different ) of the features displayed by the people and events that the research worker surveies.
The quantitative method with the aid of anticipation, seek account, trying schemes and experimental design aimed to bring forth the generalize consequence. In this procedure the function of the individual who is carry oning the research is to detect and mensurate the response ( s ) in the different ways so that it can assist to do a decision. ( Page 1 and 2 )
Harmonizing to Deborah Padgett ( 1998 ) , Qualitative information is highly varied in nature. It includes virtually any information that can be captured that is non numerical in nature. It includes in-depth interviews, direct observations and content analysis of written paperss. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly the intent of qualitative research. There are four major qualitative attacks: ( Page 1 and 2 )
8. TIME LINE:
I have designed my survey which will let me to finish my undertaking on the clip. I have divided the work on the hebdomadal footing. Besides I will maintain an oculus on my agenda and I will seek to follow the program harmonizing to the chart given below.
Figure: Gantt chart with activities
Develop interview inquiries
Update Literature read
Draft for feedback
Revision bill of exchange
Print and bind
9. SAMPLE Size:
In my survey I will roll up the primary informations from two beginnings. One of them will be the interviews and the other will be the questionnaires. Interviews will be conducted from both of the organisation and the interviews sample size will be 20.
10. Ethical Consideration:
All possible ethical consideration will be taken attention of in the survey. Besides the information protection act ordinance will be considered earnestly in the survey besides while let go ofing any sort of informations throughout my undertaking.
11. SPECIAL RESOURCE REQUIRED:
In my undertaking I do non necessitate any particular resource or any other type of entree during my survey.
In my survey the lone hurdle which I feel is the clip for finishing this undertaking. As the clip frame for the survey is non plenty for the in deepness survey of the topic. The other possible restriction could be the organisation does non wish to portion of import information with me that could perchance consequence on the overall consequence of the survey.