Levels of management Essay

In today modern universe, where globalisation is taking topographic point at every measure, organisations are spread outing more quickly than of all time before. Management and the directors IE the people who perform the act of direction ( direction about 2009 ) are an of import portion of the organisation.

Management can be defined as the procedure of Organization and coordination of the activities of an endeavor in conformity with certain policies and in accomplishment of clearly defined aims ( businessdictionary 2009 ) . Management can besides be described as an art or a scientific discipline. The four cardinal maps of direction are ( 1 ) Planning, ( 2 ) Organising, ( 3 ) Directing and ( 4 ) Controlling.

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Planing in an organisation occurs in different ways and at all levels.It consists of puting aims, doing programs and assisting the organisation program for the future.Organising refers to the manner organisation allocates resources, assigns undertakings and carry throughing goals.Directing is pull offing or oversing workers of the organisation to carry through the ends of the organization.To effictively carry out the map of directing, directors must posses good leading skills.Controlling ensures that the companies ends and aims are being met.The director must guarantee that criterions set for the workers are being met in the right manner.

Directors are another importan resource for an organization.A director can be defined as a individual who is responsible for planning and directing the work of a group of persons, supervising their work, and taking disciplinary action when necessary ( about.com 2007 ) .Although over the old ages, the function of directors has changed significantly.Earlier, directors were thought of as “ the foreman. “ .Eventhough that might keep true for today, directors view themselves as leaders instead than as people who tell subordinates what to do.The function of a director is frequently really complex and comprehensive.

In an organisation, there are 3 degrees of direction: top degree, in-between degree and lower degree. “ These three degrees of direction signifier a hierachy in an organisation, in which they are ranked in order of importance “ ( Persus Book Group 2002 )

Top degree direction: It consists of board of managers, president of the company, CEO ‘s etc


Ballads down the aims and policies of the company
Controls and Coordinates activites of all sections
Prepares strategic programs and policies for the endeavor
Middle degree direction: It consists of subdivision and departmental directors


They excecute the programs of the organisation which are set by the top direction
Act as a nexus betweek top and lower degrees of direction
Aid in actuating the lower degree employees to work efficently and effictively
Lower degree direction: It consists of supervisors, chiefs, superintendent etc.


Delegating of occupations and responsibilities to assorted workers
Guide and instruct workers for twenty-four hours to twenty-four hours activites
Foremans help to work out the grudges of the workers
Besides, directors play an of import function in the direction theories which exist in an organization.Organizational civilization, instruction of directors and employees and the environment find the direction theories of a group or a company ( Deresky 1998 ) .Some of the direction techniques which have been used in the yesteryear every bit good as the techniques which are presently in usage are Scientific Management, Contingency Theory, Hawthrone Effect and Human Relations etc

At the bend of the nineteenth century, the most noteworthy organisations were big and industrialised.They frequently included on-going and everyday undertakings that manafactured a assortment of products.Frederick Taylor devloped the scientific direction theory Internet Explorer “ theory of direction that analyses and synthesies work flows, with the aim of bettering labour productiveness “ ( Taylor 1947, p.36 ) .

This theory aimed at the careful analysis of undertakings and clip and gesture surveies in concurrence with the piece rate wage strategies in order to better productiveness. ( Management survey usher 2007 ) .

The undertakings were standardized every bit much as possible and the workers were rewarded on the footing of their productivity.This attack worked good for organisations with assembly lines and other mechanized activities.

The rules of scientific direction are: – ( Thompson and mcchugh 2009 )

Devloping a scientific discipline for each component of work
Scientific choice and preparation of workers
Cooperation between direction and workers
Equal divison of work and duty between direction and workers
Harmonizing to Taylor, direction had to change by reversal bing power dealingss in production and therefore the director of an organisation is responsible for garnering together all of the traditional cognition and cut downing this cognition to regulations jurisprudence and formuale ( tompson and mcchugh 2009 )

Taylor besides believed that workers were motivated by the chase of rational ego involvement and pecuniary inducements and therefore a director should work out compensations and wagess for the workers.Also a director should guarantee that he places the right worker in the right occupation

In today ‘s universe scientific direction has been merged with other thoughts and is used by directors in the signifier of clip and gesture surveies to eliminate otiose gestures, inducement strategies based on public presentation and engaging the best qualified workers for each occupation


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